Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1753

Search results for: nutrient recovery

1753 A Dynamic Model for Circularity Assessment of Nutrient Recovery from Domestic Sewage

Authors: Anurag Bhambhani, Jan Peter Van Der Hoek, Zoran Kapelan

Abstract:

The food system depends on the availability of Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen (N). Growing population, depleting Phosphorus reserves and energy-intensive industrial nitrogen fixation are threats to their future availability. Recovering P and N from domestic sewage water offers a solution. Recovered P and N can be applied to agricultural land, replacing virgin P and N. Thus, recovery from sewage water offers a solution befitting a circular economy. To ensure minimum waste and maximum resource efficiency a circularity assessment method is crucial to optimize nutrient flows and minimize losses. Material Circularity Indicator (MCI) is a useful method to quantify the circularity of materials. It was developed for materials that remain within the market and recently extended to include biotic materials that may be composted or used for energy recovery after end-of-use. However, MCI has not been used in the context of nutrient recovery. Besides, MCI is time-static, i.e., it cannot account for dynamic systems such as the terrestrial nutrient cycles. Nutrient application to agricultural land is a highly dynamic process wherein flows and stocks change with time. The rate of recycling of nutrients in nature can depend on numerous factors such as prevailing soil conditions, local hydrology, the presence of animals, etc. Therefore, a dynamic model of nutrient flows with indicators is needed for the circularity assessment. A simple substance flow model of P and N will be developed with the help of flow equations and transfer coefficients that incorporate the nutrient recovery step along with the agricultural application, the volatilization and leaching processes, plant uptake and subsequent animal and human uptake. The model is then used for calculating the proportions of linear and restorative flows (coming from reused/recycled sources). The model will simulate the adsorption process based on the quantity of adsorbent and nutrient concentration in the water. Thereafter, the application of the adsorbed nutrients to agricultural land will be simulated based on adsorbate release kinetics, local soil conditions, hydrology, vegetation, etc. Based on the model, the restorative nutrient flow (returning to the sewage plant following human consumption) will be calculated. The developed methodology will be applied to a case study of resource recovery from wastewater. In the aforementioned case study located in Italy, biochar or zeolite is to be used for recovery of P and N from domestic sewage through adsorption and thereafter, used as a slow-release fertilizer in agriculture. Using this model, information regarding the efficiency of nutrient recovery and application can be generated. This can help to optimize the recovery process and application of the nutrients. Consequently, this will help to optimize nutrient recovery and application and reduce the dependence of the food system on the virgin extraction of P and N.

Keywords: circular economy, dynamic substance flow, nutrient cycles, resource recovery from water

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1752 The Initiator Matters in Service Co-Recovery: Investigation on Attribution and Satisfaction

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

In the literature, the positive effect of service co-recovery has been evidenced, and which customers’ attribution is the key successful factor has also been indicated. There is also literature investigating on initiation of co-recovery for finding out the superior way to co-recovery, and indicating co-recovery initiated by employees causes better effect of co-recovery. This research postulates the consequences of co-recovery by different initiators affect customers’ attribution and the resultant results. Thus, this research uses a 3x2 factorial design to investigate the impact of initiator of co-recovery and consequence of co-recovery on customers’ attribution and post-recovery satisfaction. The results show initiation of co-recovery has a significant influence on internal attribution, and the employee initiator causes the highest internal attribution. The consequences of co-recovery interact with initiators of co-recovery on internal attribution significantly. Moreover, internal attribution significantly affects post-recovery satisfaction.

