Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6700

Search results for: bandgap energy of GaInAsSb

6700 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaInAsSb/GaSb Laser Structure: Impact of Annealing Time

Authors: Soufiene Ilahi, Noureddine Yacoubi


GaInAsSb grown on GaSb substrate is an interesting material employed as an active layer in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared emission. This material presents some advantages like highs optical absorption coefficient and good thermal conductivity, which is very desirable for VCSEL application. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb. The studies are carried out by means of the photo thermal deflection spectroscopy technique (PDS). In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by a comparison between the experimental and theoretical phases of the PDS signal. We have found that thermal conductivity increased significantly to 13 W/m.K for GaInAsSb annealed during 60 min. In addition, we have found that bandgap energy is blue-shifted around 30 meV. The amplitudes signal of PDS reveals multiple reflections as a function of annealing time, which reflect the high crystalline quality of the layer.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, bandgap energy of GaInAsSb, GaInAsSb active layer, optical absorption

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6699 Comparison of the Performance of GaInAsSb and GaSb Cells under Different Temperature Blackbody Radiations

Authors: Liangliang Tang, Chang Xu, Xingying Chen


GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.

Keywords: thermophotovoltaic cell, GaSb, GaInAsSb, diffused emitters

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6698 Effect of Doping on Band Gap of Zinc Oxide and Degradation of Methylene Blue and Industrial Effluent

Authors: V. P. Borker, K. S. Rane, A. J. Bhobe, R. S. Karmali


Effluent of dye industries contains chemicals and organic dyes. Sometimes they are thrown in the water bodies without any treatment. This leads to environmental pollution and is detrimental to flora and fauna. Semiconducting oxide zinc oxide with wide bandgap 3.37 eV is used as a photocatalyst in degrading organic dyes using UV radiations. It generates electron-hole pair on exposure to UV light. If degradation is aimed at solar radiations, bandgap of zinc oxide is to be reduced so as to utilize visible radiation. Thus, in present study, zinc oxide, ZnO is synthesized from zinc oxalate, N doped zinc oxide, ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ from hydrazinated zinc oxalate, cadmium doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ and magnesium-doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ from mixed metal oxalate and hydrazinated mixed metal oxalate. The precursors were characterized by FTIR. They were decomposed to form oxides and XRD were recorded. The compounds were monophasic. Bandgap was calculated using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum. The bandgap of ZnO was reduced to 3.24 because of precursor method of synthesis leading large surface area. The bandgap of Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ was 3.11 eV and that of Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ 3.41 eV. The lowest value was of ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ 3.09 eV. These oxides were used to degrade methylene blue, a model dye in sunlight. ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ was also used to degrade effluent of industry manufacturing colours, crayons and markers. It was observed that ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ acts as a good photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue. It can degrade the solution within 120 minutes. Similarly, diluted effluent was decolourised using this oxide. Some colours were degraded using ZnO. Thus, the use of these two oxides could mineralize effluent. Lesser bandgap leads to more electro hole pair thus helps in the formation of hydroxyl ion radicals. These radicals attack the dye molecule, fragmentation takes place and it is mineralised.

Keywords: cadmium doped zinc oxide, dye degradation, dye effluent degradation, N doped zinc oxide, zinc oxide

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6697 Spatial Architecture Impact in Mediation Open Circuit Voltage Control of Quantum Solar Cell Recovery Systems

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed


The photocurrent generations are influencing ultra-high efficiency solar cells based on self-assembled quantum dot (QD) nanostructures. Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) provide a great enhancement toward solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum enabled multi-exciton generation. Based on theoretical predictions, QDs have potential to improve systems efficiency in approximate regular electrons excitation intensity greater than 50%. In solar cell devices, an intermediate band formed by the electron levels in quantum dot systems. The spatial architecture is exploring how can solar cell integrate and produce not only high open circuit voltage (> 1.7 eV) but also large short-circuit currents due to the efficient absorption of sub-bandgap photons. In the proposed QD system, the structure allows barrier material to absorb wavelengths below 700 nm while multi-photon processes in the used quantum dots to absorb wavelengths up to 2 µm. The assembly of the electronic model is flexible to demonstrate the atoms and molecules structure and material properties to tune control energy bandgap of the barrier quantum dot to their respective optimum values. In terms of energy virtual conversion, the efficiency and cost of the electronic structure are unified outperform a pair of multi-junction solar cell that obtained in the rigorous test to quantify the errors. The milestone toward achieving the claimed high-efficiency solar cell device is controlling the edge causes of energy bandgap between the barrier material and quantum dot systems according to the media design limits. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. The orientation of voltage recovery system is compared theoretically with experimental Voc variation in mediation upper–limit obtained one diode modeling form at the cells with different bandgap (Eg) as classified in the proposed spatial architecture. The opportunity for improvement Voc is valued approximately greater than 1V by using smaller QDs through QD solar cell recovery systems as confined to other micro and nano operations states.

