Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2321

Search results for: interstellar medium

2321 Measure the Gas to Dust Ratio Towards Bright Sources in the Galactic Bulge

Authors: Jun Yang, Norbert Schulz, Claude Canizares

Abstract:

Knowing the dust content in the interstellar matter is necessary to understand the composition and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). The metal composition of the ISM enables us to study the cooling and heating processes that dominate the star formation rates in our Galaxy. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) Spectrometer provides a unique opportunity to measure element dust compositions through X-ray edge absorption structure. We measure gas to dust optical depth ratios towards 9 bright Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the Galactic Bulge with the highest precision so far. Well calibrated and pile-up free optical depths are measured with the HETG spectrometer with respect to broadband hydrogen equivalent absorption in bright LMXBs: 4U 1636-53, Ser X-1, GX 3+1, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1705-44, GX 340+0, GX 13+1, GX 5-1, and GX 349+2. From the optical depths results, we deduce gas to dust ratios for various silicates in the ISM and present our results for the Si K edge in different lines of sight towards the Galactic Bulge.

Keywords: low-mass X-ray binaries, interstellar medium, gas to dust ratio, spectrometer

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2320 Interstellar Mission to Wolf 359: Possibilities for the Future

Authors: Rajasekar Anand Thiyagarajan

Abstract:

One of the driving forces of mankind is the “le r`eve d'etoiles" or the “dream of stars", which has been the dynamo of our civilization. Since the beginning of the dawn of the civilization, mankind has looked upon the heavens with wonder and he has tried to understand the meaning of those twinkling lights. As human history has progressed, the understanding of those twinkling lights has progressed, as we now know a lot of information about stars. However, the dream of stars or the dream of reaching those stars always remains within the expectations of mankind. In fact, the needs of the civilization constantly drive for better knowledge and the capability of reaching those stars is one such way that knowledge and exultation can be achieved. This paper takes a futuristic case study of an interstellar mission to Wolf 359, which is approximately 8.3 light years away from us. In terms of galactic distances, 8.3 light years is not much, but as far as present space technology capabilities are concerned, it is next to impossible for us to reach those distances. Several studies have been conducted on various missions to Alpha Centauri and other nearby stars such as Barnard's star and Wolf 359. However, taking a more distant star such as Wolf 359 will help test the mankind's drive for interstellar exploration, as exotic means of travel are needed. This paper will take a futuristic case study of the event and various possibilities of space travel will be discussed in detail. Comprehensive tables and graphs will be given, which will depict the amount of time that will pass at each mode of travel and more importantly some idea on the cost in terms of energy as well as money will be discussed within today's context. In addition, prerequisites to an interstellar mission to Wolf 359 will be given in detail as well as a sample mission which will take place to that particular destination. Even though the possibility of such a mission is probably nonexistent for the 21st century, it is essential to do these exercises so that mankind's understanding of the universe will be increased. In addition, this paper hopes to establish some general guidelines for such an interstellar mission.

Keywords: wolf 359, interstellar mission, alpha centauri, core diameter, core length, reflector thickness enrichment, gas temperature, reflector temperature, power density, mass of the space craft, acceleration of the space craft, time expansion

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2319 Impact of Instructional Mode and Medium of Instruction on the Learning Outcomes of Secondary Level School Children

Authors: Dipti Parida, Atasi Mohanty

Abstract:

The focus of this research is to examine the interaction effect of flipped teaching and traditional teaching mode across two different medium (English and Odia) of instructional groups. Both Science and History subjects were taken to be taught in the Class- VIII in two different instructional mode/s. In total, 180 students of Class-VIII of both Odia and English medium schools were taken as the samples of this study; 90 participants (each group) were from both English and Odia medium schools ; 45 participants of each of these two groups were again assigned either to flip or traditional teaching method. We have two independent variables and each independent variable with two levels. Medium and mode of instruction are the two independent variables. Medium of instruction has two levels of Odia medium and English medium groups. The mode of instruction has also two levels of flip and traditional teaching method. Here we get 4 different groups, such as Odia medium students with traditional mode of teaching (O.M.T), Odia medium students with flipped mode of teaching (O.M.F), English medium students with traditional mode of teaching (E.M.T) and English medium students with flipped mode of teaching (E.M.F). Before the instructional administration, these four groups were given a test on the concerned topic to be taught. Based on this result, a one-way ANOVA was computed and the obtained result showed that these four groups don’t differ significantly from each other at the beginning. Then they were taught the concerned topic either in traditional or flip mode of teaching method. After that a 2×2×2 repeated measures ANOVA was done to analyze the group differences as well as the learning outcome before and after the teaching. The result table also shows that in post-test the learning outcome is highest in case of English medium students with flip mode of instruction. From the statistical analysis it is clear that the flipped mode of teaching is as effective for Odia medium students as it is for English medium students.

