Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4771

Search results for: chemical synthesis

4771 Synthesis of Na-LSX Zeolite and Hydrosodalite from Polish Fly Ashes

Authors: Barbara Bialecka, Zdzislaw Adamczyk, Magdalena Cempa


In the work, the results of investigations into the hydrothermal zeolitization of fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Station have been presented. The chemical composition of the ash was determined by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), whereas the phases of both fly ash and the products after synthesis were identified using microscopic observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as well as electron scanning microscopy with measurements of the chemical compositions in micro areas (SEM/EDS). The synthesis was carried out with various concentrations of NaOH solution (3M, 4M and 6M) in the following conditions: synthesis temperature – 80ᵒC, synthesis time – 16 hours, volume of NaOH solution – 350ml, fly ash mass – 14g. The main chemical components of fly ash were SiO₂ and Al₂O₃, the contents of which reached 51.62 and 28.14%mas., respectively. The input ash contained mainly such phases as mullite, quarz, magnetite, and glass. The research results indicate that the phase composition of products after zeolitization was differentiated. The material after synthesis in 3M NaOH solution was found to contain mullite, quarz, magnetite, and Na-LSX zeolite. The products of synthesis in 4M NaOH solution were very similar to those in 3M solution (mullite, quarz, magnetite, Na-LSX zeolite), but they additionally contained hydrosodalite. The material after synthesis in 6M NaOH solution contains mullite, quarz, magnetite (similarly to synthesis in 3M and 4M NaOH solition) and additionally hydrosodalite. Therefore, the products of synthesis contain relic components from the fly ash input sample in the form of mullite, quarz, and magnetite, as well as new phases, which are Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite. It should be noted that the products of synthesis in the case of 4M NaOH solution contained both new phases (Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite), while the products from the extreme concentration of NaOH solutions (3M and 6M) contained only one of them. Observations in the scanning electron microscope revealed the new phases’ morphology. It was found that Na-LSX zeolite formed cubic crystals, whereas hydrosodalite formed characteristic aggregations. The results of investigations into the chemical composition in the micro area of phase grains in the products after synthesis reveal some dependencies, among others a characteristic increase in the content of sodium, related to the increased concentration of NaOH solution.

Keywords: Na-LSX, fly ash, hydrosodalite, zeolite

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4770 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydrosodalite by Using Ultrasounds

Authors: B. Białecka, Z. Adamczyk, M. Cempa


The use of ultrasounds in zeolization of fly ash can increase the efficiency of this process. The molar ratios of the reagents, as well as the time and temperature of the synthesis, are the main parameters determining the type and properties of the zeolite formed. The aim of the work was to create hydrosodalite in a short time (8h), with low NaOH concentration (3 M) and in low temperature (80°C). A zeolite material contained in fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Plant was subjected to hydrothermal alkaline synthesis. The phase composition of the ash consisted mainly of glass, mullite, quartz, and hematite. The dominant chemical components of the ash were SiO₂ (over 50%mas.) and Al₂O₃ (more than 28%mas.), whereas the contents of the remaining components, except Fe₂O₃ (6.34%mas.), did not exceed 4% mas. The hydrothermal synthesis of the zeolite material was carried out in the following conditions: 3M-solution of NaOH, synthesis time – 8 hours, 40 kHz-frequency ultrasounds during the first two hours of synthesis. The mineral components of the input ash as well as product after synthesis were identified in microscopic observations, in transmitted light, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM/EDS). The chemical composition of the input ash was identified by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The obtained material apart from phases found in the initial fly ash sample, also contained new phases, i.e., hydrosodalite and NaP-type zeolite. The chemical composition in micro areas of grains indicated their diversity: i) SiO₂ content was in the range 30-59%mas., ii) Al₂O₃ content was in the range 24-35%mas., iii) Na₂O content was in the range 6-15%mas. This clearly indicates that hydrosodalite forms hypertrophies with NaP type zeolite as well as relict grains of fly ash. A small amount of potassium in the examined grains is noteworthy, which may indicate the substitution of sodium with potassium. This is confirmed by the high value of the correlation coefficient between these two components.