Keywords: nanotechnology, photovoltaic solar cell, quantum systems, renewable energy, environmental modeling

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6696 Fabrication and Properties of Al2O3/Si Quantum Well-Structured Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: Kwang-Ho Kim, Kwan-Hong Min, Pyungwoo Jang, Chisup Jung, Kyu Seomoon


By restricting the dimensions of silicon to less than Bohr radius of bulk crystalline silicon (∼5 nm), quantum confinement causes its effective bandgap to increase. Therefore, silicon quantum wells (QWs) using these quantum phenomena could be a good candidate to achieve high performance silicon solar cells. The Al2O3/Si QW structures were fabricated by using the successive deposition technique, as a quantum confinement device to increase the effective energy bandgap and passivation effect in Si surface for the 3rd generation solar cell applications. In Si/Al2O3 QWs, the thicknesses of Si layers and Al2O3 layers were varied between 1 to 5 nm, respectively. The roughness of deposited Si on Al2O3 was less than 4 Å in the thickness of 2 nm. By using the Al2O3/Si QW structures on Si surfaces, the lifetime measured by u-PCD technique increased as a result of passivated surface effects. The discussion about the other properties such as electrical and optical properties of the QWs structures as well as the fabricated solar cells will be presented in this paper.

Keywords: Al2O3/Si quantum well, quantum confinement, solar cells, third generation, successive deposition technique

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6695 Bandgap Engineering of CsMAPbI3-xBrx Quantum Dots for Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Deborah Eric, Abbas Ahmad Khan


Lead halide perovskites quantum dots have attracted immense scientific and technological interest for successful photovoltaic applications because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties. In this paper, we have simulated CsMAPbI3-xBrx based quantum dots to implement their use in intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). These types of materials exhibit optical and electrical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts due to quantum confinement. The conceptual framework provides a route to analyze the electronic properties of quantum dots. This layer of quantum dots optimizes the position and bandwidth of IB that lies in the forbidden region of the conventional bandgap. A three-dimensional MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) with geometries including spherical, cubic, and conical has been embedded in the CsPbBr3 matrix. Bound energy wavefunction gives rise to miniband, which results in the formation of IB. If there is more than one miniband, then there is a possibility of having more than one IB. The optimization of QD size results in more IBs in the forbidden region. One band time-independent Schrödinger equation using the effective mass approximation with step potential barrier is solved to compute the electronic states. Envelope function approximation with BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition is used in combination with the Schrödinger equation for the calculation of eigen energies and Eigen energies are solved for the quasi-bound states using an eigenvalue study. The transfer matrix method is used to study the quantum tunneling of MAPbI3 QD through neighbor barriers of CsPbI3. Electronic states are computed using Schrödinger equation with effective mass approximation by considering quantum dot and wetting layer assembly. Results have shown the varying the quantum dot size affects the energy pinning of QD. Changes in the ground, first, second state energies have been observed. The QD is non-zero at the center and decays exponentially to zero at boundaries. Quasi-bound states are characterized by envelope functions. It has been observed that conical quantum dots have maximum ground state energy at a small radius. Increasing the wetting layer thickness exhibits energy signatures similar to bulk material for each QD size.

