Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4100

Search results for: gas to dust ratio

4100 Measure the Gas to Dust Ratio Towards Bright Sources in the Galactic Bulge

Authors: Jun Yang, Norbert Schulz, Claude Canizares

Abstract:

Knowing the dust content in the interstellar matter is necessary to understand the composition and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). The metal composition of the ISM enables us to study the cooling and heating processes that dominate the star formation rates in our Galaxy. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) Spectrometer provides a unique opportunity to measure element dust compositions through X-ray edge absorption structure. We measure gas to dust optical depth ratios towards 9 bright Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the Galactic Bulge with the highest precision so far. Well calibrated and pile-up free optical depths are measured with the HETG spectrometer with respect to broadband hydrogen equivalent absorption in bright LMXBs: 4U 1636-53, Ser X-1, GX 3+1, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1705-44, GX 340+0, GX 13+1, GX 5-1, and GX 349+2. From the optical depths results, we deduce gas to dust ratios for various silicates in the ISM and present our results for the Si K edge in different lines of sight towards the Galactic Bulge.

Keywords: low-mass X-ray binaries, interstellar medium, gas to dust ratio, spectrometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4099 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin

Abstract:

The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
4098 Physical Characterization of Indoor Dust Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Fatima S. Mohammed, Derrick Crump

Abstract:

Harmattan, a dusty weather condition characterized by thick smog-like suspended particles and dust storm are the peculiar events that happen during ¾ of the year in the Sahelian regions including Damaturu Town, Nigeria), resulting in heavy dust deposits especially indoors. The inhabitants of the Damaturu community are always inflicted with different ailments; respiratory tract infections, asthma, gastrointestinal infections and different ailments associated with the dusty nature of the immediate environment. This brought the need to investigate the nature of the settled indoor dust. Vacuum cleaner bag dust was collected from indoor of some Nigerian and UK homes, as well as outdoors including during seasonal dusty weather event (Harmattan and Storm dust). The dust was sieved, and the (150 µm size) particles were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physical characterization of the settled dust samples has revealed the various shapes and sizes, and elemental composition of the dust samples is indicating that some of the dust fractions were the respirable fractions and also the dust contained PM10 to PM 2.5 fractions with possible health effects. The elemental compositions were indicative of the diverse nature of the dust particle sources, which showed dust as a complex matrix.

Keywords: indoor dust, Harmattan dust, SEM, health effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
4097 Fire Safety Engineering of Wood Dust Layer or Cloud

Authors: Marzena Półka, Bożena Kukfisz

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of dust explosion hazards in the process industries. It includes selected testing method of dust explosibility and presentation two of them according to experimental standards used by Department of Combustion and Fire Theory in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the article are presented values of maximum acceptable surface temperature (MAST) of machines operating in the presence of dust cloud and chosen dust layer with thickness of 5 and 12,5mm. The comparative analysis, points to the conclusion that the value of the minimum ignition temperature of the layer (MITL) and the minimum ignition temperature of dust cloud (MTCD) depends on the granularity of the substance. Increasing the thickness of the dust layer reduces minimum ignition temperature of dust layer. Increasing the thickness of dust at the same time extends the flameless combustion and delays the ignition.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, industrial hazards, minimum ignition temperature, wood dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
4096 Studies on Design of Cyclone Separator with Tri-Chambered Filter Unit for Dust Removal in Rice Mills

Authors: T. K. Chandrashekar, R. Harish Kumar, T. B. Prasad, C. R. Rajashekhar

Abstract:

Cyclone separators are normally used for dust collection in rice mills for a long time. However, their dust collection efficiency is lower and is influenced by factors like geometry, exit pipe dimensions and length, humidity, and temperature at dust generation place. The design of cyclone has been slightly altered, and the new design has proven to be successful in collecting the dust particles of size up to 10 microns, the major modification was to change the height of exit pipe of the cyclone chamber to have optimum dust collection. The cyclone is coupled with a tri-chambered filter unit with three geo text materials filters of different mesh size to capture the dust less than 10 micron.