Keywords: fly ash, hydrosodalite, ultrasounds, zeolite

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4769 Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

Authors: Illyas Isa, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Norhayati Hashim


We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.

Keywords: chemical reduction, electrochemical, graphene, green synthesis

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4768 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash


The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

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4767 Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands

Authors: P. Mirahmadpour, M. H. Banitaba, D. Nematollahi


The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylate, coordination polymer, copper, 2, 2’-thiodiacetic acid

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4766 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar


This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

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4765 Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature

Authors: Enayat Enayati, Reza Behtash


The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.

Keywords: catalyst, converter, poisoning, temperature

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4764 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate


Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: cytotoxic, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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4763 Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Zinc Oxide and Silver Oxide Nonparticipants

Authors: Nassima Khanfri, Ali Boucenna


As metallic nanoparticles are increasingly used in many economic sectors, there is interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods of synthesizing nanoparticales are chemical and physical approaches that are often expensive and potentially harmful to the environment. The present study is devoted to the possibility of the synthesis of silver nanoparticales and zinc oxide from silver nitrate and zinc acetate using basilica plant extracts. The products obtained are characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV/V, XRD, MEB-EDX, FTIR, and RAMAN. These analyzes confirm the crystalline nature of AgNps and ZnONps. These crystalline powders having effective biological activities regarding the antioxidant and antibacterial, which could be used in several biological applications.

Keywords: green synthesis, bio-reduction, metals nan Oparticales, Plants extracts

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4762 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Different Types of Plants

Authors: Khamael Abualnaja, Hala M. Abo-Dief


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the subject of important recent interest, present in a large range of applications such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, we describe an effective and environmental-friendly technique of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using silver nitrate solution and the extract of mint, basil, orange peel and Tangerines peel which used as reducing agents. Silver Nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed the average particle size of mint, basil, orange peel, Tangerines peel are 30, 20, 12, 10 nm respectively. This is for the first time that any plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, scanning electron microscopy, plants

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4761 Biobased Polyurethane Derived from Transesterified Castor Oil: Synthesis and Charecterization

Authors: Sonalee Das, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak


Recent years has witnessed the increasing demand for natural resources and products in polyurethane synthesis because of global warming, sustainable development and oil crisis. For this purpose, different plant oils such as soybean oil, castor oil and linseed oil are extensively used. Moreover, the isocyanate used for the synthesis of polyurethane is derived from petroleum resources. In this present work attempts have been made for the successful synthesis of biobased isocyanate from castor oil with partially biobased isocyanate in presence of catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL). The goal of the present study was to investigate the thermal, mechanical, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of castor oil modification. The transesterified polyol shows broad and higher hydroxyl value as compared to castor oil which was confirmed by FTIR studies. The FTIR studies also revealed the successful synthesis of bio based polyurethane by showing characteristic peaks at 3300cm-1, 1715cm-1 and 1532cm-1 respectively. The TGA results showed three step degradation mechanism for the synthesized polyurethane from modified and unmodified castor oil. However, the modified polyurethane exhibited higher degradation temperature as compared to unmodified one. The mechanical properties also demonstrated higher tensile strength for modified polyurethane as compared to unmodified one.

Keywords: castor oil, partially biobased Isocyanate, polyurethane synthesis, FTIR

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4760 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas


Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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4759 Precursor Synthesis of Carbon Materials with Different Aggregates Morphologies

Authors: Nikolai A. Khlebnikov, Vladimir N. Krasilnikov, Evgenii V. Polyakov, Anastasia A. Maltceva