Keywords: perovskite, intermediate bandgap, quantum dots, miniband formation

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6694 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

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6693 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud


Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

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6692 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: photocatalyst, synthesis, visible light, ZnO/ZnS

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6691 Role of Calcination Treatment on the Structural Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of Nanorice N-Doped TiO₂ Catalyst

Authors: Totsaporn Suwannaruang, Kitirote Wantala


The purposes of this research were to synthesize titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with nitrogen (N-doped TiO₂) by hydrothermal method and to test the photocatalytic degradation of paraquat under UV and visible light illumination. The effect of calcination treatment temperature on their physical and chemical properties and photocatalytic efficiencies were also investigated. The characterizations of calcined N-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts such as specific surface area, textural properties, bandgap energy, surface morphology, crystallinity, phase structure, elements and state of charges were investigated by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) and Barrett, Joyner, Halenda (BJH) equations, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS) by using the Kubelka-Munk theory, Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), respectively. The results showed that the effect of calcination temperature was significant on surface morphology, crystallinity, specific surface area, pore size diameter, bandgap energy and nitrogen content level, but insignificant on phase structure and oxidation state of titanium (Ti) atom. The N-doped TiO₂ samples illustrated only anatase crystalline phase due to nitrogen dopant in TiO₂ restrained the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. The samples presented the nanorice-like morphology. The expansion on the particle was found at 650 and 700°C of calcination temperature, resulting in increased pore size diameter. The bandgap energy was determined by Kubelka-Munk theory to be in the range 3.07-3.18 eV, which appeared slightly lower than anatase standard (3.20 eV), resulting in the nitrogen dopant could modify the optical absorption edge of TiO₂ from UV to visible light region. The nitrogen content was observed at 100, 300 and 400°C only. Also, the nitrogen element disappeared at 500°C onwards. The nitrogen (N) atom can be incorporated in TiO₂ structure with the interstitial site. The uncalcined (100°C) sample displayed the highest percent paraquat degradation under UV and visible light irradiation due to this sample revealed both the highest specific surface area and nitrogen content level. Moreover, percent paraquat removal significantly decreased with increasing calcination treatment temperature. The nitrogen content level in TiO₂ accelerated the rate of reaction with combining the effect of the specific surface area that generated the electrons and holes during illuminated with light. Therefore, the specific surface area and nitrogen content level demonstrated the important roles in the photocatalytic activity of paraquat under UV and visible light illumination.

Keywords: restraining phase transformation, interstitial site, chemical charge state, photocatalysis, paraquat degradation

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6690 Investigation on Reducing the Bandgap in Nanocomposite Polymers by Doping

Authors: Sharvare Palwai, Padmaja Guggilla


Smart materials, also called as responsive materials, undergo reversible physical or chemical changes in their properties as a consequence of small environmental variations. They can respond to a single or multiple stimuli such as stress, temperature, moist, electric or magnetic fields, light, or chemical compounds. Hence smart materials are the basis of many applications, including biosensors and transducers, particularly electroactive polymers. As the polymers exhibit good flexibility, high transparency, easy processing, and low cost, they would be promising for the sensor material. Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), being a ferroelectric polymer, exhibits piezoelectric and pyro electric properties. Pyroelectric materials convert heat directly into electricity, while piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy into electricity. These characteristics of PVDF make it useful in biosensor devices and batteries. However, the influence of nanoparticle fillers such as Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO₃/LT), Potassium Niobate (KNbO₃/PN), and Zinc Titanate (ZnTiO₃/ZT) in polymer films will be studied comprehensively. Developing advanced and cost-effective biosensors is pivotal to foresee the fullest potential of polymer based wireless sensor networks, which will further enable new types of self-powered applications. Finally, nanocomposites films with best set of properties; the sensory elements will be designed and tested for their performance as electric generators under laboratory conditions. By characterizing the materials for their optical properties and investigate the effects of doping on the bandgap energies, the science in the next-generation biosensor technologies can be advanced.

Keywords: polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF, lithium tantalate, potassium niobate, zinc titanate

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6689 Practical Evaluation of High-Efficiency Si-based Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Sue-Yi Chen, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jon-Yiew Gan


Si-based double-junction tandem solar cells have become a popular research topic because of the advantages of low manufacturing cost and high energy conversion efficiency. However, there is no set of calculations to select the appropriate top cell materials. Therefore, this paper will propose a simple but practical selection method. First of all, we calculate the S-Q limit and explain the reasons for developing tandem solar cells. Secondly, we calculate the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the double-junction tandem solar cells while combining the commercial monocrystalline Si and materials' practical efficiency to consider the actual situation. Finally, we conservatively conclude that if considering 75% performance of the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the top cell, the suitable bandgap energy range will fall between 1.38eV to 2.5eV. Besides, we also briefly describe some improvements of several proper materials, CZTS, CdSe, Cu2O, ZnTe, and CdS, hoping that future research can select and manufacture high-efficiency Si-based tandem solar cells based on this paper successfully. Most importantly, our calculation method is not limited to silicon solely. If other materials’ performances match or surpass silicon's ability in the future, researchers can also apply this set of deduction processes.