Keywords: service co-recovery, initiation of co-recovery, attribution, post-recovery satisfaction

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1751 Nutrient Foramina in the Shaft of Long Bones of Upper Limb

Authors: Madala Venkateswara Rao

Abstract:

The major blood supply to the long bones occurs through the nutrient arteries, which enters through the nutrient foramina. This is the study of nutrient Foramina in the shaft of upper limb long bones taken from the department of Anatomy at Narayana medical college nellore. Nutrient foramina play an important role in nutrition and growth of the bones. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, 'to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee' but they are very variable in position. Their number, location, direction & its importance in the growing end of long bones were studied in the long bones of upper limb. The present study has variations in the position & direction of long bones especially in the radius & ulna, as most of the nutrient foramina are found in anterior surface of upper 1/3rd and middle 1/3rd of these bones. The study of nutrient foramina is not only of academic interest but also in medico-legal practice in relation to their position. Careful observation has also been made on the position of nutrient foramina in relation to upper end of long bones. This study also gives importance of length long bones to know the height of an individual. With the knowledge of variations in the nutrient foramen, placement of internal fixation devices can be appropriately done.

Keywords: nutrient artery, nutrient foramina, shaft of long bones, upper limb bones

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1750 Repurposing Dairy Manure Solids as a Non- Polluting Fertilizer and the Effects on Nutrient Recovery in Tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum)

Authors: Devon Simpson

Abstract:

Recycled Manure Solids (RMS), attained via centrifugation from Canadian dairy farms, were synthesized into a non-polluting fertilizer by bonding micronutrients (Fe, Zn, and Mn) to cellulose fibers and then assessed for the effectiveness of nutrient recovery in tomatoes. Manure management technology is critical for improving the sustainability of agroecosystems and has the capacity to offer a truly circular economy. The ability to add value to manure byproducts offers an opportunity for economic benefits while generating tenable solutions to livestock waste. The dairy industry is under increasing pressure from new environmental protections such as government restrictions on manure applications, limitations on herd size as well as increased product demand from a growing population. Current systems use RMS as bedding, so there is a lack of data pertaining to RMS use as a fertilizer. This is because of nutrient distribution, where most nutrients are retained in the liquid effluent of the solid-liquid separation. A literature review on the physical and chemical properties of dairy manure further revealed more data for raw manure than centrifuged solids. This research offers an innovative perspective and a new avenue of exploration in the use of RMS. Manure solids in this study were obtained directly from dairy farms in Salmon Arm and Abbotsford, British Columbia, and underwent physical, chemical, and biological characterizations pre- and post-synthesis processing. Samples were sent to A&L labs Canada for analysis. Once characterized and bonded to micronutrients, the effect of synthesized RMS on nutrient recovery in tomatoes was studied in a greenhouse environment. The agricultural research package ‘agricolae’ for R was used for experimental design and data analysis. The growth trials consisted of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) that allowed for analysis of variance (ANOVA). The primary outcome was to measure nutrient uptake, and this was done using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (IC-PMS) to analyze the micronutrient content of both the tissue and fruit of the tomatoes. It was found that treatments containing bonded dairy manure solids had an increased micronutrient concentration. Treatments with bonded dairy manure solids also saw an increase in yield, and a brix analysis showed higher sugar content than the untreated control and a grower standard.

Keywords: aoecosystems, dairy manure, micronutrient fertilizer, manure management, nutrient recovery, nutrient recycling, recycled manure solids, regenerative agricugrlture, sustainable farming

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1749 Capability of Marine Macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for Wastewater Phytoremediation and Biofuel Recovery

Authors: Zhipeng Chen, Lingfeng Wang, Shuang Qiu, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

Macroalgae are larger in size compared with microalgae; hence, they imposed lower separation and drying costs. To explore the potential for enhancing cultivation conditions in macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum (C. linum)-based bioreactor for nutrient recovery from municipal wastewaters and examine the biochemical composition of the macroalgae for the potential downstream production of biofuels, screening experiments were performed. This study suggested that C. linum grew well on primary (PW), secondary (SW), and centrate wastewater (CW). A step feeding approach was shown to significantly enhance biomass productivity when grown on 10% CW; meanwhile, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies increased to 86.8 ± 1.1% and 92.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The CO₂-supplemented SW cultures were 1.20 times more productive than the corresponding controls without CO₂ supplementation. These findings demonstrate that C. linum could represent a promising and efficient wastewater treatment alternative which could also provide a feedstock for downstream processing to biofuels.

