Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: garlic

55 Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Garlic in Food

Authors: Ting-Ying Su, Meng-Shiou Lee, Shyang-Chwen Sheu

Abstract:

Garlic is used commonly as a seasoning around the world. But some people suffer from allergy to garlic. Garlic may also cause burning of mouth, stomach, and throat. In some Buddhist traditions, consuming garlic is not allowed. The objective of this study is to develop a LAMP based method for detection of garlic in food. We designed specific primers targeted on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence of garlic DNA. The LAMP assay was performed using a set of four different primers F3, B3, FIP and BIP at 60˚C in less than 60 mins. Results showed that the primer was not cross-reactive to other commonly used spice including Chinese leek, Chinese onion, green onion, onion, pepper, basil, parsley, pepper and ginger. As low as 2% of garlic DNA could be detected. Garlic still could be detected by developed LAMP after boiled at 100˚C for 80 minutes and autoclaved at 121˚C for 60 minutes. Commercial products labeled with garlic ingredient could be identified by the developed method.

Keywords: garlic, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, processing, DNA

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54 Analysis of Alliin and Allicin Contents in Allium tuncelianum

Authors: M. Ipek, A. Cansev, A. Ipek, Y. Sahan

Abstract:

Allium tuncelianum is a close relative of cultivated garlic (A. sativum L.) and naturally grows only in eastern part of Turkey. This species has mild garlic odor and therefore, it is locally consumed as garlic by collecting from its natural flora. This over collection threatens the species to extinction. Although it has morphological resemblance to cultivated garlic, the nutritional value of the species has not been characterized very well. Alliin and allicin are two predominant organosulfur compounds found in cultivated garlic. Allicin derived from alliin precursor gives garlic characteristic odor and most of the garlic health benefits are attributed to this compound. The aims of this work were to determine alliin and allicin contents of A. tuncelianum and to compare them with those of cultivated garlic, onion (A. cepa L.) and leek (A. porrum L.). Alliin and allicin were extracted from 400 mg lyophilized samples and 10 µl extracts were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography attached with diode array detector. The alliin contents of A. tuncelianum genotypes ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 mg/g and the allicin contents changed from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/g, whereas alliin and allicin contents of garlic genotypes ranged from 20.0 to 30.0 mg/g and 3.0 to 6.0 mg/g, respectively. On the other hand, we did not detect any measurable alliin and allicin in onion or leek tissues. In conclusion, alliin and allicin contents of A. tuncelianum were characterized first time in this study, which are about 20% of alliin and allicin contents of cultivated garlic.

Keywords: allicin, alliin, Allium tuncelianum, garlic

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53 Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Juice on Semen Oxidation in Male Rats

Authors: Jamshid Ghiasi Ghalehkandi, Naser Maheri Sis, Yahya Ebrahimnezhad, Shahin Hassanpour

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The objective of present study was to examine the effects of fresh garlic juice on semen malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in male rats. Fifty-four male rats (230-250 g) were allocated into 3 treatment groups (each include 3 groups and 6 replicate). Group 1 served as water control. In group 2, rats were gavaged with 60 mg/kg garlic juice. In group 3, rats were offered 120 mg/kg garlic juice. Animals received treatments orally and ad libitum access to chow pellets and fresh water. After 4 weeks, animals were killed, testes were taken out and semen samples were used to determine MDA, SOD, GPx and TAS activity. According to the results, garlic juice (120 mg/kg) significantly declined semen MDA activity compared to control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that presumably garlic juice protects semen oxidation in rat testes.

Keywords: garlic juice, chromium chloride, semen, rat

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52 Growth Performance of New Born Holstein Calves Supplemented with Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder and Probiotics

Authors: T. W. Kekana, J. J. Baloyi, M. C. Muya, F. V. Nherera

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Secondary metabolites (thiosulphinates) from Allium sativum are able to stimulate the production of volatile fatty acids. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding Garlic powder or probiotics or a combination of both on feed intake and growth performance of Holstein calves. Neonatal calves were randomly allocated, according to birth weight, to four dietary treatments, each with 8 calves. The treatments were: C control, no additive (C), G: supplemented with either 5g/d garlic powder (G) or 4 g/d probiotics (P) or GP 5g/d garlic powder and 4 g/d probiotics compound (GP) with the total viable count of 1.3 x 107 cfu/g. Garlic and probiotics were diluted in the daily milk allocation from day 4. Commercial (17.5% CP) starter feed and fresh water were available ad libitum from day 4 until day 42 of age. Calves fed GP (0.27 kg day-1) tended (P=0.055) to have higher DMI than C (0.22 kg day-1). Milk, water, CP, fat intake and FCR were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments. Metibolisable energy (ME) intake for GP group tended (P=0.058) to be higher than C calves. Combination of G and P (60.3 kg) tended (P = 0.056) to be higher than C (56.0 kg) calves on final BW. Garlic, probiotics or their combination did not affect calve’s HG, ADG and BL (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicated that combination of garlic and probiotics may improve nutrients intake and body weight when fed to calves during the first 42 days of life.

Keywords: garlic powder, probiotics, intake, growth, Holstein calves

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51 An in vitro Study on Synergetic Antifungal Activity of Garlic Extract with Honey and Lemon Juice against Candida sp.