Keywords: high-efficiency solar cells, material selection, Si-based double-junction solar cells, Tandem solar cells, photovoltaics.

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6688 Study of the Nonlinear Optic Properties of Thin Films of Europium Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Ali Ballouch, Nourelhouda Choukri, Zouhair Soufiani, Mohamed El Jouad, Mohamed Addou


For several years, significant research has been developed in the areas of applications of semiconductor wide bandgap such as ZnO in optoelectronics. This oxide has the advantage of having a large exciton energy (60 meV) three times higher than that of GaN (21 meV) or ZnS (20 meV). This energy makes zinc oxide resistant for laser irradiations and very interesting for the near UV-visible optic, as well as for studying physical microcavities. A high-energy direct gap at room temperature (Eg > 1 eV) which makes it a potential candidate for emitting devices in the near UV and visible. Our work is to study the nonlinear optical properties, mainly the nonlinear third-order susceptibility of europium doped Zinc oxide thin films. The samples were prepared by chemical vapor spray method (Spray), XRD, SEM technique, THG were used for characterization. In this context, the influence of europium doping on the nonlinear optical response of the Zinc oxide was investigated. The nonlinear third-order properties depend on the physico-chemical parameters (crystallinity, strain, and surface roughness), the nature and the level of doping, temperature.

Keywords: ZnO, characterization, non-linear optical properties, optoelectronics

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6687 Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Photocatalytic Degradation Using Heterojunction Semiconductors

Authors: Ksenija Milošević, Davor Lončarević, Tihana Mudrinić, Jasmina Dostanić


Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes have gained growing interest as an efficient method to generate hydrogen by using clean energy sources and degrading various organic pollutants. The main obstacles that restrict efficient photoactivity are narrow light-response range and high rates of charge carrier recombination. The formation of heterojunction by combining a semiconductor with low VB and a semiconductor with high CB and a suitable band gap was found to be an efficient method to prepare more sensible materials with improved charge separation, appropriate oxidation and reduction ability, and enhanced visible-light harvesting. In our research, various binary heterojunction systems based on the wide-band gap (TiO₂) and narrow bandgap (g-C₃N₄, CuO, and Co₂O₃) photocatalyst were studied. The morphology, optical, and electrochemical properties of the photocatalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), N₂ physisorption, diffuse reflectance measurements (DRS), and Mott-Schottky analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts was tested in single and simultaneous systems. The synthesized photocatalysts displayed good adsorption capacity and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. The mutual interactions of pollutants on their adsorption and degradation efficiency were investigated. The interfacial connection between photocatalyst constituents and the mechanism of the transport pathway of photogenerated charge species was discussed. A radical scavenger study revealed the interaction mechanisms of the photocatalyst constituents in single and multiple pollutant systems under solar and visible light irradiation, indicating the type of heterojunction system (Z scheme or type II).

Keywords: bandgap alignment, heterojunction, photocatalysis, reaction mechanism

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6686 Computational Determination of the Magneto Electronic Properties of Ce₁₋ₓCuₓO₂ (x=12.5%): Emerging Material for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Aicha Bouhlala, Sabah Chettibi


Doping CeO₂ with transition metals is an effective way of tuning its properties. In the present work, we have performed self-consistent ab-initio calculation using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW), based on the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the Wien2k simulation code to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the compound Ce₁₋ₓCuₓO₂ (x=12.5%) fluorite type oxide and to explore the effects of dopant Cu in ceria. The exchange correlation potential has been treated using the Perdew-Burke-Eenzerhof revised of solid (PBEsol). In structural properties, the equilibrium lattice constant is observed for the compound, which exists within the value of 5.382 A°. In electronic properties, the spin-polarized electronic bandstructure elucidates the semiconductor nature of the material in both spin channels, with the compound was observed to have a narrow bandgap on the spin-down configuration (0.162 EV) and bandgap on the spin-up (2.067 EV). Hence, the doped atom Cu plays a vital role in increasing the magnetic moments of the supercell, and the value of the total magnetic moment is found to be 2.99438 μB. Therefore, the compound Cu-doped CeO₂ shows a strong ferromagnetic behavior. The predicted results propose the compound could be a good candidate for spintronics applications.

