Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 331

Search results for: coal desulfurization

331 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim


Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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330 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Kızıltas Demir, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin


Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
329 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim


Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
328 Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels Using Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: T. Zaki, Fathi S. Soliman


Desulfurization process is required by most, if not all refineries, to achieve ultra-low sulfur fuel, that contains less than 10 ppm sulfur. A lot of research works and many effective technologies have been studied to achieve deep desulfurization process in moderate reaction environment, such as adsorption desulfurization (ADS), oxidative desulfurization (ODS), biodesulfurization and extraction desulfurization (EDS). Extraction desulfurization using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is considered as simple, cheap, highly efficient and environmentally friend process. In this work, four DESs were designed and synthesized. Choline chloride (ChCl) was selected as typical hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), and ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gl), urea (Ur) and thiourea (Tu) were selected as hydrogen bond donors (HBD), from which a series of deep eutectic solvents were synthesized. The experimental data showed that the synthesized DESs showed desulfurization affinities towards the thiophene species in cyclohexane solvent. Ethylene glycol molecules showed more affinity to create hydrogen bond with thiophene instead of choline chloride. Accordingly, ethylene glycol choline chloride DES has the highest extraction efficiency.

Keywords: DES, desulfurization, green solvent, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
327 Managing the Effects of Wet Coal on Generation in Thermal Power Station: A Case Study

Authors: Ravindra Gohane, S. V. Deshmukh


The coal acts as a fuel on a very large scale. Coal forms the basis of any thermal power plant. Different types of coal are available for utilization. The moisture content, volatile nature and ash content determines the type of the coal. Out of these moisture plays a very important part as it is present naturally within the coal and is added while handling the coal and is termed as wet coal. The problems of wet coal are many and more particularly during rainy season such as generation loss, jamming of crusher, reduction in calorific value, transportation of coal etc. Efforts are made to resolve the problems arising out of wet coal worldwide. This paper highlights the issue of resolving the problem due to wet coal with the help of a case study involving installation of V-type wiper on the conveyer belt.

Keywords: coal handling plant, wet coal, v-type, generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
326 Clean Coal Using Coal Bed Methane: A Pollution Control Mechanism

Authors: Arish Iqbal, Santosh Kumar Singh


Energy from coal is one of the major source of energy throughout the world but taking into consideration its effect on environment 'Clean Coal Technologies' (CCT) came into existence. In this paper we have we studied why CCT’s are essential and what are the different types of CCT’s. Also, the coal and CCT scenario in India is introduced. Coal Bed Methane one of major CCT area is studied in detail. Different types of coal bed methane and its methods of extraction are discussed. The different problem areas during the extraction of CBM are identified and discussed. How CBM can be used as a fuel for future is also discussed.

Keywords: CBM (coal bed methane), CCS (carbon capture and storage), CCT (clean coal technology), CMM (coal mining methane)

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
325 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Novel Trihexyltetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

Authors: Swapnil A. Dharaskar, Kailas L. Wasewar, Mahesh N. Varma, Diwakar Z. Shende


Owing to the stringent environmental regulations in many countries for production of ultra low sulfur petroleum fractions intending to reduce sulfur emissions results in enormous interest in this area among the scientific community. The requirement of zero sulfur emissions enhances the prominence for more advanced techniques in desulfurization. Desulfurization by extraction is a promising approach having several advantages over conventional hydrodesulphurization. Present work is dealt with various new approaches for desulfurization of ultra clean gasoline, diesel and other liquid fuels by extraction with ionic liquids. In present paper experimental data on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride has been presented. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized ionic liquid. Further, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of ionic liquids were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on removal of dibenzothiphene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 84.5% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30OC under the mild reaction conditions. Phosphonium ionic liquids could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in present paper explore the significant insights of phosphonium based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

Keywords: ionic liquid, PPIL, desulfurization, liquid fuel, extraction

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324 Merit Order of Indonesian Coal Mining Sources to Meet the Domestic Power Plants Demand