Keywords: medium of instruction, mode of instruction, test mode, vernacular medium

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2318 Nonstationary Waves Excited by the Rigid Cylinder in Elastic Medium

Authors: Tukeaban Hasanova, Jamila Imamalieva

Abstract:

By the operational method, the problem on two-dimensional wave propagation in elastic medium excited by the round cylinder is solved. An analytical solution responding to instantaneous application of speed to the inclusion at its subsequent change is constructed. The two-dimensional problem on wave propagation in an elastic medium is considered.

Keywords: cylinder, inclusion, wave, elastic medium, speed

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2317 Effect of Coriolis Force on Magnetoconvection in an Anisotropic Porous Medium

Authors: N. F. M. Mokhtar, N. Z. A. Hamid

Abstract:

This paper reports an analytical investigation of the stability and thermal convection in a horizontal anisotropic porous medium in the presence of Coriolis force and magnetic field. The Darcy model is used in the momentum equation and Boussinesq approximation is considered for the density variation of the porous medium. The upper and lower boundaries of the porous medium are assumed to be conducting to temperature perturbation and we used first order Chebyshev polynomial Tau method to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Analytical solution is obtained for the case of stationary convection. It is found that the porous layer system becomes unstable when the mechanical anisotropy parameter elevated and increasing the Coriolis force and magnetic field help to stabilize the anisotropy porous medium.

Keywords: anisotropic, Chebyshev tau method, Coriolis force, Magnetic field

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2316 The Resistance of Fish Outside of Water Medium

Authors: Febri Ramadhan

Abstract:

Water medium is a vital necessity for the survival of fish. Fish can survive inside/outside of water medium within a certain time. By knowing the level of survival fish at outside of water medium, a person can transport the fish to a place with more efficiently. Transport of live fish from one place to another can be done with wet and dry media system. In this experiment the treatment-given the observed differences in fish species. This experiment aimed to test the degree of resilience of fish out of water media. Based on the ANOVA table is obtained, it can be concluded that the type of fish affects the level of resilience of fish outside the water (Fhit> Ftab).

Keywords: fish, transport, retention rate, fish resiliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2315 Managing of Work Risk in Small and Medium-Size Companies

Authors: Janusz K. Grabara, Bartłomiej Okwiet, Sebastian Kot

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is presentation and analysis of the aspect of job security in small and medium-size enterprises in Poland with reference to other EU countries. We show the theoretical aspects of the risk with reference to managing small and medium enterprises, next risk management in small and medium enterprises in Poland, which were subjected to a detailed analysis. We show in detail the risk associated with the operation of the mentioned above companies, as well as analyses its levels on various stages and for different kinds of conducted activity.

Keywords: job safety, SME, work risk, risk management

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2314 Study on the Carboxymethylation of Glucomannan from Porang

Authors: Fadilah Fadilah, Sperisa Distantina, Santi T. Wijayanti, Rahmawati Andayani

Abstract:

Chemical modification process on glucomannan from porang via carboxymethylation have been conducted. The process was done in two stages, the alkalization, and the carboxymethylation. The alkalization was done by adding NaOH solution into the medium which was contained glucomannan and then stirred it in ambient temperature for thirty minutes. The carboxymethylation process was done by adding sodium mono chloroacetate solution into the alkalization product. The carboxymethylation process was conducted for a certain time, and the product was then analyzed for determining the degree of substitution. In this research, the influence of medium to the degree of substitution was studied. Three different medium were used, namely water, 70% ethanol, and 90% ethanol. The results show that 70% ethanol was a better medium than two others because give a higher degree of substitution. Using 70% ethanol as a medium, the experiments for studying the influence of temperature on the carboxymethylation stages were conducted. The results show that the degree of substitution at 65°C is higher than at 45°C.