Keywords: biofuel production, macroalgae, nutrient removal, wastewater

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1748 Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastewater and Urban Wetlands as Resource

Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the concept of ecologically engineered system for sustainable agriculture production with the view of sustainable cities development. Sustainable cities offer numerous eco-services to its inhabitants, and where, among other issues, wastewater nutrients can be considered to be a valuable resource to be used for a sustainable enhancement of urban agriculture in wetlands. Existing cities can be transferred from being only consumer of food and other agriculture product into important resource conserving and sustainable generators of these products. The review provides the food production capacity through introduction of wastewater into urban wetlands, potential for nutrient recovery and ecological engineering intervention to reduce the risk of food contamination by pathogens. Finally, we discuss the potential nutrients accumulating in our cities, as an important aspect of sustainable urban development.

Keywords: ecological engineering, nutrient recovery, pathogens, urban agriculture, wetlands

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1747 The Impact of Level and Consequence of Service Co-Recovery on Post-Recovery Satisfaction and Repurchase Intent

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

In service delivery, interpersonal interaction is the key to customer satisfaction, and apparently, the factor of human is critical in service delivery. Besides, customers quite care about the consequences of co-recovery. Thus, this research focuses on service failure caused by other customers and uses a 2x2 factorial design to investigate the impact of consequence and level of service co-recovery on post-recovery satisfaction and repurchase intent. 150 undergraduates were recruited as participants, and assigned to one of the four cells randomly. Every participant was requested to read the scenario and then rated the post-recovery satisfaction and repurchase intent. The results show that under the condition of failed co-recovery, level of co-recovery has no effect on post-recovery satisfaction, while under the condition of successful co-recovery, high-level co-recovery causes significantly higher post-recovery satisfaction than low-level co-recovery. Moreover, post-recovery satisfaction has significantly positive impact on repurchase intent. In the system of service delivery, customers interact with other customers frequently. Therefore, comparing with the literature, this research focuses on the service failure caused by other customers. This research also supplies a better understanding of customers’ view on consequences of different levels of co-recovery, which is helpful for the practitioners to make use of co-recovery.

Keywords: service failure, service co-recovery, consequence of co-recovery, level of co-recovery, post-recovery satisfaction, repurchase intent

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1746 Autonomic Recovery Plan with Server Virtualization

Authors: S. Hameed, S. Anwer, M. Saad, M. Saady

Abstract:

For autonomic recovery with server virtualization, a cogent plan that includes recovery techniques and backups with virtualized servers can be developed instead of assigning an idle server to backup operations. In addition to hardware cost reduction and data center trail, the disaster recovery plan can ensure system uptime and to meet objectives of high availability, recovery time, recovery point, server provisioning, and quality of services. This autonomic solution would also support disaster management, testing, and development of the recovery site. In this research, a workflow plan is proposed for supporting disaster recovery with virtualization providing virtual monitoring, requirements engineering, solution decision making, quality testing, and disaster management. This recovery model would make disaster recovery a lot easier, faster, and less error prone.

Keywords: autonomous intelligence, disaster recovery, cloud computing, server virtualization

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1745 Sustainable Production of Algae through Nutrient Recovery in the Biofuel Conversion Process

Authors: Bagnoud-Velásquez Mariluz, Damergi Eya, Grandjean Dominique, Frédéric Vogel, Ludwig Christian

Abstract:

The sustainability of algae to biofuel processes is seriously affected by the energy intensive production of fertilizers. Large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus are required for a large-scale production resulting in many cases in a negative impact of the limited mineral resources. In order to meet the algal bioenergy opportunity it appears crucial the promotion of processes applying a nutrient recovery and/or making use of renewable sources including waste. Hydrothermal (HT) conversion is a promising and suitable technology for microalgae to generate biofuels. Besides the fact that water is used as a “green” reactant and solvent and that no biomass drying is required, the technology offers a great potential for nutrient recycling. This study evaluated the possibility to treat the water HT effluent by the growth of microalgae while producing renewable algal biomass. As already demonstrated in previous works by the authors, the HT aqueous product besides having N, P and other important nutrients, presents a small fraction of organic compounds rarely studied. Therefore, extracted heteroaromatic compounds in the HT effluent were the target of the present research; they were profiled using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The results indicate the presence of cyclic amides, piperazinediones, amines and their derivatives. The most prominent nitrogenous organic compounds (NOC’s) in the extracts were carefully examined by their effect on microalgae, namely 2-pyrrolidinone and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA). These two substances were prepared at three different concentrations (10, 50 and 150 ppm). This toxicity bioassay used three different microalgae strains: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus vacuolatus. The confirmed IC50 was for all cases ca. 75ppm. Experimental conditions were set up for the growth of microalgae in the aqueous phase by adjusting the nitrogen concentration (the key nutrient for algae) to fit that one established for a known commercial medium. The values of specific NOC’s were lowered at concentrations of 8.5 mg/L 2-pyrrolidinone; 1mg/L δ-valerolactam and 0.5 mg/L β-PEA. The growth with the diluted HT solution was kept constant with no inhibition evidence. An additional ongoing test is addressing the possibility to apply an integrated water cleanup step making use of the existent hydrothermal catalytic facility.

Keywords: hydrothermal process, microalgae, nitrogenous organic compounds, nutrient recovery, renewable biomass

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1744 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel

Abstract:

Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: carbon, ecretion, filtration, nitrogen, phosphorus

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1743 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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1742 Blogging Towards Recovery: The Benefits of Blogging about Recovery

Authors: Jayme R. Swanke

Abstract:

This study examined the benefits of maintaining public blogs about substance use disorder recovery. The data analyzed for this study included statements about the benefits derived by individuals who blogged about their recovery. The researcher developed classifications of statements that expressed what these individuals gained from blogging into common themes and developed an emerging theory based on these patterns. The findings indicate that these individuals in recovery benefit from blogging by developing connections, processing emotions, remaining accountable, as well as enjoying.

Keywords: substance use disorder recovery, connection, blogging, accountability, processing emotions

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1741 Nutrient Removal and Microalgal Biomass Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris in Response to Centrate Wastewater Loadings

Authors: Lingfeng Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Shuang Qiu, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

The effects of wastewater, with four different nutrient loadings, from synthetic centrate on biomass production of Chlorella vulgaris, nutrient removal, microalgal settling, and lipid production were investigated in photobioreactors under both batches and, subsequently, semi-continuous operations. At higher centrate concentration factors (17.2% and 36.2%), hydraulic retention time and pH adjustments could be employed to sustain acceptable microalgal growth rates and wastewater treatment. Similar nutrient removals efficiencies (>95%) and biomass production (0.42-0.51 g/L) were observed for the four centrate concentrations. Both the lipid productivity and lipid content decreased with increasing nutrient loading in the wastewater. The results also demonstrated that the mass ratio of carbohydrate to protein could provide a good indication of microalgal settling performance, rather than sole component composition or total extracellular polymeric substances.

Keywords: lipid production, microalgae, nutrient removal, wastewater

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1740 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan

Authors: Keisuke Konishi, Yoshinari Hiroshiro, Kento Terashima, Atsushi Tsutsumi

Abstract:

Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay. Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance. Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107 m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large. The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than 10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater. The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9 mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to eutrophication.