Carbon materials with advanced surfaces are widely used both in modern industry and in environmental protection. The physical-chemical nature of these materials is determined by the morphology of primary atomic and molecular carbon structures, which are the basis for synthesizing the following materials: zero-dimensional (fullerenes), one-dimensional (fiber, tubes), two-dimensional (graphene) carbon nanostructures, three-dimensional (multi-layer graphene, graphite, foams) with unique physical-chemical and functional properties. Experience shows that the microscopic morphological level is the basis for the creation of the next mesoscopic morphological level. The dependence of the morphology on the chemical way and process prehistory (crystallization, colloids formation, liquid crystal state and other) is the peculiarity of the last called level. These factors determine the consumer properties of carbon materials, such as specific surface area, porosity, chemical resistance in corrosive environments, catalytic and adsorption activities. Based on the developed ideology of thin precursor synthesis, the authors discuss one of the approaches of the porosity control of carbon-containing materials with a given aggregates morphology. The low-temperature thermolysis of precursors in a gas environment of a given composition is the basis of the above-mentioned idea. The processes of carbothermic precursor synthesis of two different compounds: tungsten carbide WC:nC and zinc oxide ZnO:nC containing an impurity phase in the form of free carbon were selected as subjects of the research. In the first case, the transition metal (tungsten) forming carbides was the object of the synthesis. In the second case, there was selected zinc that does not form carbides. The synthesis of both kinds of transition metals compounds was conducted by the method of precursor carbothermic synthesis from the organic solution. ZnO:nC composites were obtained by thermolysis of succinate Zn(OO(CH2)2OO), formate glycolate Zn(HCOO)(OCH2CH2O)1/2, glycerolate Zn(OCH2CHOCH2OH), and tartrate Zn(OOCCH(OH)CH(OH)COO). WC:nC composite was synthesized from ammonium paratungstate and glycerol. In all cases, carbon structures that are specific for diamond- like carbon forms appeared on the surface of WC and ZnO particles after the heat treatment. Tungsten carbide and zinc oxide were removed from the composites by selective chemical dissolution preserving the amorphous carbon phase. This work presents the results of investigating WC:nC and ZnO:nC composites and carbon nanopowders with tubular, tape, plate and onion morphologies of aggregates that are separated by chemical dissolution of WC and ZnO from the composites by the following methods: SEM, TEM, XPA, Raman spectroscopy, and BET. The connection between the carbon morphology under the conditions of synthesis and chemical nature of the precursor and the possibility of regulation of the morphology with the specific surface area up to 1700-2000 m2/g of carbon-structured materials are discussed.

Keywords: carbon morphology, composite materials, precursor synthesis, tungsten carbide, zinc oxide

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4758 Facile Synthesis and Structure Characterization of Europium (III) Tungstate Nanoparticles

Authors: Mehdi Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi


Taguchi robust design as a statistical method was applied for optimization of the process parameters in order to tunable, simple and fast synthesis of europium (III) tungstate nanoparticles. Europium (III) tungstate nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical precipitation reaction involving direct addition of europium ion aqueous solution to the tungstate reagent solved in aqueous media. Effects of some synthesis procedure variables i.e., europium and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of cation reagent addition, and temperature of reaction reactor on the particle size of europium (III) tungstate nanoparticles were studied experimentally in order to tune particle size of europium (III) tungstate. Analysis of variance shows the importance of controlling tungstate concentration, cation feeding flow rate and temperature for preparation of europium (III) tungstate nanoparticles by the proposed chemical precipitation reaction. Finally, europium (III) tungstate nanoparticles were synthesized at the optimum conditions of the proposed method and the morphology and chemical composition of the prepared nano-material were characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and fluorescence.

Keywords: europium (III) tungstate, nano-material, particle size control, procedure optimization

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4757 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani


The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, antibacterial activity, FTIR, TEM, SEM

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4756 Effect of Oil Shale Alkylresorcinols on Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Polycondensation Resins