Authors: Victor Siahaan


Coal still become the most important energy source for electricity generation known for its contribution which take the biggest portion of energy mix that a country has, for example Indonesia. The low cost of electricity generation and quite a lot of resources make this energy still be the first choice to fill the portion of base load power. To realize its significance to produce electricity, it is necessary to know the amount of coal (volume) needed to ensure that all coal power plants (CPP) in a country can operate properly. To secure the volume of coal, in this study, discussion was carried out regarding the identification of coal mining sources in Indonesia, classification of coal typical from each coal mining sources, and determination of the port of loading. By using data above, the sources of coal mining are then selected to feed certain CPP based on the compatibility of the coal typical and the lowest transport cost.

Keywords: merit order, Indonesian coal mine, electricity, power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
323 Measurement of Coal Fineness, Air Fuel Ratio, and Fuel Weight Distribution in a Vertical Spindle Mill’s Pulverized Fuel Pipes at Classifier Vane 40%

Authors: Jayasiler Kunasagaram


In power generation, coal fineness is crucial to maintain flame stability, ensure combustion efficiency, and lower emissions to the environment. In order for the pulverized coal to react effectively in the boiler furnace, the size of coal particles needs to be at least 70% finer than 74 μm. This paper presents the experiment results of coal fineness, air fuel ratio and fuel weight distribution in pulverized fuel pipes at classifier vane 40%. The aim of this experiment is to extract the pulverized coal is kinetically and investigate the data accordingly. Dirty air velocity, coal sample extraction, and coal sieving experiments were performed to measure coal fineness. The experiment results show that required coal fineness can be achieved at 40 % classifier vane. However, this does not surpass the desired value by a great margin.

Keywords: coal power, emissions, isokinetic sampling, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
322 Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow Structure for the Flue Gas Desulfurization

Authors: Cheng-Jui Li, Chien-Chou Tseng


This study adopts Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to build the multiphase flow numerical model where the interface between the flue gas and desulfurization liquid can be traced by Eulerian-Eulerian model. Inside the tower, the contact of the desulfurization liquid flow from the spray nozzles and flue gas flow can trigger chemical reactions to remove the sulfur dioxide from the exhaust gas. From experimental observations of the industrial scale plant, the desulfurization mechanism depends on the mixing level between the flue gas and the desulfurization liquid. In order to significantly improve the desulfurization efficiency, the mixing efficiency and the residence time can be increased by perforated sieve trays. Hence, the purpose of this research is to investigate the flow structure of sieve trays for the flue gas desulfurization by numerical simulation. In this study, there is an outlet at the top of FGD tower to discharge the clean gas and the FGD tower has a deep tank at the bottom, which is used to collect the slurry liquid. In the major desulfurization zone, the desulfurization liquid and flue gas have a complex mixing flow. Because there are four perforated plates in the major desulfurization zone, which spaced 0.4m from each other, and the spray array is placed above the top sieve tray, which includes 33 nozzles. Each nozzle injects desulfurization liquid that consists of the Mg(OH)2 solution. On each sieve tray, the outside diameter, the hole diameter, and the porosity are 0.6m, 20 mm and 34.3%. The flue gas flows into the FGD tower from the space between the major desulfurization zone and the deep tank can finally become clean. The desulfurization liquid and the liquid slurry goes to the bottom tank and is discharged as waste. When the desulfurization solution flow impacts the sieve tray, the downward momentum will be converted to the upper surface of the sieve tray. As a result, a thin liquid layer can be developed above the sieve tray, which is the so-called the slurry layer. And the volume fraction value within the slurry layer is around 0.3~0.7. Therefore, the liquid phase can't be considered as a discrete phase under the Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. Besides, there is a liquid column through the sieve trays. The downward liquid column becomes narrow as it interacts with the upward gas flow. After the flue gas flows into the major desulfurization zone, the flow direction of the flue gas is upward (+y) in the tube between the liquid column and the solid boundary of the FGD tower. As a result, the flue gas near the liquid column may be rolled down to slurry layer, which developed a vortex or a circulation zone between any two sieve trays. The vortex structure between two sieve trays results in a sufficient large two-phase contact area. It also increases the number of times that the flue gas interacts with the desulfurization liquid. On the other hand, the sieve trays improve the two-phase mixing, which may improve the SO2 removal efficiency.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Eulerian-Eulerian Model, Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), perforated sieve tray