Keywords: cyclone-separator, rice mill, tri chambered filter, dust removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
4095 A Simulation-Based Study of Dust Ingression into Microphone of Indoor Consumer Electronic Devices

Authors: Zhichao Song, Swanand Vaidya

Abstract:

Nowadays, most portable (e.g., smartphones) and wearable (e.g., smartwatches and earphones) consumer hardware are designed to be dustproof following IP5 or IP6 ratings to ensure the product is able to handle potentially dusty outdoor environments. On the other hand, the design guideline is relatively vague for indoor devices (e.g., smart displays and speakers). While it is generally believed that the indoor environment is much less dusty, in certain circumstances, dust ingression is still able to cause functional failures, such as microphone frequency response shift and camera black spot, or cosmetic dissatisfaction, mainly the dust build up in visible pockets and gaps which is hard to clean. In this paper, we developed a simulation methodology to analyze dust settlement and ingression into known ports of a device. A closed system is initialized with dust particles whose sizes follow Weibull distribution based on data collected in a user study, and dust particle movement was approximated as a settlement in stationary fluid, which is governed by Stokes’ law. Following this method, we simulated dust ingression into MEMS microphone through the acoustic port and protective mesh. Various design and environmental parameters are evaluated including mesh pore size, acoustic port depth-to-diameter ratio, mass density of dust material and inclined angle of microphone port. Although the dependencies of dust resistance on these parameters are all monotonic, smaller mesh pore size, larger acoustic depth-to-opening ratio and more inclined microphone placement (towards horizontal direction) are preferred for dust resistance; these preferences may represent certain trade-offs in audio performance and compromise in industrial design. The simulation results suggest the quantitative ranges of these parameters, with more pronounced effects in the improvement of dust resistance. Based on the simulation results, we proposed several design guidelines that intend to achieve an overall balanced design from audio performance, dust resistance, and flexibility in industrial design.

Keywords: dust settlement, numerical simulation, microphone design, Weibull distribution, Stoke's equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
4094 Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete

Authors: Hasan Şahan Arel

Abstract:

In this study, literature related to the replacement of cement with waste marble and the use of waste marble as an aggregate in concrete production was examined. Workability of the concrete decreased when marble powder was used as a substitute for fine aggregate. Marble powder contributed to the compressive strength of concrete because of the CaCO3 and SiO2 present in the chemical structure of the marble. Additionally, the use of marble pieces in place of coarse aggregate revealed that this contributed to the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. When natural standard sand was replaced with marble dust at a ratio of 15% and 75%, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete increased by 20%-26% and 10%-15%, respectively. However, coarse marble aggregates exhibited the best performance at a 100% replacement ratio. Additionally, there was a greater improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete when waste marble was used in a coarse aggregate form when compared to that of when marble was used in a dust form. If the cement was replaced with marble powder in proportions of 20% or more, then adverse effects were observed on the compressive strength and workability of the concrete. This study indicated that marble dust at a cement-replacement ratio of 5%-10% affected the mechanical properties of concrete by decreasing the global annual CO2 emissions by 12% and also lowering the costs from US$40/m3 to US$33/m3.

Keywords: cement production, concrete, CO2 emission, marble, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
4093 Particle Dust Layer Density and the Optical Wavelength Absorption Relationship in Photovoltaic Module

Authors: M. Mesrouk, A. Hadj Arab

Abstract:

This work allows highlight the effect of dust on the absorption of the optical spectrum on the photovoltaic module, the effect of the particles dust presence on the photovoltaic modules have been a microscopic scale studied with COMSOL Multi-physic software simulation. In this paper, we have supposed the dust layer as a diffraction network repetitive optical structure characterized by the spacing between particle which represented by 'd' and the simulated structure (air-dust particle-glass). In this study we can observe the relationship between the wavelength and the particle spacing, the simulation shows us that the maximum wavelength transmission value corresponding, λ0 = 400nm, which represent the spacing value between the particles dust, d = 400 nm. In fact, we can observe that while increase dust layer density the wavelength transmission value decrease, there is a relationship between the density and wavelength value which can be absorbed in a dusty photovoltaic panel.