Authors: P. Karpagam, Babu Joseph, P. Ashok Kumar

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The incidence of Candida infections is increasing worldwide. The serious nature of these infections is compounded by increasing levels of drug resistance. Pure cultures of the Candida sp. were obtained from clinical isolates and fresh garlic extracts were obtained by extraction techniques. The antifungal activity of garlic extract was investigated in an in vitro system. The extract (100%, 75% and 50%) showed significant antifungal activity against Candida, whereas, low concentration (25%) of the extract showed less antifungal activity against the test organism. Antifungal activities of honey and lemon juice were tested against the Candida; however, the growth was not inhibited by these extracts. On the other hand honey and lemon when combined with garlic exhibited a good antifungal activity. The study thus confirms the antifungal properties of garlic extract along with additives like honey and lemon have significant antifungal activity against isolates of Candida species.

Keywords: Candida, garlic extract, lemon, synergitic antifungal activity

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50 Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar

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This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm) at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibiton (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogens

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49 Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar

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This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm)at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibit on (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogens

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48 The Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) in the Diet on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Oscar Fish (Astronotus ocellatus)

Authors: Ali Saghaei, Negar Ghotbeddin, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh Ghatrami, Milad Maniat

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The use of herbs as natural additives in fish diets are used to enhance the efficiency and safety systems. The use of herbs, garlic, due to the structure and composition of it has beneficial role in human nutrition and animal nutrition. This study was conducted evaluate the effect different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the some serum biochemical parameters of Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). Fish were divided into four groups fed on diets containing garlic in different levels; 5 g kg˗1, 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group diet was without garlic. A total number of 300 fish was used and Triplicate groups of Oscar fish with initial weight of 12.43±0.24 g were hand-fed to visual satiation at three meals per day. The experiment extended for two months. Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin (GLB) and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, were determined. Based on the results, no significant differences were seen among treatments and control groups during the experimental period for TP, ALB, GLB, and A/G ratio (p > 0.05). Although, the highest amount of serum total protein and globulin levels were observed in diet containing 10 g kg-1 of garlic. Also, the highest value of albumin and A/G were observed in diet containing 20 g kg-1 of garlic, but there were no significant difference with other treatments. The results of this study show that addition of garlic Allium sativum to fish diet can improve fish health.

Keywords: garlic (Allium sativum), serum, Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus), iran

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47 Assessment of Susceptibility of the Poultry Red Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) to Some Plant Preparations with Focus on Exposure Time

Authors: Shahrokh Ranjbar-Bahadori, Nima Farhadifar, Leila Mohammadyar

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Plant preparations from thyme and garlic have been shown to be effective acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In a layer house with a history of D. gallinae problem, mites were detected in the monitoring traps for the first time and number of them was counted. Then, some rows of layer house was sprayed twice using a concentration of 0.21 mg/cm2 thyme essential oil and 0.07 mg/cm2 garlic juice and a similar row was used as an untreated control group. Red mite traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density during days 1 and 7 after treatment and always removed after 24 h. the collected mites were counted and the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) was calculated. Results showed that on day 1 and 7 after the administration of garlic extract efficacy rate was 92.05% and 74.62%, respectively. Moreover, efficacy rate on day 1 and 7 was 89.4% and 95.37% when treatment was done with thyme essential oil. It is concluded that using garlic juice to control of D. gallinae is more effective on short time. But thyme essential oil has a long time effect in compare to garlic preparation.

Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, essential oil, garlic, thyme, efficacy

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46 Effects of Temperature Dryer on Allicin and Pirvic Acid Measurments Garlic Powder after Drying Process

Authors: Rezvani Aghdam Ali, Aleemrani Nejad Seyed Mohammad Hossein

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Introduction: Dryed Garlic has plentiful health and medicinal value and is used in industrial food the forms of flakes or powders. Many health and medicinal properties of Garlic are attributed to allicin. This substance is produced enzymatically after crushing. Since temperature affected on enzymatic action, then is important factor on pirovic acid and allicin retention. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effects of temperature on qualitative characteristics such as color of powder and pirovic acid and alicin retention in a convective hot-air dryer. For this reason, half cloves of Shushtar Garlics (Allium sativum L.) were dried at air temperatures of 50 and 70°C. Results: Results showed that increasing temperature was resulted changing color. Pirovic acid increased when half cloves Garlic were dried at 70°C. Allicin of half cloves also increased with increasing temperature. Conclusions: According to findings of this research, half cloves which dried in 70 degree centigrade can be introduced the best conditions for producing Garlic powder.

Keywords: garlic, drying, pirovic acid, allicin

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45 Effect of Garlic Powder Extract on Fungi Isolated from Diseased Irish Potato in Bokkos, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: Musa Filibus Gugu

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An investigation was carried out on the effect of garlic powder extract on fungi associated with Irish potato rot in Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Diseased Irish potatoes were randomly collected from three markets in the study location and fungal species isolated. Isolated fungal species were Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pytophthora infestans. Frequency of occurrence for Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pytophthora infestans was 10%, 34%, and 56%, respectively, using sabauraud dextrose agar, after incubation for 4-7 days. Treatment of Pytophthora infestans with garlic powder extract at concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml showed 100%, 92%, 68%, 32% and 10% inhibition zones, respectively. Fusarium culmorum showed 100%, 90%, 40%, 9% and 0% inhibition zones when treated with garlic powder extract at concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml, respectively. Garlic powder extract concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml showed 100%, 98%, 55%, 30%, 0% inhibition zones, respectively on Fusarium oxysporum. Hence, Restriction of the radial growth of the fungal colonies suggests a good antifungal effect of garlic extract. This can be integrated into the treatment of fungal diseases of Irish potato in Bokkos, Nigeria, as this will help to reduce the indiscriminate use of fungicides, especially in an environment with a struggling economy.