Keywords: carboxymethylation, degree of substitution, ethanol medium, glucomannan

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2313 Experimental Technique to Study Colloid Deposition in Porous Media

Authors: Abdelkader Djehiche, Mostefa Gafsi, Henri Bertin, Aziz Omari

Abstract:

The flows of colloidal suspensions in porous media find many applications in fields such as Petroleum, Hydraulic engineering, deep-bed filtration. For each application, the scientific problems can be summarized the flow in porous medium of a colloidal suspension whose particles having characteristic dimension is considerable in comparison with the pores dimension. In certain cases, one can observe a deposit of particles on the surface of the pores which results in a significant modification in the physical properties of the porous medium. The objective of our study is to use a non-destructive experimental method, the attenuation of g-rays, to study the influence of the number of Peclet on the deposit of latex particles in a consolidated porous medium. The first results obtained show a good agreement between local and global measurements of the deposit of the particles in porous medium. The deposit takes place in a progressive way along the porous medium and leads to a monolayer deposit of which the average thickness is of about the size diameter of the colloidal particles.

Keywords: colloid, gamma ray, Peclet number, permeability, porous medium

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2312 Effect of Ionized Plasma Medium on the Radiation of a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna on Ferrite Substrate

Authors: Ayman Al Sawalha

Abstract:

This paper presents theoretical investigations on the radiation of rectangular microstrip antenna printed on a magnetized ferrite substrate Ni0.62Co0.02Fe1.948O4 in the presence of ionized plasma medium. The theoretical study of rectangular microstrip antenna in free space is carried out by applying the transmission line model combining with potential function techniques while hydrodynamic theory is used for it is analysis in plasma medium. By taking the biased and unbiased ferrite cases, far-field radiation patterns in free space and plasma medium are obtained which in turn are applied in computing radiated power, directivity, quality factor and bandwidth of antenna. It is found that the presence of plasma medium affects the performance of rectangular microstrip antenna structure significantly.

Keywords: ferrite, microstrip antenna, plasma, radiation

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2311 Comparison of Filamentous Fungus (Monascus purpureus)Growth in Submerged and Solid State Culture

Authors: Shafieeh Mansoori, Fatemeh Yazdian, Ashrafsadat Hatamian, Majid Azizi

Abstract:

Monascus purpureus, which has a special metabolite with many therapeutic and medicinal properties including antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, and immunosuppressive properties, is a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus and is used as a natural dietary supplement. Production of desired metabolites actually determined by optimized growth which is supported by some factors such as substrates and Monascus strains type, moisture content of the fermentation mixture, aeration, and control of contamination issues. In this experiment, M. purpureus PTCC5305 was cultured in both the liquid and solid culture medium. The former medium contain YMP (yeast extract, maltose and peptone), PGC (peptone, glucose complex), and GYP (glucose, yeast extract and peptone) medium. After 8 days, the best medium for the cell production was PGC agar medium on solid culture with 0.28 g dry weight of cell mass whereas the best liquid culture was GYP medium with 3.5 g/l dry weight of cell mass. The lowest cell production was on YMP agar with 0.1 g dry weight of cell mass and then YMP medium with 2.5 g/l dry cell weight.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, solid state fermentation, submerged culture, Chinese fermentation fungus

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2310 To Prepare a Remedial Teaching Programme for Dyslexic Students of English and Marathi Medium Schools and Study Its Effect on Their Learning Outcome

Authors: Khan Zeenat, S. B. Dandegaonkar

Abstract:

Dyslexia is a neurological disorder which affects the reading and writing ability of children. A sample of 72 dyslexic children (36 from English medium and 36 from Marathi medium schools) of class V from English and Marathi medium schools were selected. The Experimental method was used to study the effect of Remedial Teaching Programme on the Learning outcome of Dyslexic students. The findings showed that there is a Positive effect of remedial teaching programme on the Learning outcome of English and Marathi medium students.

Keywords: remedial teaching, Dyslexic students, learning outcome, neurological

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2309 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound , unfocused transducer

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2308 Extraction of Osmolytes from the Halotolerant Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

Authors: H. Nacef, L. Larous

Abstract:

Salin soils occupy about 7% of land area; they are characterized by unsuitable physical conditions for the growth of living organisms. However, researches showed that some microorganisms especially fungi are able to grow and adapt to such extreme conditions; it is due to their ability to develop different physiological mechanisms in their adaptation. The aim of this study is to identify qualitatively the osmolytes that the biotechnological important fungus A. oryzae accumulated and/or produced in its adaptation, which they were detected by Thin-layer chromatography technique (TLC) using several systems, from different media (Wheat brane, MNM medium and MM medium). The results showed that The moderately halotolerant fungus A. oryzae, accumulates mixture of molecules, containing polyols and sugars , some amino acids in addition to some molecules which were not defined. Wheat bran was the best medium for the extraction of these molecules, where the proportion was 85.71%, followed by MNM medium 64.28%, then the minimum medium MM 14.28%. Properties of osmolytes are becoming increasingly useful in molecular biology, agriculture pharmaceutical, medicinal, and biotechnological interests.