Keywords: dust effect, photovoltaic module, spectral absorption, wavelength transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
4092 Changes in Serum Neopterin in Workers Exposed to Different Mineral Dust

Authors: Gospodinka Prakova, Pavlina Gidikova, Gergana Sandeva, Kamelia Haracherova, Emil Slavov

Abstract:

Neopterin was demonstrated to be a sensitive marker of cell-mediated immune reactions which plays a key role in the interaction of monocyte / macrophage activation. The purpose of this work was to investigate changes in serum neopterin in workers exposed to different composition of mineral dust. Material and Methods: Serum neopterin was studied in 193 exposed workers, divided into three groups, depending on the mineral dust and content of the quartz in the respirable fraction. The I-st group-coal dust containing less than 2% free crystalline silica (n=44), II-nd group-coal dust containing over 2% free crystalline silica (n=94) and the III-rd group-mixed dust with corundum and carborundum (n=55). The control group was composed of 21 individuals without exposure to dust. Serum neopterin was investigated by Elisa method in ng/ml according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results and Discussion: It was found significantly higher level of serum neopterin in exposed workers of mineral dust (2,10 ± 0,62 ng / ml), compared with that of the control group (1,10 ± 0,85 ng/ml; p < 0,05). Neopterin levels in workers exposed to coal dust (1,87 ± 0,42 ng / ml-I-st and 3,32 ± 0,77 ng / ml-II-nd group) were significantly higher compared with those exposed to a mixed dust (1,31±0,68 mg / ml-third) and control group (p < 0,05). No significant difference in serum neopterin when exposed to a mixed dust composed of corundum and carborundum (III-rd) and a control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate activates a cell-mediated immune response when exposed to a mineral dust. The level of that activation depends mainly on the composition of the dust and is significantly highest in workers exposed to coal dust.

Keywords: mineral dust, neopterin, occupational exposure, respirable crystalline silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
4091 The Effect of Street Dust on Urban Environment

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Abdel Hameed A. A. Awad, Said Munir, Atif M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy, Abdulaziz R. Seroji

Abstract:

Street dust has been knoweldged as an important source of air pollution. It does not remain deposited in a place for long, as it is easily resuspended back into the atmosphere. Street dust is a complex mixture derived from different sources: Deposited dust, traffic, tire, and brake wear, construction and demolition processes. The present study aims to evaluate the elementals ”iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, nickel, silicon, and selenium” and microbial “bacteria and fungi” contents associated street dust at the holy mosque areas. The street dust was collected by sweeping an arera~1m2 along the both sides of the road. The particles with diameter ≤ 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentages of the total particulate ≤45 µm. Moreover, The crustal species: iron and calcium were found in the highest concentrations, and proof that demolition and constricution were the main source of street dust. Also, the low biodiversity of microorganisms is attributed to severe weather conditions and characteristics of the arid environment.

Keywords: dust, microbial, environment, street

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
4090 Cosmic Dust as Dark Matter

Authors: Thomas Prevenslik

Abstract:

Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust. Extensions of redshift corrections for cosmic dust to other historical astronomical observations are briefly discussed.

Keywords: alternative theories, cosmic dust redshift, doppler effect, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
4089 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan

Abstract:

Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: reduction, ironmaking, steel dust, coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
4088 Coated Surface to Reduce Adhesion of Particles in Electrostatic Cleaning System for Lunar Dust Mitigation

Authors: Voss Harrigan, Korey Carter, Mohammad Reza Shaeri

Abstract:

In alignment with NASA’s priority, an effective lunar dust mitigation technology was developed in the present study to remove small-sized lunar dust particles from spacesuits. The developed technology is an electrostatic cleaning system (ECS) integrated with a negatively ionized Thunderon brush, which uses carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes and a coated fabric. Work Function Matching (WFM) coating was used as the coating material. Since CNT electrodes are flexible, they are suited for spacesuits that are flexible structures and prone to geometrical changes due to astronauts’ movements. The performance of the WFM-coated fabric was compared with that of uncoated fabric. Cleaning rate, as the ratio between the weight of removed particles and the initial weight of particles, was used to characterize the cleaning performance of the technology. It was found that due to reduced adhesion between dust particles and the fabric, the dust mitigation technology equipped with WFM-coated fabric achieved a high cleaning rate of 98% compared to the cleaning rate of 91% for the uncoated fabric. Because of using small-sized particles for the experiments (i.e., the mean and median diameter of 7 µm and 5 µm, respectively), the high cleaning rate of 98% indicates that the developed lunar dust mitigation technology is a promising technique for effective removal of small-sized particles from spacesuits.