Keywords: fungal rot, garlic extract, inhibition zone, Irish potato

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44 Egg Yolk and Serum Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Garlic and Natural Cocoa Powder Using Laying Birds as Model

Authors: Onyimonyi Anselm Ego, Obi-Keguna Christy, Dim Emmanuel Chinonso, Ugwuanyi Evelyn, Uzochukwu Ifeanyi Emmanuel

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A total of 144 Shaver Brown Layers in their sixteenth week of lay were used in a twelve weeks study to evaluate the egg yolk and serum cholesterol of the birds when fed varying dietary combinations of garlic and natural cocoa powder. The birds were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments with 16 birds per treatment. Each bird was housed separately in a cage measuring 45 cm x 35 cm in an open sided battery cage house typical of the tropics. A standard poultry mash diet with 16.5% CP and 2800 KcalME/kg was formulated as the basal ration which also served as the control diet. Garlic and natural cocoa powder were incorporated in varying combinations (50 g or 100 g/100 kg of feed) in the remaining eight treatments. Weekly data of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight and hen day egg production were kept. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol levels were determined using a Randox kit. Results showed that birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder had significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg and albumen weight as compared to control birds. Hen day production of the birds was also significantly higher than control birds. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol of birds receiving the garlic and natural cocoa powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Serum cholesterol levels showed decline in the birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder. The least yolk cholesterol level of 160 mg/dl was observed in birds receiving 50g garlic and 50 g natural cocoa powder (Treatment 5). Control birds had an egg cholesterol level of 245.45 mg/dl. It was concluded that incorporating garlic and natural cocoa powder in the diets of laying hens can result in a significant reduction in the egg and serum cholesterol levels.

Keywords: egg, serum, cholesterol, garlic

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43 Garlic Extracts Stimulating Innate Immune System in Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Prachaub Chaibu

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Marble goby is one of high demand consuming in Southeast Asia. However, the product was from riparian fisheries because of low yield in aquaculture, especially in nursery stage. Therefore, we studied for herb supplement in pellet feed of marble goby fingering. Garlic, a common herb and illustrated novel pharmaceutical and medical effectiveness, was considered. Garlic extracts with water (DW), 50% EtOH (50E), 95% EtOH (95E) and diethyl ether (DE) were subjected for feed additive to induce immune response in marble goby fingering for 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 % (w/w). After seven days of feeding, blood was collected for analysis of blood composition; i.e. haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and humoral immune responses; i.e. lysozyme activity (Lys). It was resulted that values of HCT, WBC and Lys in all garlic fed group were significantly different from control (p < 0.05). For HCT, the highest values belonged to 5% DW and 0.5% 95E. For WBC and Lys, the highest values were 5% DW. For RBC, there was not obviously significant (p < 0.05). There were only 3 groups; 0.5% 95E, 1% and 5% DW, showed distinct statistical significance from the other groups. It was concluded that garlic extracts showed satisfy bioactivity to enhancing innate immune response in marble goby fingering. This result will be valuable for specific feed formula of marble goby nursery.

Keywords: garlic extract, innate immune, marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

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42 In silico and Toxicity Study of the Combination of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as Antihypertensive Herbs

Authors: Doni Dermawan

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Hypertension is a disease with a high prevalence in Indonesia. The prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia is based on the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 which amounted to 25.8%. Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat hypertension including roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) by a mechanism as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. The purpose of this research is to analyze the in silico (molecular studies) of pharmacological effects and toxicity of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) as well as a combination of both are used as antihypertensive herbs. The results of study showed that roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) have great potential as antihypertensive herbs based on the affinity and stability of active substances to specific receptor with a much better value than a of antihypertensive drugs (lisinopril). Toxicity values determined by the method of AST, ALT and ALP in which the three values obtained indicate the presence of acute toxic effects that need to be considered in determining the dose of the extract of roselle and garlic as antihypertensives.