Keywords: Cu-doped CeO₂, DFT, Wien2k, properties

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6685 Broadband Platinum Disulfide Based Saturable Absorber Used for Optical Fiber Mode Locking Lasers

Authors: Hui Long, Chun Yin Tang, Ping Kwong Cheng, Xin Yu Wang, Wayesh Qarony, Yuen Hong Tsang


Two dimensional (2D) materials have recently attained substantial research interest since the discovery of graphene. However, the zero-bandgap feature of the graphene limits its nonlinear optical applications, e.g., saturable absorption for these applications require strong light-matter interaction. Nevertheless, the excellent optoelectronic properties, such as broad tunable bandgap energy and high carrier mobility of Group 10 transition metal dichalcogenides 2D materials, e.g., PtS2 introduce new degree of freedoms in the optoelectronic applications. This work reports our recent research findings regarding the saturable absorption property of PtS2 layered 2D material and its possibility to be used as saturable absorber (SA) for ultrafast mode locking fiber laser. The demonstration of mode locking operation by using the fabricated PtS2 as SA will be discussed. The PtS2/PVA SA used in this experiment is made up of some few layered PtS2 nanosheets fabricated via a simple ultrasonic liquid exfoliation. The operational wavelength located at ~1 micron is demonstrated from Yb-doped mode locking fiber laser ring cavity by using the PtS2 SA. The fabricated PtS2 saturable absorber offers strong nonlinear properties, and it is capable of producing regular mode locking laser pulses with pulse to pulse duration matched with the round-trip cavity time. The results confirm successful mode locking operation achieved by the fabricated PtS2 material. This work opens some new opportunities for these PtS2 materials for the ultrafast laser generation. Acknowledgments: This work is financially supported by Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (JCYJ20170303160136888) and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China (GRF 152109/16E, PolyU code: B-Q52T).

Keywords: platinum disulfide, PtS2, saturable absorption, saturable absorber, mode locking laser

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6684 Effect of Precursor’s Grain Size on the Conversion of Microcrystalline Gallium Antimonide GaSb to Nanocrystalline Gallium Nitride GaN

Authors: Jerzy F. Janik, Mariusz Drygas, Miroslaw M. Bucko


A simple precursor system has been recently developed in our laboratory for the conversion of affordable microcrystalline gallium antimonide GaSb to a range of nanocrystalline powders of gallium nitride GaN – a wide bandgap semiconductor indispensable in modern optoelectronics. The process relies on high temperature nitridation reactions of GaSb with ammonia. Topochemical relationships set up by the cubic lattice of GaSb result in some metastable cubic GaN formed in addition to the stable hexagonal GaN. A prior application of high energy ball milling to the initially microcrystalline GaSb precursor is shown to alter the nitridation output.

Keywords: nanocrystalline, gallium nitride, GaN, gallium antimonide, GaSb, nitridation, ball milling

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6683 The Photocatalytic Approach for the Conversion of Polluted Seawater CO₂ into Renewable Source of Energy

Authors: Yasar N. Kavil, Yasser A. Shaban, Radwan K. Al Farawati, Mohamed I. Orif, Shahed U. M. Khanc


Photocatalytic way of reduction of CO₂ in polluted seawater into chemical fuel, methanol, was successfully gained over Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles under UV and natural sunlight. A homemade stirred batch annular reactor was used to carry out the photocatalytic reduction experiments. Photocatalysts with various Cu loadings (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt.%) were synthesized by the sol-gel procedure and were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV–Vis, FTIR, and XPS. The photocatalytic production of methanol was promoted by the co-doping with C and Cu into TiO₂. This improvement was attributed to the modification of bandgap energy and the hindrance of the charges recombination. The polluted seawater showing the yield depended on its background hydrographic parameters. We assessed two types of polluted seawater system, the observed yield was 2910 and 990 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination under UV and natural sunlight respectively in system 1 and the corresponding yield in system 2 was 2250 and 910 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination. The production of methanol in the case of oxygen-depleted water was low, this is mainly attributed to the competition of methanogenic bacteria over methanol production. The results indicated that the methanol yield produced by Cu-C/TiO₂ was much higher than those of carbon-modified titanium oxide (C/TiO₂) and Degussa (P25-TiO₂). Under the current experimental condition, the optimum loading was achieved by the doping of 3 wt % of Cu. The highest methanol yield was obtained over 1 g L-1 of 3wt% Cu/C-TiO₂.