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321 The Evaluation of Fuel Desulfurization Performance of Choline-Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents with Addition of Graphene Oxide as Catalyst

Authors: Chiau Yuan Lim, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid, Fai Kait Chong


Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) is used in various applications due to its simplicity in synthesis procedure, biodegradable, inexpensive and easily available chemical ingredients. Graphene Oxide is a popular catalyst that being used in various processes due to its stacking carbon sheets in layer which theoretically rapid up the catalytic processes. In this study, choline chloride based DESs were synthesized and ChCl-PEG(1:4) was found to be the most effective DES in performing desulfurization, which it is able to remove up to 47.4% of the sulfur content in the model oil in just 10 minutes, and up to 95% of sulfur content after repeat the process for six times. ChCl-PEG(1:4) able to perform up to 32.7% desulfurization on real diesel after 6 multiple stages. Thus, future research works should focus on removing the impurities on real diesel before utilising DESs in petroleum field.

Keywords: choline chloride, deep eutectic solvent, fuel desulfurization, graphene oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
320 Optimizing Coal Yard Management Using Discrete Event Simulation

Authors: Iqbal Felani


A Coal-Fired Power Plant has some integrated facilities to handle coal from three separated coal yards to eight units power plant’s bunker. But nowadays the facilities are not reliable enough for supporting the system. Management planned to invest some facilities to increase the reliability. They also had a plan to make single spesification of coal used all of the units, called Single Quality Coal (SQC). This simulation would compare before and after improvement with two scenarios i.e First In First Out (FIFO) and Last In First Out (LIFO). Some parameters like stay time, reorder point and safety stock is determined by the simulation. Discrete event simulation based software, Flexsim 5.0, is used to help the simulation. Based on the simulation, Single Quality Coal with FIFO scenario has the shortest staytime with 8.38 days.

Keywords: Coal Yard Management, Discrete event simulation First In First Out, Last In First Out.

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319 Hazardous Gas Detection Robot in Coal Mines

Authors: Kanchan J. Kakade, S. A. Annadate


This paper presents design and development of underground coal mine monitoring using mbed arm cortex controller and ZigBee communication. Coal mine is a special type of mine which is dangerous in nature. Safety is the most important feature of a coal industry for proper functioning. It’s not only for employees and workers but also for environment and nation. Many coal producing countries in the world face phenomenal frequently occurred accidents in coal mines viz, gas explosion, flood, and fire breaking out during coal mines exploitation. Thus, such emissions of various gases from coal mines are necessary to detect with the help of robot. Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is made up of mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Coal Mine Detection Robot mainly detects mash gas and carbon monoxide. The mash gas is the kind of the mixed gas which mainly make up of methane in the underground of the coal mine shaft, and sometimes it abbreviate to methane. It is formed from vegetation, which has been fused between other rock layers and altered by the combined effects of heat and pressure over millions of years to form coal beds. Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel.

Keywords: Zigbee communication, various sensors, hazardous gases, mbed arm cortex M3 core controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
318 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu


A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
317 Extractive Desulfurization of Atmospheric Gasoil with N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Kahina Bedda, Boudjema Hamada