Keywords: Allium sativum, antihypertensive, Hibiscus sabdariffa, in silico, toxicity

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41 Effect of Garlic Extract on Growth Performance and Immune System of Broiler

Authors: Merry Muspita Dyah Utami

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The positive effect of garlic extract have been reported by many studies. It has antibiotical potential, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal, and growth promoting. Supplementary garlic for broilers could mediate in getting the bioactive compounds in garlic. The avian bursa must be essential for antibody-mediated immunity. The size of bursa of fabricius must be some sort of endocrine or lymphoid gland associated with growth and sexual development. The research was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic extract on growth performance and immune system of broiler. Seventy-two day old chick were equally divided into four group, three replication and six chicks each. Group I was control without garlic extract, then garlic extraxt was administrated to the experimental group II, III and IV (2, 4, 6% in ration). The experiment was conducted for three weeks period from day old chick to 21 days. Body weight of broiler were determined at day 1 and 21, feed intake was determined at the same period, feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At 21 day age, four birds per replicate were slaughtered , bursa was collected, weight and calculated as a percentage of live body weight. Mortality was recorded as it occurred and was used to ajust the total number of broiler to determine the total feed intake and feed conversion rasio. Data were expressed as the mean was compare by one way analysis of variance (Anova) follow by Duncan Test, which used to identify differences between groups. A value of P<0.05 was accepted as significance. The body weight, feed conversion rasio, and the weight of bursa of fabricius showed a significant differences, but feed consumption and the percentage of bursa of live body weight were not significantly different (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments. The results of this research, garlic extract has a potential role as natural growth promoter and immunomodulatory system in broiler.

Keywords: garlic extract, growth, immunity, broiler

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40 Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Turmeric Oleoresin, Capsicum Oleoresin and Garlic Essential Oil against Salmonella enterica Typhimurium

Authors: Jun Hyung Lee, Robin B. Guevarra, Jin Ho Cho, Bo-Ra Kim, Jiwon Shin, Doo Wan Kim, Young Hwa Kim, Minho Song, Hyeun Bum Kim

Abstract:

Salmonella is one of the most important swine pathogens, causing acute or chronic digestive diseases, such as enteritis. The acute form of enteritis is common in young pigs of 2-4 months of age. Salmonellosis in swine causes a huge economic burden to swine industry by reducing production. Therefore, it is necessary that swine industries should strive to decrease Salmonellosis in pigs in order to reduce economic losses. Thus, we tested three types of natural plant extracts(PEs) to evaluate antibacterial effects against Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolated from the piglet with Salmonellosis. Three PEs including turmeric oleoresin (containing curcumin 79 to 85%), capsicum oleoresin (containing capsaicin 40%-40.1%), and garlic essential oil (100% natural garlic) were tested using the direct contact agar diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration test, growth curve assay, and heat stability test. The tests were conducted with PEs at each concentration of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. For the heat stability test, PEs with 10% concentration were incubated at each 4, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C for 1 hour; then the direct contact agar diffusion test was used. For the positive and negative controls, 0.5N HCl and 1XPBS were used. All the experiments were duplicated. In the direct contact agar diffusion test, garlic essential oil with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% concentration showed inhibit zones of 1.5cm, 2.7cm, and 2.8cm diameters compared to that of 3.5cm diameter for 0.5N HCl. The minimum inhibited concentration of garlic essential oil was 2.5%. Growth curve assay showed that the garlic essential oil was able to inhibit Salmonella growth significantly after 4hours. The garlic essential oil retained the ability to inhibit Salmonella growth after heat treatment at each temperature. However, turmeric and capsicum oleoresins were not able to significantly inhibit Salmonella growth by all the tests. Even though further in-vivo tests will be needed to verify effects of garlic essential oil for the Salmonellosis prevention for piglets, our results showed that the garlic essential oil could be used as a potential natural agent to prevent Salmonellosis in swine.

Keywords: garlic essential oil, pig, salmonellosis, Salmonella enterica

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39 Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Turmeric Oleoresin, Capsicum Oleoresin and Garlic Essential Oil against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

Authors: Jun Hyung Lee, Robin B. Guevarra, Jin Ho Cho, Bo-Ra Kim, Jiwon Shin, Doo Wan Kim, Young Hwa Kim, Minho Song, Hyeun Bum Kim

Abstract:

Colibacillosis is one of the major health problems in young piglets ultimately resulting in their death, and it is common especially in young piglets. For the swine industry, colibacillosis is one of the important economic burdens. Therefore, it is necessary for the swine industries to prevent Colibacillosis in piglets in order to reduce economic losses. Thus, we tested three types of natural plant extracts (PEs) to evaluate antibacterial effects against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from the piglet. Three PEs including turmeric oleoresin (containing curcumin 79 to 85%), capsicum oleoresin (containing capsaicin 40%-40.1%), and garlic essential oil (100% natural garlic) were tested using the direct contact agar diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration test, growth curve assay, and heat stability test. The tests were conducted with PEs at each concentration of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. For the heat stability test, PEs with 10% concentration were incubated at each 4, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C for 1 hour, then the direct contact agar diffusion test was used. For the positive and negative controls, 0.5N HCl and 1XPBS were used. All the experiments were duplicated. In the direct contact agar diffusion test, garlic essential oil with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% concentration showed inhibit zones of 1.1cm, 3.0cm, and 3.6 cm in diameters compared to that of 3.5cm diameter for 0.5N HCl. The minimum inhibited concentration of garlic essential oil was 2.5%. Growth curve assay showed that the garlic essential oil was able to inhibit STEC growth significantly after 4 hours. The garlic essential oil retained the ability to inhibit STEC growth after heat treatment at each temperature. However, turmeric and capsicum oleoresins were not able to significantly inhibit STEC growth by all the tests. Even though further tests using the piglets will be required to evaluate effects of garlic essential oil for the Colibacillosis prevention for piglets, our results showed that the garlic essential oil could be used as a potential natural agent to prevent Colibacillosis in swine.