Keywords: CO₂ photoreduction, copper, Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂, methanol, seawater

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6682 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita


Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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6681 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen


Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: energy policy, energy strategy, future projection, Turkey

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6680 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi


Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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6679 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın


Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

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6678 Optical and Luminescence Studies on Dy³+ Singly Doped and Dy³+/Ce³+ Co-doped Alumina Borosilicate Glasses for Photonics Device Application

Authors: M. Monisha, Sudha D. Kamath


We investigate the optical and photoluminescence properties from Dy³+ singly doped and Dy³+ co-doped with Ce³+alumino borosilicate glasses prepared using high temperature melt-quenching technique. The glass composition formula is 25SiO₂-(40-x-y)B2O₃-10Al₂O₃-15NaF-10ZnO-xDy₂O₃ yCe₂O₃ where, x = 0.5 mol% and y = 0, 0.1, and 0.5 mol%. The XRD study reveals the amorphous nature of both singly doped and co-doped glasses. Absorption study on Dy3+ singly doped glass shows nearly twelve absorption peaks arising from the ground level of Dy³+ ions (⁶H₁₅/₂) to various upper levels, and for Dy³+/Ce³+ co-doped glasses, few of the transitions in the visible region are suppressed. The absorption band edge is shifted towards the higher wavelength region on increasing Ce3+concentration. The decrease in indirect energy bandgap and increase in Urbach energy of the prepared glasses is observed due to codoping with Ce3+ ions. The photoluminescence studies on singly doped glass under 350 nm excitation showed three peaks at the blue (482 nm), yellow (575 nm), and red (663 nm) region. For codoped glasses, the emission peak at 403 nm is raised due to the 4d to 5f transition of Ce3+ ions. Lifetime values (ms) of co-doped glass is found to be higher than singly doped glass. Under 350 nm excitation, CIE coordinates of the co-doped glasses moved towards the bright white light region. The correlated color temperature (CCT) values were obtained in the range 4500 – 4700 K. Thus, the prepared glasses can be used for photonics device applications.

Keywords: absorption spectra, borosilicate glasses, Ce³+, Dy³+, photoluminescence

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6677 Design Ultra Fast Gate Drive Board for Silicon Carbide MOSFET Applications

Authors: Syakirin O. Yong, Nasrudin A. Rahim, Bilal M. Eid, Buray Tankut


The aim of this paper is to develop an ultra-fast gate driver for Silicon Carbide (SiC) based switching device applications such as AC/DC DC/AC converters. Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC switches are growing rapidly nowadays due to their numerous capabilities such as faster switching, higher power density and higher voltage level. Wide band-gap switches can work properly on high frequencies such 50-250 kHz which is very useful for many power electronic applications such as solar inverters. Increasing the frequency minimizes the output filter size and system complexity however, this causes huge spike between MOSFET’s drain and source leg which leads to the failure of MOSFET if the voltage rating is exceeded. This paper investigates and concludes the optimum design for a gate drive board for SiC MOSFET switches without causing spikes and noises.

Keywords: PV system, lithium-ion, charger, constant current, constant voltage, renewable energy

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6676 Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Varying Calcination Temperature for Photocatalytic Degradation of Ethylbenzene

Authors: Darlington Ashiegbu, Herman Johannes Potgieter


The increasing utilization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as a better alternative to TiO₂ has been attributed to its wide bandgap (3.37eV), lower production cost, ability to absorb over a larger range of the UV-spectrum and higher efficiency in some cases. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel process and calcined at 400ᵒC, 500ᵒC, and 650ᵒC. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Scanning electron micrograph revealed pseudo-spherical and rod-like morphologies and a high rate of agglomeration for the sample calcined at 650ᵒC, Brunnauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area measurement was highest in the sample calcined at 500ᵒC, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirmed the purity of the samples as only Zn and O₂ were detected and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO nanoparticles. All three samples were utilized in the degradation of ethylbenzene, and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer was utilized in monitoring degradation of ethylbenzene. The sample calcined at 500ᵒC had the highest surface area for reaction, lowest agglomeration and the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of ethylbenzene. This revealed temperature as a very important factor in improved and higher photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: ethylbenzene, pseudo-spherical, sol-gel, zinc oxide