Environmental regulations have been introduced in many countries around the world to reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel to ultra low levels with the intention of lowering diesel engine’s harmful exhaust emissions and improving air quality. Removal of sulfur containing compounds from diesel feedstocks to produce ultra low sulfur diesel fuel by extraction with selective solvents has received increasing attention in recent years. This is because the sulfur extraction technologies compared to the hydrotreating processes could reduce the cost of desulfurization substantially since they do not demand hydrogen, and are carried out at atmospheric pressure. In this work, the desulfurization of distillate gasoil by liquid-liquid extraction with N, N-dimethylformamide was investigated. This fraction was recovered from a mixture of Hassi Messaoud crude oils and Hassi R'Mel gas-condensate in Algiers refinery. The sulfur content of this cut is 281 ppm. Experiments were performed in six-stage with a ratio of solvent:feed equal to 3:1. The effect of the extraction temperature was investigated in the interval 30 ÷ 110°C. At 110°C the yield of refined gas oil was 82% and its sulfur content was 69 ppm.

Keywords: desulfurization, gasoil, N, N-dimethylformamide, sulfur content

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
316 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian


Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
315 Mini Coal Gasifier for Fulfilling Small-Scale Industries Energy Consumption in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi, Ika Monika


Mini coal gasifier (GasMin) is a small reactor that could convert coal into combustible gas or producer gas which is designed to fulfill energy needs of small-scale industries. The producer gas can be utilized for both external and internal combustion. The design of coal gasifier is suitable for community require because it is easy to handle, affordable and environmentally friendly. The feasibility study shows that the substitution of 12 kg LPG or specially 50 kg LPG into GasMin of 20 kg coal capacity per hour is very attractive. The estimation price of 20 kg coal per hour capacity GasMin is 40 million rupiahs. In the year 2016, the implementation of GasMin conducted at alumunium industry and batik industry at Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: biomass, coal, energy, gasification

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
314 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg


The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

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313 Effect of Coal on Engineering Properties in Building Materials: Opportunity to Manufacturing Insulating Bricks

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Halima Chemani


The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adding coal to obtain insulating ceramic product. The preparation of mixtures is achieved with 04 types of different masse compositions, consisting of gray and yellow clay, and coal. Analyses are performed on local raw materials by adding coal as additive. The coal content varies from 5 to 20 % in weight by varying the size of coal particles ranging from 0.25 mm to 1.60 mm. Initially, each natural moisture content of a raw material has been determined at the temperature of 105°C in a laboratory oven. The Influence of low-coal content on absorption, the apparent density, the contraction and the resistance during compression have been evaluated. The experimental results showed that the optimized composition could be obtained by adding 10% by weight of coal leading thus to insulating ceramic products with water absorption, a density and resistance to compression of 9.40 %, 1.88 g/cm3, 35.46 MPa, respectively. The results show that coal, when mixed with traditional raw materials, offers the conditions to be used as an additive in the production of lightweight ceramic products.

Keywords: clay, coal, resistance to compression, insulating bricks

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
312 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: underground coal gasification, clean coal technology, calorific value, syngas

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311 Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti


Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. Nitrogen gas has been used to obtain the inert condition and to carry the gaseous pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis transformed organic materials into gaseous components, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed amount of carbon and ash. The composition of gas which is produced from the pyrolysis is carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The gas was condensed and the liquid containing oil/tar and water was obtained. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and 17.13% (Arutmin-Kalimantan).

Keywords: coal tar, pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
310 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel


A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: design of experiment (DOE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), optimization, oxidative desulfurization (ODS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
309 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
308 Analysis of Gas Transport and Sorption Processes in Coal under Confining Pressure Conditions

Authors: Anna Pajdak, Mateusz Kudasik, Norbert Skoczylas, Leticia Teixeira Palla Braga