Keywords: garlic essential oil, pig, Colibacillosis, Escherichia coli

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38 Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Enhancing Protein Digestive Enzymes and Growth Performance in Marble Goby (Oxyleotris marmorata) Juvenile

Authors: Jaturong Matidtor, Krisna R. Torrissen, Saengtong Pongjareankit, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

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Low survival rate has being particular problem in nursery of marble goby juvenile. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of garlic extract on protein digestive pancreatic enzymes, trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C). The marble goby were reared with commercial feed mixed garlic extract at concentration of 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% (w/w) for 6 weeks. Analysis of the digestive enzymes at 2 and 6 weeks was performed. Growth parameters; weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE), were identified. For T, C and T/C at 2 weeks, values of T and T/C ratio of 0.3% (w/w) group showed significant difference (p < 0.05) with the highest values of 17685.64± 11981.77 U/mg protein and of 51.64 ± 27.46 U/mg protein, respectively. For C at 2 weeks, 0% (w/w) group showed the highest values of 16191.76± 2225.56 U/mg protein. Whereas value of T, C and T/C ratio at 6 weeks, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). For growth performance, it significantly increased in all garlic extract fed groups (0.3-5.0%, w/w), both at 2 and 6 weeks. At 2 weeks, values of WG and SGR of 0.5% (w/w) group showed the highest values of 71.51 ± 1.60%, and 3.85 ± 0.07%, respectively. For FE, 0.3% (w/w) group showed the highest value of 60.21 ± 6.51%. At 6 weeks, it illustrated that all growth parameters of 5.0% (w/w) group were the highest values; WG = 35.06 ± 5.66%, SGR = 2.14 ± 0.30%, and FE = 5.86 ± 0.68%. We suggested that garlic extract could be available for protein digestive enzyme and growth enhancement in marble goby nursery with artificial feed. This result will be high benefit for commercial aquaculture of marble goby.

Keywords: marble goby, nursery, garlic extract, digestive enzyme, growth

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37 Comparative Toxicity of Garlic Juice and Dicofol to Population of Citrus Mites

Authors: Y. Atibi, A. Boutaleb Joutei, T. Slimani

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Insecticidal properties of Alliaceae are widely known, they are plant with varied biological properties. Garlic and onion are known for their positive effect on health, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some digestive cancers. These health benefits molecules are also responsible for pest potential control of Alliaceae. With these properties, we can consider using Alliaceae as acaricides. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical and biopesticides on citrus mites, especially Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Eutetranychus orientalis. Chemical treatment (Dicofol) and biopesticides (Garlic juice + Alcohol) applied on this study to control the various stages of mites, have reduced the proliferation of mobile forms and reducing the number of eggs to acceptable levels. Garlic juice + alcohol revealed efficiency from 50 to 57.69 % against the mobile forms of T. urticae, however, it was effective against the mobile forms of P. citri and E. orientalis with an efficiency of 85.71 % and 100 % respectively, its action has also reduced the number of eggs of T. urticae and E. orientalis at low levels. Therefore, this biopesticide is conceivable viewpoint technical and economic as the infestation by mite is low.

Keywords: Garlic juice, acaricide, biopesticide, mites, alcohol, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Eutetranychus orientalis.

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36 Determination of Harmful Important Mite (ACARI) and Nematoda Species, Their Distribution and Their Control Possibility on Garlic and Onion Growing Areas in Turkey

Authors: Cihan Cilbircioğlu

Abstract:

Allium sativum L.(garlic) and Allium. cepa L. (onion) are the most common species of the Allium spp. and are produced at the very high rate all over the world. The yield loss caused by pests is the most important problem in the production of these crops. In the absence of control measures, yield loss would be around 35% on average. The yield loss sometimes depending on the pest species and population density can reach about 100%. Mites and nematodes are the most important pests of them. These pests that cause damage to A. sativum and A. cepa shows a wide range of taxonomic categories. The number of common pest mite and nematode species that cause damage to either A. sativum and A. cepa are over 20 species. In this study, detailed information on morphology, life cycle, management, and symptoms of the economically most important harmful important mite (acari) and nematode species of onion and garlic has been provided through careful survey of corresponding researches in Turkey and given information about new practices and approaches on their controls.

Keywords: onion, garlic, pest, acari, nematoda control methods, Turkey

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35 Identification of Viruses Infecting Garlic Plants in Colombia

Authors: Diana M. Torres, Anngie K. Hernandez, Andrea Villareal, Magda R. Gomez, Sadao Kobayashi

Abstract:

Colombian Garlic crops exhibited mild mosaic, yellow stripes, and deformation. This group of symptoms suggested a viral infection. Several viruses belonging to the genera Potyvirus, Carlavirus and Allexivirus are known to infect garlic and lower their yield worldwide, but in Colombia, there are no studies of viral infections in this crop, only leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) has been reported to our best knowledge. In Colombia, there are no management strategies for viral diseases in garlic because of the lack of information about viral infections on this crop, which is reflected in (i) high prevalence of viral related symptoms in garlic fields and (ii) high dispersal rate. For these reasons, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the viral status of garlic in Colombia, which can represent a major threat on garlic yield and quality for this country 55 symptomatic leaf samples were collected for virus detection by RT-PCR and mechanical inoculation. Total RNA isolated from infected samples were subjected to RT-PCR with primers 1-OYDV-G/2-OYDV-G for Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) (expected size 774pb), 1LYSV/2LYSV for LYSV (expected size 1000pb), SLV 7044/SLV 8004 for Shallot latent virus (SLV) (expected size 960pb), GCL-N30/GCL-C40 for Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) (expected size 481pb) and EF1F/EF1R for internal control (expected size 358pb). GCLV, SLV, and LYSV were detected in infected samples; in 95.6% of the analyzed samples was detected at least one of the viruses. GCLV and SLV were detected in single infection with low prevalence (9.3% and 7.4%, respectively). Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses. Four viral complexes were identified: three double infection (64% of analyzed samples) and one triple infection (15%). The most frequent viral complex was SLV + GCLV infecting 48.1% of the samples. The other double complexes identified had a prevalence of 7% (GCLV + LYSV and SLV + LYSV) and 5.6% of the samples were free from these viruses. Mechanical transmission experiments were set up using leaf tissues of collected samples from infected fields, different test plants were assessed to know the host range, but it was restricted to C. quinoa, confirming the presence of detected viruses which have limited host range and were detected in C. quinoa by RT-PCR. The results of molecular and biological tests confirm the presence of SLV, LYSV, and GCLV; this is the first report of SLV and LYSV in garlic plants in Colombia, which can represent a serious threat for this crop in this country.

Keywords: SLV, GCLV, LYSV, leek yellow stripe virus, Allium sativum

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34 Performance, Yolk and Serum Cholesterol of Shaver-Brown Layers Fed Moringa Leaf Meal and Sun Dried Garlic Powder

Authors: Anselm Onyimonyi, A. Abaponitus

Abstract:

One hundred and ninety two Shaver-Brown layers aged 40 weeks were used in a 10 weeks feeding trial to investigate the effect of supplementary moringa leaf meal and sun-dried garlic powder (MOGA) on the performance, egg yolk and serum cholesterol profiles of the birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial in a Completely Randomized Design with 48 birds per treatment. Each treatment had 24 replicates with 2 birds, each separately housed in a cell in a battery cage. Birds on treatment 1 received a standard layers mash (16.5% CP and 3000 kcalME/kg) without any MOGA. Treatment 2 birds received the control diet with 5 g moringa leaf meal/kg of feed, treatment 3 received the control diet with 5 g sun-dried garlic powder/kg of feed, treatment 4 had a combination of 5 g each of moringa leaf meal and sun dried garlic powder/kg of feed. Data were kept on daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake. 10 eggs were collected per treatment at the end of the study for yolk cholesterol determination. Blood samples from four birds per treatment were collected and used for the serum cholesterol and triglycerides determination. Results showed that bird on treatment 3 (5% moringa leaf meal/kg of feed) had significantly higher (P < 0.05) Hen Day Egg Production record of 83.3% as against 78.75%, 65.05% and 66.67% recorded for the control, T2 and T4 birds, respectively. Egg weight of 56.39 g recorded for the same birds on treatment 3 was significantly (P< 0.05) lower than the values of 62.61 g, 60.99 g and 59.33 g recorded for birds on T4, T1 and T2, respectively. Yolk and serum cholesterol profiles of the moringa leaf meal fed birds were significantly (P<0.05) lowered when compared to those of the other treatments. Comparatively, the birds on the MOGA diets had significantly reduced yolk and serum cholesterol than the control. It is concluded that supplementation of moringa leaf meal and sun dried garlic powder at the levels used in this study will result in the production of nutritionally healthier eggs with less yolk and serum cholesterol.

Keywords: performance, cholesterol, moringa, garlic

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33 Palatability of a Garlic and Citrus Extract Feed Supplement to Enhance Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vivo

Authors: Michael Graz, Andrew Shearer, Gareth Evans

Abstract:

Manipulation of rumen bacteria is receiving increasing attention as a way of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are generated by the agricultural sector. Feed supplementation in particular is one of the ways in which this drive is being addressed, in particular with reference to livestock-generated GHG emissions. A blend of naturally occurring chemical extracts obtained from garlic and bitter orange extracts has been identified as a natural, sustainable and non-antibiotic based way of reducing methane production by ruminant livestock. In the current study, the acceptability and impact of this blend of natural extracts on feed rations of beef cattle was trialed in vivo on a commercial farm in Europe. Initial findings have demonstrated acceptable palatability, with all animals accepting the feed supplement into their ration both when it was mixed into the total daily ration and when used as a part of their high energy rations. Measurement of the impact of this feed supplement on productivity weight gain and milk quality is ongoing. In conclusion, this field study confirmed the palatability of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts and hence pointed to possibility of the extract blend to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.