Authors: Ana Jurkeviciute, Larisa Grigorieva, Ksenia Moskvinа


Oil shale alkylresorcinols are formed as a by-product in oil shale processing. They are unique raw material for chemical industry. Polycondensation resins obtaining is one of the worthwhile directions of oil shale alkylresorcinols use. These resins are widely applied in many branches of industry such as wood-working, metallurgic, tire, rubber products, construction etc. Possibility of resins obtaining using overall alkylresorcinols will allow to cheapen finished products on their base and to widen the range of resins offered on the market. Synthesis of polycondensation resins on the basis of alkylresorcinols was conducted by several methods in the process of investigations. In the formulations a part of resorcinol was replaced by fractions of oil shale alkylresorcinols containing different amount of 5-methylresorcinol (40-80 mass %). Some resins were modified by aromatic alkene at the stage of synthesis. Thermal stability and degradation behavior of resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method both in an inert nitrogen environment and in an oxidative environment of air. TGA integral curves were obtained and processed in dynamic mode for interval of temperatures from 25 to 830 °C. Rate of temperature rise was 5°C/min, gas flow rate - 50 ml/min. Resins power for carbonization was evaluated by carbon residue. Physical-chemical parameters of the resins were determined. Content of resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinol not reacted in the process of synthesis were determined by gas chromatography method.

Keywords: resorcinol, oil shale alkylresorcinols, aromatic alkene, polycondensation resins, modified resins

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4755 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

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4754 Quest for an Efficient Green Multifunctional Agent for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles with Highly Specified Structural Properties

Authors: Niharul Alam


The development of energy efficient, economic and eco-friendly synthetic protocols for metal nanoparticles (NPs) with tailor-made structural properties and biocompatibility is a highly cherished goal for researchers working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this context, green chemistry is highly relevant and the 12 principles of Green Chemistry can be explored to develop such synthetic protocols which are practically implementable. One of the most promising green chemical synthetic methods which can serve the purpose is biogenic synthetic protocol, which utilizes non-toxic multifunctional reactants derived from natural, biological sources ranging from unicellular organisms to higher plants that are often characterized as “medicinal plants”. Over the past few years, a plethora of medicinal plants have been explored as the source of this kind of multifunctional green chemical agents. In this presentation, we focus on the syntheses of stable monometallic Au and Ag NPs and also bimetallic Au/Ag alloy NPs with highly efficient catalytic property using aqueous extract of leaves of Indian Curry leaf plat (Murraya koenigii Spreng.; Fam. Rutaceae) as green multifunctional agents which is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine and cuisine. We have also studied the interaction between the synthesized metal NPs and surface-adsorbed fluorescent moieties, quercetin and quercetin glycoside which are its chemical constituents. This helped us to understand the surface property of the metal NPs synthesized by this plant based biogenic route and to predict a plausible mechanistic pathway which may help in fine-tuning green chemical methods for the controlled synthesis of various metal NPs in future. We observed that simple experimental parameters e.g. pH and temperature of the reaction medium, concentration of multifunctional agent and precursor metal ions play important role in the biogenic synthesis of Au NPs with finely tuned structures.

Keywords: green multifunctional agent, metal nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis

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4753 Synthesis and Preparation of Carbon Ferromagnetic Nanocontainers for Cancer Therapy

Authors: L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, Z. Kamiński, G. Raniszewski, J. Fraczyk, L. Pietrzak


In the article the development and demonstration of method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nano containers. Methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers includes: the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical and physical characterization, increasing the content of ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Folic acid is ligand of folate receptors which is overexpresion in tumor cells. The presence of ligand should ensure the specificity of the interaction between ferromagnetic nanocontainers and tumor cells. The chemical functionalization contains several step: oxidation reaction, transformation of carboxyl groups into more reactive ester or amide groups, incorporation of spacer molecule (linker), attaching folic acid. Activation of carboxylic groups was prepared with triazine coupling reagent (preparation of superactive ester attached on the nanocontainers). The spacer molecules were designed and synthesized. In order to ensure biocompatibillity of linkers they were built from amino acids or peptides. Spacer molecules were synthesized using the SPPS method. Synthesis was performed on 2-Chlorotrityl resin. The linker important feature is its length. Due to that fact synthesis of peptide linkers containing from 2 to 4 -Ala- residues was carried out. Independent synthesis of the conjugate of foilic acid with 6-aminocaproic acid was made. Final step of synthesis was connecting conjugat with spacer molecules and attaching it on the ferromagnetic nanocontainer surface. This article contains also information about special CVD and microvave plasma system to produce nanotubes and ferromagnetic nanocontainers. The first tests in the device for hyperthermal RF generator will be presented. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz.