Keywords: lunar dust mitigation, electrostatic cleaning system, carbon nanotube electrodes, WFM coating, thunder on brush

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
4087 Dust Holding Capacity of Some Selected Road Side Tree Species

Authors: Jitin Rahul, Manish Kumar Jain

Abstract:

Dust pollution refers to the various locations, activities, or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. The sources of dust can be classified into two major categories anthropogenic sources (man-made sources) and natural sources. Dust kicked up by heavy vehicles (Bus, Truck, Loaders, Tankers, car etc.) travelling on highways may make up approximately 33-40% of air pollution. Plants naturally cleanse the atmosphere by absorbing gases and particulate matter plants (Leaves). Plants are very good pollution indicator and also very good for dust capturing (Dust controlling). Many types tree species like Azadirachta indica A. juss, Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz., Ficus bengalensis (Linn)., Pterocarpus marspium (Roxb.), Terminalia arjuna (Roxb, exDC.), Dalbergia sissoo roxb., and Ficus religiosa (Linn.) generally occur in roadside. These selected tree spiciness can control the dust pollution or dust capturing. It is well known that plants absorb particulate pollutants and help in dust controlling. Some tree species like (Ficus bengalensis, Ficus religiosa and Azadirachta indica) are very effective and natural means for controlling air pollution.

Keywords: dust, pollution, road, tree species

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
4086 Performance of Structural Concrete Containing Marble Dust as a Partial Replacement for River Sand

Authors: Ravande Kishore

Abstract:

The paper present the results of experimental investigation carried out to understand the mechanical properties of concrete containing marble dust. Two grades of concrete viz. M25 and M35 have been considered for investigation. For each grade of concrete five replacement percentages of sand viz. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by marble dust have been considered. In all, 12 concrete mix cases including two control concrete mixtures have been studied to understand the key properties such as Compressive strength, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rupture and Split tensile strength. Development of Compressive strength is also investigated. In general, the results of investigation indicated improved performance of concrete mixture containing marble dust. About 21% increase in Compressive strength is noticed for concrete mixtures containing 20% marble dust and 80% river sand. An overall assessment of investigation results pointed towards high potential for marble dust as alternative construction material coming from waste generated in marble industry.

Keywords: construction material, partial replacement, marble dust, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
4085 Numerical Modeling of Air Pollution with PM-Particles and Dust

Authors: N. Gigauri, A. Surmava, L. Intskirveli, V. Kukhalashvili, S. Mdivani

Abstract:

The subject of our study is atmospheric air pollution with numerical modeling. In the presented article, as the object of research, there is chosen city Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, with a population of one and a half million and a difficult terrain. The main source of pollution in Tbilisi is currently vehicles and construction dust. The concentrations of dust and PM (Particulate Matter) were determined in the air of Tbilisi and in its vicinity. There are estimated their monthly maximum, minimum, and average concentrations. Processes of dust propagation in the atmosphere of the city and its surrounding territory are modelled using a 3D regional model of atmospheric processes and an admixture transfer-diffusion equation. There were taken figures of distribution of the polluted cloud and dust concentrations in different areas of the city at different heights and at different time intervals with the background stationary westward and eastward wind. It is accepted that the difficult terrain and mountain-bar circulation affect the deformation of the cloud and its spread, there are determined time periods when the dust concentration in the city is greater than MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration, MAC=0.5 mg/m³).