A substantial majority of gas transport and sorption researches into coal are carried out on samples that are free of stress. In natural conditions, coal occurs at considerable depths, which often exceed 1000 meters. In such conditions, coal is subjected to geostatic pressure. Thus, in natural conditions, the sorption capacity of coal subjected to geostatic pressure can differ considerably from the sorption capacity of coal, determined in laboratory conditions, which is free of stress. The work presents the results of filtration and sorption tests of gases in coal under confining pressure conditions. The tests were carried out on the author's device, which ensures: confining pressure regulation in the range of 0-30 MPa, isobaric gas pressure conditions, and registration of changes in sample volume during its gas saturation. Based on the conducted research it was found, among others, that the sorption capacity of coal relative to CO₂ was reduced by about 15% as a result of the change in the confining pressure from 1.5 MPa to 30 MPa exerted on the sample. The same change in sample load caused a significant, more than tenfold reduction in carbon permeability to CO₂. The results confirmed that a load of coal corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 1000 meters underground reduces its permeability and sorption properties. These results are so important that the effect of load on the sorption properties of coal should be taken into account in laboratory studies on the applicability of CO₂ Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (CO₂-ECBM) technology.

Keywords: coal, confining pressure, gas transport, sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
307 Numerical Study on the Performance of Upgraded Victorian Brown Coal in an Ironmaking Blast Furnace

Authors: Junhai Liao, Yansong Shen, Aibing Yu


A 3D numerical model is developed to simulate the complicated in-furnace combustion phenomena in the lower part of an ironmaking blast furnace (BF) while using pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology to reduce the consumption of relatively expensive coke. The computational domain covers blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed in the BF. The model is validated against experimental data in terms of gaseous compositions and coal burnout. Parameters, such as coal properties and some key operational variables, play an important role on the performance of coal combustion. Their diverse effects on different combustion characteristics are examined in the domain, in terms of gas compositions, temperature, and burnout. The heat generated by the combustion of upgraded Victorian brown coal is able to meet the heating requirement of a BF, hence making upgraded brown coal injected into BF possible. It is evidenced that the model is suitable to investigate the mechanism of the PCI operation in a BF. Prediction results provide scientific insights to optimize and control of the PCI operation. This model cuts the cost to investigate and understand the comprehensive combustion phenomena of upgraded Victorian brown coal in a full-scale BF.

Keywords: blast furnace, numerical study, pulverized coal injection, Victorian brown coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
306 Metal-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents for Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels: Analysis from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Aibek Kukpayev, Dhawal Shah


Combustion of sour fuels containing high amount of sulfur leads to the formation of sulfur oxides, which adversely harm the environment and has a negative impact on human health. Considering this, several legislations have been imposed to bring down the sulfur content in fuel to less than 10 ppm. In recent years, novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been developed to achieve deep desulfurization, particularly to extract thiophenic compounds from liquid fuels. These novel DESs, considered as analogous to ionic liquids are green, eco-friendly, inexpensive, and sustainable. We herein, using molecular dynamic simulation, analyze the interactions of metal-based DESs with model oil consisting of thiophenic compounds. The DES used consists of polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) as a hydrogen bond donor, choline chloride (ChCl) or tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) as metal salt. In particular, the combination of ChCl: PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:1 and the combination of TBAC:PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:0.25 were simulated, separately, with model oil consisting of octane and thiophenes at 25ᵒC and 1 bar. The results of molecular dynamics simulations were analyzed in terms of interaction energies between different components. The simulations revealed a stronger interaction between DESs/thiophenes as compared with octane/thiophenes, suggestive of an efficient desulfurization process. In addition, our analysis suggests that the choice of hydrogen bond acceptor strongly influences the efficiency of the desulfurization process. Taken together, the results also show the importance of the metal ion, although present in small amount, in the process, and the role of the polymer in desulfurization of the model fuel.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, desulfurization, molecular dynamics simulations, thiophenes

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305 Consequential Effects of Coal Utilization on Urban Water Supply Sources – a Study of Ajali River in Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Enebe Christian Chukwudi