Keywords: citrus, garlic, methane reduction, palatability, ruminants

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32 Germination and Bulb Formation of Allium tuncelianum L. under in vitro Condition

Authors: Suleyman Kizil, Tahsin Sogut, Khalid M. Khawar

Abstract:

Genus Allium includes 600 to 750 species and most of these including Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) N. Ozhatay, B. Mathew & Siraneci; Syn; A. macrochaetum Boiss. and Hausskn. subsp. tuncelianum Kollman] or Tunceli garlic is endemic to Eastern Turkish Province of Tunceli and Munzur mountains. They are edible, bear attractive white-to-purple flowers and fertile black seeds with deep seed dormancy. This study aimed to break seed dormancy of Tunceli garlic and determine the conditions for induction of bulblets on these seeds and increase their diameter by culturing them on MS medium supplemented different strengths of KNO3. Tunceli garlic seeds were collected from field grown plants. They were germinated on MS medium with or without 20 g/l sucrose followed by their culture on 1 × 1900 mg/l, 2 × 1900 mg/l, 4 ×1900 mg/l and 6 × 1900 mg/l mg/l KNO3 supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. Improved seeds germination was noted on MS medium with and without sucrose but with variation compared to previous reports. The bulb development percentage on each of the sprouted seeds was not parallel to the percentage of seed germination. The results showed 34% and 28.5% bulb induction was noted on germinated seeds after 150 and 158 days on MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and no sucrose respectively showing a delay of 8 days on the latter compared to the former. The results emphatically noted role of cold stratification on agar solidified MS medium supplemented with sucrose to improve seed germination. The best increase in bulb diameter was noted on MS medium containing 1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3 after 178 days with bulblet diameter and bulblet weight of 0.54 cm and 0.048 g, respectively. Consequently, the bulbs induced on sucrose containing MS medium could be transferred to pots earlier. Increased (>1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3) strengths of KNO3 induced negative effect on growth and development of Tunceli garlic bulbs. The strategy of seed germination and bulblet induction reported in this study could be positively used for conservation of this endemic plant species.

Keywords: Tunceli garlic, seed, dormancy, bulblets, bulb growth

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31 The Impact of Garlic and Citrus Extracts on Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vitro

Authors: Michael Graz, Natasha Hurril, Andrew Shearer

Abstract:

Research on feed supplementation with natural compounds is currently being intensively pursued with a view to improving energy utilisation in ruminants and mitigating the production of methane by these animals. Towards this end, a novel combination of extracts from garlic and bitter orange was therefore selected for trials on the basis of their previously published in vitro anti-methanogenic potential. Three separate in vitro experiments were conducted to determine energy utilisation and greenhouse gas production. These included use of rumen fluid from fistulated cows and sheep in batch culture, the Hohenheim gas test, and the Rusitec technique. Experimental and control arms were utilised, with 5g extracts per kilogram of total dietary dry matter (0.05g/kg active compounds) being used to supplement or not supplement the in vitro systems. Respiratory measurements were conducted on experimental day 1 for the batch culture and Hohenheim gas test and on day 14-21 for the Rusitec Technique (in a 21-day trial). Measurements included methane (CH4) production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate and degradation of organic matter (Rusitec). CH4 production was reduced by 82% (±16%), 68% (±11%) and 37% (±4%) in the batch culture, Hohenheim gas test and Rusitec, respectively. Total VFA production was reduced by 13% (±2%) and 2% (±0.1%) in the batch culture and Hohenheim gas test whilst it was increased by 8% (±2%) in the Rusitec. Total VFA production was reduced in all tests between 2 and 10%, whilst acetate production was reduced between 10% and 29%. Propionate production which is an indicator of weight gain was increased in all cases between 16% and 30%. Butyrate production which is considered an indicator of potential milk yield was increased by between 6 and 11%. Degradation of organic matter in the Rusitec experiments was improved by 10% (±0.1%). In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.

Keywords: citrus, garlic, methane, ruminants

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30 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

Abstract:

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

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29 The Preliminary Exposition of Soil Biological Activity, Microbial Diversity and Morpho-Physiological Indexes of Cucumber under Interactive Effect of Allelopathic Garlic Stalk: A Short-Term Dynamic Response in Replanted Alkaline Soil

Authors: Ahmad Ali, Muhammad Imran Ghani, Haiyan Ding, Zhihui Cheng, Muhammad Iqbal

Abstract:

Background and Aims: In recent years, protected cultivation trend, especially in the northern parts of China, spread dynamically where production area, structure, and crops diversity have expanded gradually under plastic greenhouse vegetable cropping (PGVC) system. Under this growing system, continuous monoculture with excessive synthetic fertilizers inputs are common cultivation practices frequently adopted by commercial producers. Such long-term cumulative wild exercise year after year sponsor the continuous cropping obstacles in PGVC soil, which have greatly threatened the regional soil eco-sustainability and further impose the continuous assault on soil ecological diversity leading to the exhaustion of agriculture productivity. The aim of this study was to develop new allelopathic insights by exploiting available biological resources in the favor of sustainable PGVC to illuminate the continuous obstacle factors in plastic greenhouse. Method: A greenhouse study was executed under plastic tunnel located at the Horticulture Experimental Station of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, one of the prominent regions for intensive commercial PGVC in China. Post-harvest garlic residues (stalk, leaves) mechanically smashed, homogenized into powder size and incorporated at the ratio of 1:100; 3:100; 5:100 as a soil amendment in a replanted soil that have been used for continuous cucumber monoculture for 7 years (annually double cropping system in a greenhouse). Results: Incorporated C-rich garlic stalk significantly influenced the soil condition through various ways; organic matter decomposition and mineralization, moderately adjusted the soil pH, enhanced the soil nutrient availability, increased enzymatic activities, and promoted 20% more cucumber yield in short-time. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rDNA genes, the current study revealed that addition of garlic stalk/residue could also improve the microbial abundance and community composition in extensively exploited soil, and contributed in soil functionality, caused prosper changes in soil characteristics, reinforced to good crop yield. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that addition of garlic stalk as soil fertility amendment is a feasible, cost-effective and efficient resource utilization way for renovation of degraded soil health, ameliorate soil quality components and improve ecological environment in short duration. Our study may provide a better scientific understanding for efficient crop residue management typically from allelopathic source.