Keywords: air pollution, dust, numerical modeling, PM-particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4084 Microstructures and Chemical Compositions of Quarry Dust As Alternative Building Material in Malaysia

Authors: Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Tuan Suhaimi Salleh, Siti Nor Azila Khalid, Noryati Mustapa

Abstract:

Quarry dust is a quarry end product from rock crushing processes, which is a concentrated material used as an alternative to fine aggregates for concreting purposes. In quarrying activities, the rocks are crushed into aggregates of varying sizes, from 75mm until less than 4.5 mm, the size of which is categorized as quarry dust. The quarry dust is usually considered as waste and not utilized as a recycled aggregate product. The dumping of the quarry dust at the quarry plant poses the risk of environmental pollution and health hazard. Therefore, the research is an attempt to identify the potential of quarry dust as an alternative building material that would reduce the materials and construction costs, as well as contribute effort in mitigating depletion of natural resources. The objectives are to conduct material characterization and evaluate the properties of fresh and hardened engineering brick with quarry dust mix proportion. The microstructures of quarry dust and the bricks were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results suggest that the shape and surface texture of quarry dust is a combination of hard and angular formation. The chemical composition of the quarry dust was also evaluated using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and compared against sand and concrete. The quarry dust was found to have a higher presence of alumina (Al₂O₃), indicating the possibility of an early strength effect for brick. They are utilizing quarry dust waste as replacement material has the potential of conserving non-renewable resources as well as providing a viable alternative to disposal of current quarry waste.

Keywords: building materials, cement replacement, quarry microstructure, quarry product, sustainable materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
4083 The Association between Saharran Dust and Emergency Department Admission and Hospitalization in Gaziantep, Turkey

Authors: Behcet Al, Mustafa Bogan, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Suat Zengin, Hasan Bayram

Abstract:

Objective: In the last two decades there is a strong scientific interest regarding the role of aerosols for the Earth’s climate and associated changes. Aerosol particles are very important to the Earth-atmosphere climate system playing a crucial role in cloud and precipitation processes, air quality and climate. Here, we evaluated the association between saharran dust and emergency department admission, hospitalization, and mortality. Method: The records of admission to emergency department of Gaziantep University and the dust stroms of 31 months were studied. Patients admitted to ED at dust strom with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), asthma bronchiale (AB), serebrovascular events (SVE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stabile and unstabile angina pectoris (SAAP andUSAP); and the days with and without dust stroms were included. The study was realized from March 2010 to October 2012. The admission of three days before strom (group 1), during strom days (group 2) and three days after strom (group 3) were determined. The mean level of dust PM10 particulate was calculated, and the results were compared. Results: 5864 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma bronchiale, serebrovascular events, acute myocardial infarction, stabile and unstabile angyina pectoris admitted during the days with and without dust stroms. 28 dust stroms ocurred during 31 months. The totaliy of stroms continiued 78 days. Of admissions, 35.5% (n=2075) were in group1, 29.8% (n=1746) in group 2, and 34.8% (n=2043) were in group 3. The mean of PM10 for groups (group 1, 2 and 3) were 78.53 mg/m3 (range 19–276) particulate, 108.7 mg/m3 (range 34–631) particulate, and 60.9 mg/m3 (range 17–160) particulate respectively. The mean admission per a day for groups were 24.86, 22.55, and 24.50 respectively. The mortality was 12 in group 1, 12 in group 2, and 17 in grou 3. The hospitalization ratio for groups were 0.24, 0.27, and 0.27 respectively. Conclusion: However, the mean level of PM10 particulate for groups 2 (in dust strom days) is significantly higher (p=0.001) than the days before (group 1) and after (group 3) dust stroms, the mean admissions/day, hostilalization and mortality related to deseases (COLD, AB, SVE, AMI, SAAP andUSA) for group 2 is lower than the group 1 and group 3.