Keywords: synthesis of carbon nanotubes, hyperthermia, ligands, carbon nanotubes

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4752 Introducing α-Oxoester (COBz) as a Protecting Group for Carbohydrates

Authors: Atul Kumar, Veeranjaneyulu Gannedi, Qazi Naveed Ahmed


Oligosaccharides, which are essential to all cellular organisms, play vital roles in cell recognition, signaling, and are involved in a broad range of biological processes. The chemical synthesis of carbohydrates represents a powerful tool to provide homogeneous glycans. In carbohydrate synthesis, the major concern is the orthogonal protection of hydroxyl groups that can be unmasked independently. Classical protecting groups include benzyl ethers (Bn), which are normally cleaved through hydrogenolysis or by means of metal reduction, and acetate (Ac), benzoate (Bz) or pivaloate esters, which are removed using base promoted hydrolysis. In present work a series of α-Oxoester (COBz) protected saccharides, with divergent base sensitivity profiles against benzoyl (Bz) and acetyl (Ac), were designed and KHSO₅/CH₃COCl in methanol was identified as an easy, mild, selective and efficient deprotecting reagent for their removal in the perspective of carbohydrate synthesis. Timely monitoring of later reagent was advantageous in establishing both sequential as well as simultaneous deprotecting of COBz, Bz, and Ac. The salient feature of our work is its ease to generate different acceptors using designed monosaccharides. In summary, we demonstrated α-Oxoester (COBz) as a new protecting group for carbohydrates and the application of this group for the synthesis of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor are in progress.

Keywords: α-Oxoester, oligosaccharides, new protecting group, acceptor synthesis, glycosylation

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4751 Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Pesaru Vigneshwar Reddy, Parvathaneni Pavan


Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.

Keywords: energy, e-factor, carbon foot print, micro-wave, sono-chemistry, advancement

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4750 Synthesis of Cardanol Oil Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis

Authors: Sylvain Caillol


Uncertainty in terms of price and availability of petroleum, in addition to global political and institutional tendencies toward the principles of sustainable development, urge chemical industry to a sustainable chemistry and particularly the use of renewable resources in order to synthesize biobased chemicals and products. We propose a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol in one or two-steps syntheses. Cardanol, which is a natural phenol, is issued from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL), a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is particularly interesting to replace fossil aromatic groups in polymers and materials. Our team studied various routes for the synthesis of cardanol-derived biobased building blocks used after that in polymer syntheses. For example, we used phenolation to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (meth)acrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (meth)acrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

Keywords: cardanol, cashew nutshell liquid, epoxy, vinyl ester, latex, emulsion

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4749 Green Electrochemical Nitration of Bioactive Compounds: Biological Evaluation with Molecular Modelling

Authors: Sara Torabi, Sadegh Khazalpour, Mahdi Jamshidi


Nitro aromatic compounds are valuable materials because of their applications in the preparation of chemical intermediates for the synthesis of dyes, plastics, perfumes, energetic materials, and pharmaceuticals. Chemical and electrochemical procedures are reported for nitration of aromatic compounds. Flavonoid derivatives are present in many vegetables and fruits and are constituent of many common pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. Electrochemistry provides very versatile means for the electrosynthesis, mechanistic and kinetic studies. To the best of our knowledge, and despite the importance of these compounds in numerous scientific fields, there are no reports on the electrochemical nitration of Quercetin derivatives. Herein, we describe a green electrochemical synthesis of a nitro compound. In this work, electrochemical oxidation of Quercetin has been studied in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile in acetate buffer solution (c = 0.2 M, pH = 6.0), by means of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of produced o-benzoquinones in Michael reaction with nitrite ion (in the divided cell) to form the corresponding nitro diol (EC mechanism). The purity of product and characterization was done using ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The presented strategies use a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. Ethanol as cosolvent was also used in the previous studies because of its low cost, safety, easy availability, recyclability, bioproductability, and biodegradability. These strategies represent a one-pot and facile process for the synthesis of nitro compound in high yield and purity under green conditions.