Keywords: Eutrophication, groundwater recharge model, nutrient inflow, quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, submarine groundwater discharge

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1739 Biochar Assisted Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recycling

Authors: A. Pokharel, A. Farooque, B. Acharya

Abstract:

Pyrolysis can be used for energy production from waste biomass of agriculture and forestry. Biochar is the solid byproduct of pyrolysis and its cascading use can offset the cost of the process. A wide variety of research on biochar has highlighted its ability to absorb nutrients, metal and complex compounds; filter suspended solids; enhance microorganisms’ growth; retain water and nutrients as well as to increase carbon content of soil. In addition, sustainable biochar systems are an attractive approach for carbon sequestration and total waste management cycle. Commercially available biochar from Sigma Aldrich was studied for adsorption of nitrogen from effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. Adsorption isotherm and breakthrough curve were determined for the biochar. Similarly, biochar’s effects in aerobic as well as anaerobic bioreactors were also studied. In both cases, the biomass was increased in presence of biochar. The amount of gas produced for anaerobic digestion of fruit mix (apple and banana) was similar but the rate of production was significantly faster in biochar fed reactors. The cumulative goal of the study is to use biochar in various wastewater treatment units like aeration tank, secondary clarifier and tertiary nutrient recovery system as well as in anaerobic digestion of the sludge to optimize utilization and add value before being used as a soil amendment.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recyling, wastewater treatment, soil amendment

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1738 Dietary Nutrient Consumption Patterns by the Pregnant Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasmia Tasnim

Abstract:

Introduction: Pregnancy is a condition of higher nutrient requirement but in developing countries like Bangladesh most of the pregnant women can not meet their nutrient requirement and sometimes they are neglected in the family. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary nutrient intake by the pregnant women, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: The study population comprised of pregnant women from urban or semi-urban, aged between 18 to 35 and free of pregnancy related complication and other diseases. Under a cross-sectional design, 30 healthy non-pregnant as well as 130 pregnant women, at 3 different trimesters of pregnancy were assessed. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric, drug and medical history. Three day consecutive 24-hour food recalls were used to assess food intake and then converted to nutrient intake. Results: The average BMI of the nonpregnant women was 22.89 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and that of pregnant women was 23.52 ± 3.71 kg/m2. The mean dietary nutrient intake of dietary fiber, calorie, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate, vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 of the pregnant mothers were 4.38 g, 1619 kcal, 60.05 g, 30.38 g, 268.79 g, 537.21 mg, 21.53 mg, 1.15 mg, 0.94 mg, 97.36 mg, 647.6 µg, 153.93 µg, 1.41 mg and 4.09 µg respectively. Most of pregnant women (more than 90%) can not meet their energy, calcium and folate requirements. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant mother in Bangladesh can not meet their dietary requirements during pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, dietary nutrient, nutritional status, BMI

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1737 Molecular Profiling of an Oleaginous Trebouxiophycean Alga Parachlorella kessleri Subjected to Nutrient Deprivation

Authors: Pannaga Pavan Jutur

Abstract:

Parachlorella kessleri, a marine unicellular green alga belonging to class Trebouxiophyceae, accumulates large amounts of oil, i.e., lipids under nutrient-deprived (-N, -P, and -S) conditions. Understanding their metabolic imprints is important for elucidating the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations in this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Metabolic and lipidomic profiles were obtained respectively using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of P. kessleri under nutrient starvation (-N, -P and -S) conditions. Relative quantities of more than 100 metabolites were systematically compared in all these three starvation conditions. Our results demonstrate that in lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased significantly followed by the decrease in other metabolites involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, etc. In conclusion, the metabolomics and lipidomic profiles have identified a few common metabolites such as citric acid, valine, and trehalose to play a significant role in the overproduction of oil by this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Understanding the entire system through untargeted metabolome profiling will lead to identifying relevant metabolites involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of precursor molecules that may have the potential for biofuel production, aiming towards the vision of tomorrow’s bioenergy needs.