Keywords: Saharran dust, PM10 particulate, emergency department admission, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
4082 Air Classification of Dust from Steel Converter Secondary De-dusting for Zinc Enrichment

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer

Abstract:

The off-gas from the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), where pig iron is converted into steel, is treated in the primary ventilation system. This system is in full operation only during oxygen-blowing when the BOF converter vessel is in a vertical position. When pig iron and scrap are charged into the BOF and when slag or steel are tapped, the vessel is tilted. The generated emissions during charging and tapping cannot be captured by the primary off-gas system. To capture these emissions, a secondary ventilation system is usually installed. The emissions are captured by a canopy hood installed just above the converter mouth in tilted position. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of Zn and other components on the particle size of BOF secondary ventilation dust. Because of the high temperature of the BOF process it can be expected that Zn will be enriched in the fine dust fractions. If Zn is enriched in the fine fractions, classification could be applied to split the dust into two size fractions with a different content of Zn. For this air classification experiments with dust from the secondary ventilation system of a BOF were performed. The results show that Zn and Pb are highly enriched in the finest dust fraction. For Cd, Cu and Sb the enrichment is less. In contrast, the non-volatile metals Al, Fe, Mn and Ti were depleted in the fine fractions. Thus, air classification could be considered for the treatment of dust from secondary BOF off-gas cleaning.

Keywords: air classification, converter dust, recycling, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
4081 Influence of Pulverized Granite on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Kwabena A. Boakye, Eugene Atiemo, Trinity A. Tagbor, Delali Adjei

Abstract:

The use of mineral admixtures such as metakaolin, GGBS, fly ash, etc., in concrete is a common practice in the world. However, the only admixture available for use in the Ghanaian construction industry is calcined clay pozzolan. This research, therefore, studies the alternate use of granite dust, a by-product from stone quarrying, as a mineral admixture in concrete. Granite dust, which is usually damped as waste or as an erosion control material, was collected and pulverized to about 75µm. Some physical, chemical, and mineralogical tests were conducted on the granite dust. 5%-25% ordinary Portland cement of Class 42.5N was replaced with granite dust which was used as the main binder in the preparation of 150mm×150mm×150mm concrete cubes according to methods prescribed by BS EN 12390-2:2000. Properties such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, and durability were determined. Compressive and flexural strength results indicate that granite dust could be used to replace ordinary Portland cement up to an optimum of 15% to achieve C25. Water permeability increased as the granite dust admixture content increased from 5% - 25%. Durability studies after 90 days proved that even though strength decreased as granite dust content increased, the concrete containing granite dust had better resistance to sulphate attack comparable to the reference cement. Pulverized granite can be used to partially replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete.

Keywords: admixture, granite dust, permeability, pozzolans

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
4080 Dust and Soling Accumulation Effect on Photovoltaic Systems in MENA Region

Authors: I. Muslih, A. Alkhalailah, A. Merdji

Abstract:

Photovoltaic efficiency is highly affected by dust accumulation; the dust particles prevent direct solar radiation from reaching the panel surface; therefore a reduction in output power will occur. A study of dust and soiling accumulation effect on the output power of PV panels was conducted for different periods of time from May to October in three countries of the MENA region, Jordan, Egypt, and Algeria, under local weather conditions. This study leads to build a more realistic equation to estimate the power reduction as a function of time. This logarithmic function shows the high reduction in power in the first days with 10% reduction in output power compared to the reference system, where it reaches a steady state value after 60 days to reach a maximum value of 30%.

Keywords: dust effect, MENA, solar energy, PV system

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
4079 Effects of Dust Storm Events on Tuberculosis Incidence Rate in Northwest of China

Authors: Yun Wang, Ruoyu Wang, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Guodong Chen, Wei Zhang

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in China. China has the world's second largest tuberculosis epidemic (after India). Xinjiang almost has the highest annual attendance rate of TB in China, and the province is also famous because of its severe dust storms. The epidemic timing starts in February and ends in July, and the dust storm mainly distribute throughout the spring and early summer, which strongly indicate a close linkage between causative agent of TB and dust storm events. However, mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns are still not clearly indentified. By comparing the information on cases of TB from Centers for Disease Control of China annual reports with dust storm atmosphere datasets, we constructed the relationship between the large scale annual occurrence of TB in Xinjiang, a Northwest province of China, and dust storm occurrence. Regional atmospheric indexes of dust storm based on surface wind speed show a clear link between population dynamics of the disease and the climate disaster: the onset of epidemics and the dust storm defined by the atmospheric index share the same mean year. This study is the first that provides a clear demonstration of connections that exist between TB epidemics and dust storm events in China. The development of this study will undoubtedly help early warning for tuberculosis epidemic onset in China and help nationwide and international public health institutions and policy makers to better control TB disease in Norwest China.