Keywords: electrochemical synthesis, green chemistry, cyclic voltammetry, molecular docking

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4748 Pd(II) Complex with 4-Bromo-2,6-Bis-Hydroxymethyl-Phenol and Nikotinamid: Synthesis and Spectral Analysis

Authors: Özlen Altun, Zeliha Yoruç


In the present study, the reactions involving 4-Bromo-2,6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol (BBHMP) and nikotinamide (NA) in the presence Pd (II) ion were investigated. Optimum conditions for the reactions were established as pH 7 and λ = 450 nm. According to absorbance measurements, the mole ratio of BBHMP : NA : Pd2+ was found as 1 : 2 : 2. As a result of physico-chemical, spectrophotometric and thermal analysis results, the reactions of BBHMP and NA with Pd (II) is complexation reactions and one molecule BBHMP and two molecules of NA react with two molecules of metal (II) ion.

Keywords: 4-Bromo-2, 6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol, nicotinamide, Pd(II), spectral analysis, synthesis

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4747 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: boron-gypsum, hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borate, solution density

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4746 Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material

Authors: Shrikaant Kulkarni, Akshata Naik Nimbalkar


In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.

Keywords: bifunctional, next generation material, Co3O4, XRD

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4745 Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation Synthesis of TiO2 nanotube as Perspective Electrode for the Detection of Phenyl Hydrazine

Authors: Sadia Ameen, M. Nazim, Hyumg-Kee Seo, Hyung-Shik Shin


TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were grown on titanium (Ti) foil substrate by electrochemical anodic oxidation and utilized as working electrode to fabricate a highly sensitive and reproducible chemical sensor for the detection of harmful phenyl hydrazine chemical. The fabricated chemical sensor based on TiO2 NT arrays electrode exhibited high sensitivity of ~40.9 µ and detection limit of ~0.22 µM with short response time (10s).

Keywords: TiO2 NT, phenyl hydrazine, chemical sensor, sensitivity, electrocatalytic properties

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4744 Sensor Monitoring of the Concentrations of Different Gases Present in Synthesis of Ammonia Based on Multi-Scale Entropy and Multivariate Statistics

Authors: S. Aouabdi, M. Taibi


The supervision of chemical processes is the subject of increased development because of the increasing demands on reliability and safety. An important aspect of the safe operation of chemical process is the earlier detection of (process faults or other special events) and the location and removal of the factors causing such events, than is possible by conventional limit and trend checks. With the aid of process models, estimation and decision methods it is possible to also monitor hundreds of variables in a single operating unit, and these variables may be recorded hundreds or thousands of times per day. In the absence of appropriate processing method, only limited information can be extracted from these data. Hence, a tool is required that can project the high-dimensional process space into a low-dimensional space amenable to direct visualization, and that can also identify key variables and important features of the data. Our contribution based on powerful techniques for development of a new monitoring method based on multi-scale entropy MSE in order to characterize the behaviour of the concentrations of different gases present in synthesis and soft sensor based on PCA is applied to estimate these variables.

Keywords: ammonia synthesis, concentrations of different gases, soft sensor, multi-scale entropy, multivarite statistics

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4743 Thermodynamic Attainable Region for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Synthesis Gas

Authors: Thulane Paepae, Tumisang Seodigeng


This paper demonstrates the use of a method of synthesizing process flowsheets using a graphical tool called the GH-plot and in particular, to look at how it can be used to compare the reactions of a combined simultaneous process with regard to their thermodynamics. The technique uses fundamental thermodynamic principles to allow the mass, energy and work balances locate the attainable region for chemical processes in a reactor. This provides guidance on what design decisions would be best suited to developing new processes that are more effective and make lower demands on raw material and energy usage.

Keywords: attainable regions, dimethyl ether, optimal reaction network, GH Space

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4742 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri


We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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