Keywords: salinity, aspergillus oryzae, halo tolerance, osmolytes, compatible solutes

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2307 Effects of Porcine Oviductal Fluid on In vitro Growth of Dendrobium mirbelianum

Authors: M. Youngsabanant-Areekijseree, C. Thepsithar, K. Sribuddhachart, J. Tananantayot

Abstract:

Porcine oviductal fluid (pOF) from oviduct, an unused organ from the slaughterhouse, was effectively used for biotechnology studies. The fluid components consisted of micro- and macro-nutrients, amino acids, carbon source and proteins that played important roles in animal cell and embryo development. This was our knowledge on investigating pOF as growth promoting substance in culture medium of an orchid, Dendrobium mirbelianum. Two-leaf shoots were cultured in liquid Vacin and Went (VW) medium as a standard medium supplemented with 2 g/L peptone (Pe) or 100 g/ L boiled-potato water (Po) alone or in combinations, and added with 0, 1, 3 or 5 ml/L pOF. All explants were cultured in a stationary condition for 8 weeks. It was found that medium added with 100 g/L Po and 1 ml/L pOF provided the best results (1.02 g fresh weight, 4.2 shoots, 0.53 cm shoot height, 4.4 protocorms, 11.0 leaves and 5.7 roots with 100% survival) when compared to other medium, but not statistically significant difference from medium added with 100 g/L Po (0.86 g fresh weight, 4.3 shoots, 0.51 cm shoot height, 4.6 protocorms, 12.4 leaves and 6.6 roots with 100% survival). However, VW medium supplemented with 1 or 3 ml/L pOF alone showed the higher percentage of survival (100%) than VW medium (86.67%). It was shown the potential role of pOF as an organic supplement for promoting growth of plants. Acknowledgements—The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research & Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: Dendrobium mirbelianum, pig, oviductal fluid, in vitro growth

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2306 Aptitude of a Lactococcus Strain to Grow on Whey Medium

Authors: Souid Wafa, Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Khacef Linda

Abstract:

In this work, we focused on the valuation of discharges from the dairy industry. Whey is by-product of dairy industry, which is a formidable pollution factor and contains components (lactose, minerals and proteins) with high nutritional value. Whey is an excellent culture medium for microorganisms. The objective of our work is to investigate the ability of a lactic strain (of the genus Lactococcus) to grow in culture media based on whey of cattle and camels and comparing it with that recorded on M17 as indicator medium. In this study we isolated from a local sample of camel milk a lactic strain (S1).the strain had positive Gram shaped, cocci form and catalase (-). The strain has been purified by the method of streaks on M17 medium. Phenotypic identification allows us to classify this strain in the species: Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris. We subsequently tested the ability of this strain to grow in cattle whey medium and camel whey, both media were deproteinized and unsupplemented. The obtained results revealed that: The cattle and camel whey are appropriate media for the growth of the strain Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris but is more adapted to grow on a medium rich in lactose as the camel whey. In fact, after 48h and at initial pH 6.8 this strain acidified more camel whey (pH 3.99) than cattle whey (pH 4.8). And biomass produced in the camel whey is 1.50g /1 by contributing to the cattle whey which is 1g / l.

Keywords: cremoris, dairy industry, Lactococcus lactis subsp, medium, whey

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2305 Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area

Authors: O. Arikan, C. Kocatepe, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu

Abstract:

In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc. (BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are analyzed for %50, %75 and %100 loading of transformers with similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of the medium voltage distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, harmonic, technical losses, power factor, total harmonic distortion, residential load, medium voltage

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2304 Simulation and Experimental Study on Dual Dense Medium Fluidization Features of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed

Authors: Cheng Sheng, Yuemin Zhao, Chenlong Duan

Abstract:

Air dense medium fluidized bed is a typical application of fluidization techniques for coal particle separation in arid areas, where it is costly to implement wet coal preparation technologies. In the last three decades, air dense medium fluidized bed, as an efficient dry coal separation technique, has been studied in many aspects, including energy and mass transfer, hydrodynamics, bubbling behaviors, etc. Despite numerous researches have been published, the fluidization features, especially dual dense medium fluidization features have been rarely reported. In dual dense medium fluidized beds, different combinations of different dense mediums play a significant role in fluidization quality variation, thus influencing coal separation efficiency. Moreover, to what extent different dense mediums mix and to what extent the two-component particulate mixture affects the fluidization performance and quality have been in suspense. The proposed work attempts to reveal underlying mechanisms of generation and evolution of two-component particulate mixture in the fluidization process. Based on computational fluid dynamics methods and discrete particle modelling, movement and evolution of dual dense mediums in air dense medium fluidized bed have been simulated. Dual dense medium fluidization experiments have been conducted. Electrical capacitance tomography was employed to investigate the distribution of two-component mixture in experiments. Underlying mechanisms involving two-component particulate fluidization are projected to be demonstrated with the analysis and comparison of simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: air dense medium fluidized bed, particle separation, computational fluid dynamics, discrete particle modelling

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2303 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

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2302 An Effect of Organic Supplements on Stimulating Growth of Dendrobium Protocorms and Seedlings

Authors: Sunthari Tharapan, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Kullanart Obsuwan

Abstract:

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of various organic supplements on growth and development of Dendrobium discolor’s protocorms and seedlings growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz. Protocorms of Dendrobium discolor with 2.0 cm. in diameter and seedlings of Dendrobium Judy Rutz at the same size (0.5 cm. height) were sub-cultured on Hyponex medium supplemented with cow milk (CM), soy milk (SM), potato extract (PE) and peptone (P) for 2 months. The protocorms were developed to seedlings in all treatments after cultured for 2 months. However, the best results were found on Hyponex medium supplemented with P was the best in which the maximum fresh and dry weight and maximum shoot height were obtained in this treatment statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) to other treatments. Moreover, Hyponex medium supplemented with P also stimulated the maximum mean number of 5.7 shoots per explant which also showed statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) when compared to other treatments. The results of growth of Dendrobium Judy Rutz seedlings indicated the medium supplemented with 100 mL/L PE enhanced the maximum fresh and dry weigh per explants with significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) in fresh weight from other treatments including the control medium without any organic supplementation. However, the dry weight was not significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from medium supplemented with SM and P. There was multiple shoots induction in all media with or without organic supplementation ranging from 2.6 to 3 shoots per explants. The maximum shoot height was also obtained in the seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with PE while the longest root length was found in medium supplemented with SM.

Keywords: fresh weight, in vitro propagation, orchid, plant height

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2301 A Study on Fundamental Problems for Small and Medium Agricultural Machinery Industries in Central Region Area

Authors: P. Thepnarintra, S. Nikorn

Abstract:

Agricultural machinery industry plays an important role in the industrial development especially the production industry of the country. There has been continuing development responding to the higher demand of the production. However, the problem in agricultural machinery production still exists. Thus, the purpose of this research is to investigate problems on fundamental factors of industry based on the entrepreneurs’ point of view. The focus was on the small and medium size industry receiving a factory license typed number 0660 from the Department of Industrial Works. The investigation was on the comparison between the management of the small and medium size agricultural industry in 3 provinces in the central region of Thailand. Population in this study consisted of 189 company managers or managing directors, of which 101 were from the small size and 88 were from the medium size industry. The data were analyzed to find percentage, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation with independent sample T-test at the statistical significance .05. The results showed that the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers in the central region of Thailand reported high problems in every aspect. When compared the problems on basic factors in running the business, it was found that there was no difference statistically at .05 in managing of the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers on the aspect of policy and services of the government. The problems reported by the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers were the services on public tap water and the problem on politic and stability of the country.

Keywords: agricultural machinery, manufacturers, problems, on running the business

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2300 Culture of Manager of a Medium or Small Enterprises

Authors: Omar Bendjimaa, Karzabi Abdelatif

Abstract:

Small and medium enterprises have witnessed several developments in recent years thanks to the policies and programs of support given by the state, and that is due to their importance in local and national development. Nevertheless, the success and development of these firms depends on a number of factors, especially the human element, for instance, the culture of the manager has its origin in the culture of the community and is of crucial influence in these firms. In fact, this culture is nothing more than a set of values, perceptions, beliefs, symbols and practices repeated, in addition to the knowledge it has received from the readings and the modern means of education. All these factors have an impact on the effectiveness of governance, its resolutions, instructions and performance of its function as a manager of a medium or small enterprise is inevitably affected by these cultural values, it is the driving force, the leader, and the observer at the same time.