Keywords: dust storm, tuberculosis, Xinjiang province, epidemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
4078 Application of Artificial Neural Network in Initiating Cleaning Of Photovoltaic Solar Panels

Authors: Mohamed Mokhtar, Mostafa F. Shaaban

Abstract:

Among the challenges facing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), dust accumulation on solar panels is considered the most severe problem that faces the growth of solar power plants. The accumulation of dust on the solar panels significantly degrades output from these panels. Hence, solar PV panels have to be cleaned manually or using costly automated cleaning methods. This paper focuses on initiating cleaning actions when required to reduce maintenance costs. The cleaning actions are triggered only when the dust level exceeds a threshold value. The amount of dust accumulated on the PV panels is estimated using an artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments are conducted to collect the required data, which are used in the training of the ANN model. Then, this ANN model will be fed by the output power from solar panels, ambient temperature, and solar irradiance, and thus, it will be able to estimate the amount of dust accumulated on solar panels at these conditions. The model was tested on different case studies to confirm the accuracy of the developed model.

Keywords: machine learning, dust, PV panels, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4077 Dust Ion Acoustic Shock Waves in Dissipative Superthermal Plasmas

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

In this paper, the properties of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and stationary dust particles, are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dissipation is taken into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is shown that the basic features of DIA shock waves are significantly modified by the effects of electron superthermality and ion kinematic viscosity.

Keywords: reductive perturbation method, dust ion acoustic shock wave, superthermal electron, dissipative plasmas

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
4076 Determinants of House Dust, Endotoxin, and β- (1→ 3)-D-Glucan in Homes of Turkish Children

Authors: Afsoun Nikravan, Parisa Babaei, Gulen Gullu

Abstract:

We aimed to study the association between house dust endotoxin, β-(1→3)-D-glucan, and asthma in a sample representative of the Turkish population. We analyzed data from 240 participants. The house dust was collected from the homes of 110 asthmatics and 130 control (without asthma) school-aged children (6-11 years old). House dust from the living room and from bedroom floors were analyzed for endotoxin and beta-glucan contents. House dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found geometric means 187.5 mg/m² for dust. According to statistical values, the endotoxin geometric mean was 13.86×103 EU/g for the control group and 6.16×103 EU/g for the asthma group. As a result, the amount of bacterial endotoxin was measured at a higher level in the homes of children without asthma. The geometric mean for beta-glucan was 46.52 µg/g and 44.39 µg/g for asthma and control groups, respectively. No associations between asthma and microbial agents were observed in Turkish children. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin loads, while endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations were not correlated. The type of flooring (hard-surface or textile) was the strongest determinant for loads of floor dust and concentrations of endotoxin. Water damage and dampness at home were determinants of β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations in Turkish house dust might lower than concentrations seen in other European countries.

Keywords: indoor air quality, asthma, microbial pollutants, case-control

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4075 The Effect of Traffic on Harmful Metals and Metalloids in the Street Dust and Surface Soil from Urban Areas of Tehran, Iran: Levels, Distribution and Chemical Partitioning Based on Single and Sequential Extraction Procedures

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Sina Dobaradaran, Sadegh Niazi, Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Amir Zahedi

Abstract:

Street dust and surface soil samples were collected from very heavy, heavy, medium and low traffic areas and natural site in Tehran, Iran. These samples were analyzed for some physical–chemical features, total and chemical speciation of selected metals and metalloids (Zn, Al, Sr, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and V) to study the effect of traffic on their mobility and accumulation in the environment. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), carbonates and organic carbon (OC) values were similar in soil and dust samples from similar traffic areas. The traffic increases EC contents in dust/soil matrixes but has no effect on concentrations of metals and metalloids in soil samples. Rises in metal and metalloids levels with traffic were found in dust samples. Moreover, the traffic increases the percentage of acid soluble fraction and Fe and Mn oxides associated fractions of Pb and Zn. The mobilization of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr in dust samples was easier than in soil. The speciation of metals and metalloids except Cd is mainly affected by physicochemical features in soil, although total metals and metalloids affected the speciation in dust samples (except chromium and nickel).