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6675 Application of Molecular Materials in the Manufacture of Flexible and Organic Devices for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Mariana Gomez Gomez, Maria Elena Sanchez Vergara


Many sustainable approaches to generate electric energy have emerged in the last few decades; one of them is through solar cells. Yet, this also has the disadvantage of highly polluting inorganic semiconductor manufacturing processes. Therefore, the use of molecular semiconductors must be considered. In this work, allene compounds C24H26O4 and C24H26O5 were used as dopants to manufacture semiconductors films based on PbPc by high-vacuum evaporation technique. IR spectroscopy was carried out to determine the phase and any significant chemical changes which may occur during the thermal evaporation. According to UV-visible spectroscopy and Tauc’s model, the deposition process generated thin films with an activation energy range of 1.47 to 1.55 eV for direct transitions and 1.29 to 1.33 eV for indirect transitions. These values place the manufactured films within the range of low bandgap semiconductors. The flexible devices were manufactured: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic semiconductor/ Cubic Close Packed (CCP). The characterization of the devices was carried out by evaluating electrical conductivity using the four-probe collinear method. I-V curves were obtained under different lighting conditions at room temperature. OS1 (PbPc/C24H26O4) showed an Ohmic behavior, while OS2 (PbPc/C24H26O5) reached higher current values ​​at lower voltages. The results obtained show that the semiconductors devices doped with allene compounds can be used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: electrical properties, optical gap, phthalocyanine, thin film.

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6674 Formation of ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Using Partial Oxidation and Chemical Precipitation Synthesis Methods

Authors: Saba Didarataee, Abbas Ali Khodadadi, Yadollah Mortazavi, Fatemeh Mousavi


Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most attractive alternative methods for hydrogen evolution. A variety of nanoparticle engineering techniques were introduced to improve the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Among these methods, heterojunction formation is an appealing method due to its ability to effectively preventing electron-hole recombination and improving photocatalytic activity. Reaching an optimal ratio of the two target semiconductors for the formation of heterojunctions is still an open question. Considering environmental issues as well as the cost and availability, ZnS and ZnO are frequently studied as potential choices. In this study, first, the ZnS nanoparticle was synthesized in a hydrothermal process; the formation of ZnS nanorods with a diameter of 14-30 nm was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Then two different methods, partial oxidation and chemical precipitation were employed to construct ZnS/ZnO core-shell heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis were carried out to determine crystallite phase, surface area, and bandgap of photocatalysts. Furthermore, the temperature of oxidation was specified by a temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and was fixed at 510℃, at which mild oxidation occurred. The bandgap was calculated by the Kubelka-Munk method and decreased by increasing oxide content from 3.53 (pure ZnS) to 3.18 (pure ZnO). The optimal samples were determined by testing the photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution in a quartz photoreactor with side irradiation of UVC lamps with a wavelength of 254 nm. In both procedures, it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnS/ZnO composite was sensibly higher than the pure ZnS and ZnO, which is attributed to forming a type-II heterostructure. The best ratio of oxide to sulfide was 0.24 and 0.37 in partial oxidation and chemical precipitation, respectively. The highest hydrogen evolution was 1081 µmol/gr.h, gained from partial oxidizing of ZnS nanoparticles at 510℃ for 30 minutes.

Keywords: heterostructure, hydrogen, partial oxidation, photocatalyst, water splitting, ZnS

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6673 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart


The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: production planning, production control, energy-efficiency, energy-flexibility, energy-supply

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6672 Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings

Authors: Mahsa Karimpour, Martin Belusko, Ke Xing, Frank Bruno


Traditionally the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.

Keywords: building life cycle energy, embodied energy, energy design measures, low energy buildings

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6671 Comprehensive Study of Renewable Energy Resources and Present Scenario in India

Authors: Aparna Bhat, Rajeshwari Hegde


Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy- bio-fuels grown sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of renewable energy sources. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling-water, sea-waves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted, and therefore they are called renewable. This paper presents a review about conventional and renewable energy scenario of India. The paper also presents current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India and implementing renewable for the future is also been presented.

Keywords: solar energy, renewabe energy, wind energy, bio-diesel, biomass, feedin

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