Keywords: small and medium enterprises, the culture of the manager, the culture of the community, values, perceptions, beliefs, symbols, performance

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2299 The 'Human Medium' in Communicating the National Image: A Case Study of Chinese Middle-Class Tourists Visiting Japan

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In recent years, the prosperity of mass tourism in China has accelerated the breadth and depth of direct communication between countries, and the national image has been placed in a new communication context. Outbound tourists are not only directly involved in the formation of the national image, but are also the most direct medium and the most active symbol representing the national image. This study uses Chinese middle-class tourists visiting Japan as a case study, and analyzes, through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, the communication function of the national image transmitted by 'human medium' in tourism activities. It also explores the 'human medium' in the era of mass tourism. This study hopes to build a bridge for tourism research and national image and media studies. It will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for promoting the national image, strengthening exchanges between tourists and local populations, and expanding the tourism market in the future.

Keywords: human medium, national image, communication, Chinese middle class, outbound tourists

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2298 Multiple Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) Tissue Culture

Authors: Titin Handayani, Endang Yuniastuti

Abstract:

Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) is a potential plant contain mainly oil seeds that can be used as a source of alternative bioenergy and medicine. The main problem of kepuh cultivation is the limited supply of seed plants. Seeds development were very easy, but to produce fruit have to wait for approximately 5 years. The objective of this research was to obtain kepuh plants through direct in vitro regeneration. Hypocotyls and shoot tips explants were excised from sterile germinated seedlings and placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that shoots induction from the apical and axillary buds on MS medium + 1.5 and 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 and 1 mg/L IAA was growth very slowly. Increasing of BAP concentrations was increased shoot formation. The first subcultures were increased the rate of shoots growth on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L IAA. The second of shoots subculture on MS medium + 1.5 to 2 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L IAA was increased the number of shoots up to 4.8 in average. The best medium of shoots elongation were MS + 1 mgL-1 kinetin + 5 mg/L GA3. The highest percentage of roots (65%) occurred on MS medium with 5 mg/L IBA which average number of roots was 3.1. High percentages of survival and plants of normal appearance were obtained after five weeks of acclimatization.

Keywords: Kepuh, Sterculia foetida L, shoot multiplication, rooting, acclimatization, bioenergy, medicine

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2297 Business Continuity Opportunities in the Cloud a Small to Medium Business Perspective

Authors: Donald Zullick, Cihan Varol

Abstract:

This research paper begins with a look at current work in business continuity as it relates to the cloud and small to medium business (SMB). While cloud services are an emerging paradigm that is quickly making an impact on business, there has been no substantive research applied to SMB. Seeing this lapse, we have taken a fusion of continuity and cloud research with application to the SMB market. It is an initial reflection with base framework guidelines as a starting point for implementation. In this approach, our research ties together existing work and fill the gap with an SMB outlook.

Keywords: business continuity, cloud services, medium size business, risk assessment, small business

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2296 In Vitro Micropropagation of Rosa damascena Mill

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimzadeh, Sattar Malekian, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Roses are of main ornamental flowers worldwide. Rosa damascena Mill., besides being an ornamental plant, has major pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance applications. Traditional propagation methods of the plant are using suckers, cutting and grafting. In the present experiment, we used the different explants (leaf section, petioles and nodal cutting) for the optimization of this high-valued ornamental from a native clonal plant. Diverse explants were acquired from mature plants during the growing season and were planted on MS medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations. 70% alcohol and sodium hypochloride were utilized for the surface sterilization. For proliferation, BAP and BA (1-5 mg L-1) and NAA (1-2 mg L-1) were tested. The highest proliferation rate was afforded from MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 BA and 5 mg L-1 BAP. Callogenesis from leaf samples and petioles was the best with 1/2 MS medium enriched with 1mg L-1 BAP and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D. Rooting was occurred with the highest frequency in a medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 IBA.