Keywords: street dust, surface soil, traffic, metals, metalloids, chemical speciation

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4074 The Use of Cement Dust in the Glass Industry

Authors: Magda Kosmal, Anna Kuśnierz, Joanna Rybicka-ŁAda

Abstract:

In many countries around the world, especially in highly developed countries, numerous studies on the use and recycling of various types of waste materials have been carried out for many years. While in the case of waste glass cullet, a fully functioning recycling system has been developed for individual sectors of the glass industry, recycling of quite a significant amount of cement dust encounters a number of difficulties and is carried out to a limited extent in the packaging and flat glass industry. The aim of the project was to investigate the possibility of using dust generated in cement plants in the process of melting various types of glass. Dust management has a positive effect on the aspect of environmental protection and ecology. Glassware sets were designed and the melting process parameters were optimized. Glasses were obtained with the addition of selected cement dusts on a laboratory scale, using XRD and SEM tests. Crystallization tests carried out in a gradient furnace.

Keywords: glass, cement dust, SEM, XRD

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4073 Effect of Dust Rejected by Iron and Steel Complex on Roots of Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Labiba Zerari Bourafa, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Berrebah Houria, Khadri Sihem, Chiheb Linda

Abstract:

The study of the effect of metal dust (pollutants) was performed on higher plant white beans Phaseolus vulgaris; the experience took place in cellular toxicology laboratory (in vitro culture). The seeds of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris are cultured in a metal contaminated dust medium (a single treatment by different increasing doses), at a rate of 10 seeds per box, for 10 days. The measurement of morpho-metric parameters is performed during the first 96 hours that follow the germination; while the dosage of the proline, the protein content and histological sections are formed on the tenth day (240 h). All morpho-metric and biochemical parameters measured were highly disturbed by metal dust; histological sections confirm this disurbance.

Keywords: conductive fabrics, metal dust, osmoticums, roots, Phaseolus vulgaris

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4072 Case study of Environmental Impact Assessment of Quarrying Activities

Authors: Hocine Benabid, M. F. Ghorab

Abstract:

The exploration of open pit mines and quarries has always been important resources that provide many valuable needed minerals but very often accompanied by large amounts of dust rejected into the air and also many other negative environmental impacts. The dust remains suspended in the atmosphere before being deposited on soils, on forest trees, on plants and also on water, causing at long term allergic and respiratory diseases for residents living in the vicinity or even far away from the mines and quarries. As a consequence of this activity, dust can also disturb the photosynthetic activity of plants and affect water quality. It is for these reasons and because of the intensification of these activities that our motivations have become larger to deal with this kind of topic, which is becoming nowadays an environmental and health concern for almost every country in the world.

Keywords: mines, dust, environmental impacts, environmental concern

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4071 A Relative Analysis of Carbon and Dust Uptake by Important Tree Species in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Sahar Elkaee Behjati

Abstract:

Air pollution, particularly with dust, is one of the biggest issues Tehran is dealing with, and the city's green space which consists of trees has a critical role in absorption of it. The question this study aimed to investigate was which tree species the highest uptake capacity of the dust and carbon have suspended in the air. On this basis, 30 samples of trees from two different districts in Tehran were collected, and after washing and centrifuging, the samples were oven dried. The results of the study revealed that Ulmus minor had the highest amount of deposited dust in both districts. In addition, it was found that in Chamran district Ailanthus altissima and in Gandi district Ulmus minor has had the highest absorption of deposited carbon. Therefore, it could be argued that decision making on the selection of species for urban green spaces should take the above-mentioned parameters into account.

Keywords: dust, leaves, uptake total carbon, Tehran, tree species

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