Keywords: algae, biofuels, nutrient stress, omics

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1736 Macroscopic Anatomy of the Nutrient Foramina of Human Scaphoid Bone

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju

Abstract:

Background: Scaphoid bone is commonly fractured among all the bones of the wrist. The fracture can damage the arteries and would cause avascular necrosis of the scaphoid. In this present study, the goal was to study the topography and number of nutrient foramina in the scaphoid bones of South Indian population. Methods: We studied 46 human scaphoid bones, among them 20 were left sided and 26 belonged to the right side. The scaphoid bones were available at the department of anatomy of our institution. The scaphoid bones were macroscopically observed for the topography and number of nutrient foramina. The data was collected, tabulated and analyzed. Results: The nutrient foramina were observed in all the scaphoid bones (100%). The locations of the foramina were over the non-articular surfaces in all these scaphoids. They were distributed over the palmar and dorsal surfaces. The foramina were found proximal as well as distal to the mid waist of the scaphoid bone. Their number ranged between 9 and 54 in each scaphoid bone. The number ranged between 2-24 over the palmar surface and 7-36 over the dorsal surface. They ranged between 2-24 proximal to the waist and 3-39 distal to the waist. Conclusion: The knowledge of arterial supply, topography of nutrient foramen and their number is essential to understand the concepts of avascular necrosis of scaphoid bone. It will be enlightening to understand the non-union of the fracture of waist of the scaphoid. The morphological data is required to the operating hand surgeon. We do believe that the present study has provided additional information about the topography and number of nutrient foramina of the human scaphoid bones.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, nutrient foramen, scaphoid, vascular

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1735 Nutrient Foramina of the Lunate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai

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Background: The lunate bone dislocation can lead to the compression of the median nerve and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome. The dislocation can interrupt the vasculature and would cause avascular necrosis. The objective of the present study was to study the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried lunate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 28 lunate bones (13 right sided and 15 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the lunate bones. The foramen ranged between 2 and 10. The foramina were more in number over the dorsal surface (average number 3.3) in comparison to the palmar surface (average number 2.4). Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided important data about the nutrient foramina of the lunate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the lunatomalacia and Kienbock’s disease.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, foramen, lunate, nutrient

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1734 Dielectric Recovery Characteristics of High Voltage Gas Circuit Breakers Operating with CO₂ Mixture

Authors: Peng Lu, Branimir Radisavljevic, Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Torsten Votteler, Bernardo Galletti

Abstract:

CO₂-based gas mixtures exhibit huge potential as the interruption medium for replacing SF₆ in high voltage switchgears. In this paper, the recovery characteristics of dielectric strength of CO₂-O₂ mixture in the post arc phase after the current zero are presented. As representative examples, the dielectric recovery curves under conditions of different gas filling pressures and short-circuit current amplitudes are presented. A series of dielectric recovery measurements suggests that the dielectric recovery rate is proportional to the mass flux of the blowing gas, and the dielectric strength recovers faster in the case of lower short circuit currents.

Keywords: CO₂ mixture, high voltage circuit breakers, dielectric recovery rate, short-circuit current, mass flux

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1733 The Effect of Temperature, Contact Time and Agitation Speed During Pre-Treatment on Elution of Gold

Authors: T. P. Oladele, C. A. Snyders, S. M. Bradshaw, G. Akdogan

Abstract:

The effect of temperature, contact time and agitation during pre-treatment was investigated on the elution of gold from granular activated carbon at fixed caustic-cyanide concentration and elution conditions. It was shown that there are interactions between parameters during pre-treatment. At 80oC, recovery is independent of the contact time while the maximum recovery is obtained in the absence of agitation (0rpm). Increase in agitation speed from 0 rev/min to 1200 rev/min showed a decrease in recovery of approximately 20 percent at 80°C. Recovery with increased time from 15 minutes to 45 minutes is only pronounced at 25°C with approximately 4 percent increase at all agitation speeds. The results from elution recovery are aimed to give insight into the mechanisms of pre-treatment under the combinations of the chosen parameters.

Keywords: gold, temperature, contact time, agitation speed, recovery

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1732 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan

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In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.