Keywords: Rosa damascene, micropropagation, petiole, IBA, BAP

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2295 Regeneration of Plantlets via Direct Somatic Embryogenesis from Different Explants of Murraya koenigii

Authors: Nisha Khatik, Ramesh Joshi

Abstract:

An in vitro plant regeneration system was developed via direct somatic embryogenesis from different seedling explants of an important medicinal plant Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng. Cotyledons (COT), Hypocotyle (HYP)(10 to 15 mm) and Root (RT) segments (10 to 20 mm) were excised from 60 days old seedlings as explants. The somatic embryos induction was achieved on MS basal medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP 1.33 to 8.40 µM and TDZ 1.08 to 9.82 µM. The globular embryos originated from cut ends and entire surface of the root, hypocotyle explants and margins of cotyledons within 30-40days. The percentage of somatic embryos induction per explant was significantly higher in HYP explants (94.21±5.77%) in the MS basal medium supplemented with 6.20 µM BAP and 8.64 µM TDZ. The highest rate of conversion of torpedo, heart and cotyledonary stages from globular stage was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 8.64 µM TDZ. The matured somatic embryos were transferred to the MS basal medium without PGRs. Highest 88% of the matured embryos were germinated on transfer to the PGR free medium where they grew for a further 3-4 weeks. Out of seventy six hardened plants seventy (92%) plantlets were found healthy under field conditions.

Keywords: Murraya koenigii, somatic embryogenesis, thidiazuron, regeneration, rutaceae

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2294 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

Abstract:

Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
2293 Mueller Matrix Polarimetry for Analysis Scattering Biological Fluid Media

Authors: S. Cherif, A. Medjahed, M. Bouafia, A. Manallah

Abstract:

A light wave is characterized by 4 characteristics: its amplitude, its frequency, its phase and the direction of polarization of its luminous vector (the electric field). It is in this last characteristic that we will be interested. The polarization of the light was introduced in order to describe the vectorial behavior of the light; it describes the way in which the electric field evolves in a point of space. Our work consists in studying diffusing mediums. Different types of biological fluids were selected to study the evolution of each with increasing scattering power of the medium, and in the same time to make a comparison between them. When crossing these mediums, the light undergoes modifications and/or deterioration of its initial state of polarization. This phenomenon is related to the properties of the medium, the idea is to compare the characteristics of the entering and outgoing light from the studied medium by a white light. The advantage of this model is that it is experimentally accessible workable intensity measurements with CCD sensors and allows operation in 2D. The latter information is used to discriminate some physical properties of the studied areas. We chose four types of milk to study the evolution of each with increasing scattering power of the medium.

Keywords: light polarization, Mueller matrix, Mueller images, diffusing medium, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
2292 Biomass Enhancement of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Culture in Temporary Immersion System (TIS) RITA® Bioreactor Optimized in Two Different Immersion Periods

Authors: Agustine Melviana, Rizkita Esyanti

Abstract:

Stevia plant contains steviol glycosides which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sucrose. However in Indonesia, conventional (in vivo) propagation of Stevia rebaudiana was not effective due to a poor result. Therefore, alternative methods to propagate S. rebaudiana plants is needed, one of it is using in vitro method. Multiplication with a large quantity of stevia biomass in relatively short period can be conducted by using TIS RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immersion System). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion period of the medium on growth and the medium bioconversion into the production of shoot biomass. The study was conducted to determine the effect of different intensity period of medium to enhance biomass of stevia shoots. Shoot culture of S. rebaudiana was grown in full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm Kinetin. RITA® bioreactors were set up with two different immersion periods, 15 min (RITA® 15) and 30 min (RITA® 30), scheduled every 6 hours and incubated for 21 days. The result indicated that immersion period affected the biomass and growth rate (µ). Thirty-minutes immersion showed greater percentage of shoot multiplication (93.44 ± 0.83%), percentage of leaf growth (85.24 ± 5.99%), growth rate (0.042 ± 0.001 g/day), and productivity (0.066 g/L medium/day) compared to that immersed in RITA® 15 min (76.90 ± 4.85%; 79.73 ± 7.76; 0.045 ± 0.004 g/day, and 0.045 g/L medium/day respectively). Enhancement of biomass in RITA® 30 reached 1,702 ± 0,114 gr, whereas in RITA® 15 only 0,953 ± 0,093 gr. Additionally, the pattern of sucrose, mineral, and inorganic compounds consumption followed the growth of plant biomass for both systems. In conclusion, the bioconversion efficiency from medium to biomass in RITA® 30 is better than RITA® 15.

Keywords: intensity period, shoot culture, Stevia rebaudiana, TIS RITA®

Procedia PDF Downloads 179