Keywords: garlic stalk, microbial community dynamics, plant growth, soil amendment, soil-plant system

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28 Dried Venison Quality Parameters Changes during Storage

Authors: Laima Silina, Ilze Gramatina, Liga Skudra, Tatjana Rakcejeva

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The aim of the current research was to determine quality parameters changes of dried venison during storage. Protein, fat and moisture content dynamics as well microbiological quality was analyzed. For the experiments the meat (0.02×4.00×7.00 cm) pieces were marinated in “teriyaki sauce” marinade (composition: teriyaki sauce, sweet and sour sauce, taco sauce, soy sauce, American BBQ sauce hickory, sesame oil, garlic, garlic salt, tabasco red pepper sauce) at 4±2°C temperature for 48±1h. Sodium monophosphate (E339) was also added in part of marinade to improve the meat textural properties. After marinating, meat samples were dried in microwave-vacuum drier MUSSON–1, packaged in vacuum pouches made from polymer film (PA/PE) with barrier properties and storage for 4 months at 18±1°C temperature in dark place. Dried venison samples were analyzed after 0, 35, 91 and 112 days of storage. During the storage total plate counts of dried venison samples significantly (p<0.05) increased. No significant differences in the content of protein, fat and moisture were detected when analyzing dried meat samples during storage and comparing them with the chemical parameters of just dried meat.

Keywords: drying, microwave-vacuum drier, quality, venison

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27 The Effectiveness of Herbal Capsules Ethanol Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) and Bulb of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Lowering Total Cholesterol Levels in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Anton Bahtiar, Lukas Tjandra Leksana, Fransiscus D. Suyatna

Abstract:

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors that can trigger the development of cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease. One of the traditional drugs used for hypercholesterolemia is a combination of herbs celery (Apium graveolens) and garlic (Allium sativum). This study aimed to investigate the effects of the extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Subjects consisted of patients with traditional medicine clinic in Jakarta. Each subject received treatment capsules containing herbal extract and placebo capsules. On the 44 subjects, the lipid profile was examined blood levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Paired two-tailed t-test was used for the difference between lipid profile of the therapy group and the placebo group. The changes in the lipid profile between the treatment groups and the placebo group for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides was 14,82 ± 6,946;1.45 ± 2,945;6,98 ± 8,105;2,48 ± 6,504 mg/dL. The herbal extract decrease blood cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (P <0.05).

Keywords: Allium sativum, Apium graveolens, hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol, HDL, LDL

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26 Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Garlic Extracts and Metformin in Diabetes Treatment

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Yacouba Djamila, Amna Hamad

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Abstract—The worldwide increasing of using herbs in form of medicine with or without prescription medications potentiates the interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines; due to more research for herb-drug interactions are needed. for a long time hyperglycemia had been treated with several medicinal plants. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction effect between A. sativum bulb extracts and metformin drug used in diabetes treatment. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation were conducted by glucose reuptake using isolated rats hemidiaphgrams tissue and by estimate glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded wistar albino rats. The results showed that, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were found to have activity of glucose uptake in isolated rats hemidiaphgrams of 24.11 mg/g, 19.07 mg/g and 15.66 mg/g compared to metformin drug of 17 mg/g. These activity were reducded to 17.8 mg/g, 13.59 mg/g and 14.46 mg/g after combination with metformin, metformin itself reduced to 13.59 mg/g, 14.46 mg/g and 12.71 mg/g in comination with chloroform and ethyl acetate. These decrease in activity could be due to herbal–drug interaction between the extracts of A. sativum bulb and metformin drug. The interaction between A. sativum extract and metformin was also shown by in vivo study on the induced hyperglycemic rats. The glucose level after administered of 200 mg/kg was found to be increase with 47.2 % and 17.7% at first and second hour compared to the increase of blood glucose in the control group of 82.6% and76.7%.. At fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 3.4% compared to control which continue to increase with 68.2%. Dose of 400 mg/kg at first hour showed increase in blood glucose of 31.5 %, at second and fourth hours the glucose level was became less than normal with decrease of 3.2 % and 30.4%. After combination the activity was found to be less than that of extract at both high and low dose, whereas, at first and second hour, the glucose level was found to be increase with 50.4% and 21.2%, at fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 14%. Therefore A. sativum could be a potential source for anti-diabetic when it used alone, and it is significant important to use the garlic extract alone instead of combined with Metformin drug in diabetes- treatment.

Keywords: Antagonistic, Garlic, Metformin, Synergistic

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