Keywords: heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period

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1731 Response of Onion to FTM and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Lateritic Soil of Konkan

Authors: Rupali Thorat, S. B. Dodake, V. N. Palsande, S. D. Patil

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the “Response of onion to FYM and inorganic fertilizers application on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in lateritic soil of Konkan” at the farm of Pangari block of Irrigation of Scheme, Central Experimentation Station, Wakawali during Rabi 2009-10. There were 12 treatment combinations, comprising of 3 levels of NPK fertilizers (C1 ,C2-125 kg N, 62.5 kg P205 and 62.5 kg K20 ha-1 and C3-150 kg N, 75 kg P205 and 75 kg K20 ha-1) and 4 levels of FYM (F1-10 t FYM ha-1, F2 - 15 t FYM ha-1, F3-20 t FYM ha-1, F4-25 t FYM ha-1) replicated thrice using Factorial Randomized Block Design. The observations on plant height, number of leaves, girth of plant, polar and equatorial diameter of bulb as well as dry matter yield, onion bulb yield recorded during the course of field study were subjected to statistical analysis. Similarly nutrient content and uptake, quality parameters of bulb and soil properties were also determined and their data were also analyzed statistically. It is revealed from the study that the growth attributes, dry matter yield, onion bulb yield, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, quality parameters were improved significantly due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1(C3F3). Application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1 (C3F3) registered highest onion bulb yield (t ha-1). The quality of onion as well as availability of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the soil was improved due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 and FYM @ 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: onion, FYM, yield, nutrient uptake and fertilizer

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1730 The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Abdul Basit, Gildas Lhostis, Bernard Durand

Abstract:

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.

Keywords: shape memory, polymer composite, thermo-mechanical testing, recovery under load

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
1729 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1728 Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability

Authors: Vincent King Soon Wong, Hong Seng Ng, Florinna Sim

Abstract:

Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.

Keywords: fast vs slow BTI, fast wafer level reliability (FWLR), negative bias temperature instability (NBTI), NBTI measurement system, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), NBTI recovery, reliability

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1727 The Nutrient Foramen of the Scaphoid Bone – A Morphological Study

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, P. J. Jiji, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured bone of the wrist. The fracture may disrupt the vessels and end up as the avascular necrosis of the bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried scaphoid bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 46 scaphoid bones (26 right sided and 20 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the scaphoid bones. The foramina were observed both proximal and distal to the mid waist of the scaphoid bone. The foramen ranged between 9 and 54 in each scaphoid bone. The foramina over the palmar surface ranged between, 2-24 in number. The foramina over the dorsal surface ranged between, 7-36 in number. The foramina proximal to the waist ranged between 2 and 24 in number and distal to the waist ranged between 3 and 39. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the scaphoid bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the proximal scaphoid and non-union of the fracture at the waist of the scaphoid.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, nutrient, scaphoid, vascular

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1726 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda

Abstract:

Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

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1725 Metrics and Methods for Improving Resilience in Agribusiness Supply Chains

Authors: Golnar Behzadi, Michael O'Sullivan, Tava Olsen, Abraham Zhang

Abstract:

By definition, increasing supply chain resilience improves the supply chain’s ability to return to normal, or to an even more desirable situation, quickly and efficiently after being hit by a disruption. This is especially critical in agribusiness supply chains where the products are perishable and have a short life-cycle. In this paper, we propose a resilience metric to capture and improve the recovery process in terms of both performance and time, of an agribusiness supply chain following either supply or demand-side disruption. We build a model that determines optimal supply chain recovery planning decisions and selects the best resilient strategies that minimize the loss of profit during the recovery time window. The model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem and solved with a branch-and-cut algorithm. The results show that the optimal recovery schedule is highly dependent on the duration of the time-window allowed for recovery. In addition, the profit loss during recovery is reduced by utilizing the proposed resilient actions.

Keywords: agribusiness supply chain, recovery, resilience metric, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
1724 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, CO₂ flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 232