Water bodies around the world notably underground water, ground water, rivers, streams, and seas, face degradation of their water quality as a result of activities associated with coal utilization including coal mining, coal processing, coal burning, waste storage and thermal pollution from coal plants which tend to contaminate these water bodies. This contamination results from heavy metals, presence of sulphate and iron, dissolved solids, mercury and other toxins contained in coal ash, sludge, and coal waste. These wastes sometimes find their way to sources of urban water supply and contaminate them. A major problem encountered in the supply of potable water to Enugu municipality is the contamination of Ajali River, the source of water supply to Enugu municipal by coal waste. Hydro geochemical analysis of Ajali water samples indicate high sulphate and iron content, high total dissolved solids(TDS), low pH (acidity values) and significant hardness in addition to presence of heavy metals, mercury, and other toxins. This is indicative of the following remedial measures: I. Proper disposal of mine wastes at designated disposal sites that are suitably prepared. II. Proper water treatment and III. Reduction of coal related contaminants taking advantage of clean coal technology.

Keywords: effects, coal, utilization, water quality, sources, waste, contamination, treatment

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304 Experimental Design and Optimization of Diesel Oil Desulfurization Process by Adsorption Processes

Authors: M. Firoz Kalam, Wilfried Schuetz, Jan Hendrik Bredehoeft


Thiophene sulfur compounds' removal from diesel oil by batch adsorption process using commercial powdered activated carbon was designed and optimized in two-level factorial design method. This design analysis was used to find out the effects of operating parameters directing the adsorption process, such as amount of adsorbent, temperature and stirring time. The desulfurization efficiency was considered the response or output variable. Results showed that the stirring time had the largest effects on sulfur removal efficiency as compared with other operating parameters and their interactions under the experimental ranges studied. A regression model was generated to observe the closeness between predicted and experimental values. The three-dimensional plots and contour plots of main factors were generated according to the regression results to observe the optimal points.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorptive desulfurization, factorial design, process optimization

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303 Acid Soil Amelioration Using Coal Bio-Briquette Ash and Waste Concrete in China

Authors: Y. Sakai, C. Wang


The decrease in agricultural production due to soil deterioration has been an urgent task. Soil acidification is a potentially serious land degradation issue and it will have a major impact on agricultural productivity and sustainable farming systems. In China, acid soil is mainly distributed in the southern part, the decrease in agricultural production and heavy metal contamination are serious problems. In addition, not only environmental and health problems due to the exhaust gas such as mainly sulfur dioxide (SO₂) but also the generation of a huge amount of construction and demolition wastes with the accelerating urbanization has emerged as a social problem in China. Therefore, the need for the recycling and reuse of both desulfurization waste and waste concrete is very urgent and necessary. So we have investigated the effectiveness as acid soil amendments of both coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete. In this paper, acid soil (AS1) in Nanjing (pH=6.0, EC=1.6dSm-1) and acid soil (AS2) in Guangzhou (pH=4.1, EC=0.2dSm-1) were investigated in soil amelioration test. Soil amendments were three coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA1, BBA2 and BBA3), the waste cement fine powders (CFP) ( < 200µm (particle diameter)), waste concrete particles (WCP) ( < 4.75mm ( < 0.6mm, 0.6-1.0mm, 1.0-2.0mm, 2.0-4.75mm)), and six mixtures with two coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA2 and BBA3), CFP, WCP( < 0.6mm) and WCP(2.0-4.75mm). In acid soil amelioration test, the three BBAs, CFP and various WCPs based on exchangeable calcium concentration were added to two acid soils. The application rates were from 0 wt% to 3.5 wt% in AS1 test and from 0 wt% to 6.0 wt% in AS2 test, respectively. Soil chemical properties (pH, EC, exchangeable and soluble ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K)) before and after mixing with soil amendments were measured. In addition, Al toxicity and the balance of salts (CaO, K₂O, MgO) in soil after amelioration was evaluated. The order of pH and exchangeable Ca concentration that is effective for acid soil amelioration was WCP(0.6mm) > CFP > WCP(2.0-4.25mm) > BB1 > BB2 > BB3. In all AS 1 and AS 2 amelioration tests using three BBAs, the pH and EC increased slightly with the increase of application rate and reached to the appropriate value range of both pH and EC in BBA1 only. Because BBA1 was higher value in pH and exchangeable Ca. After that, soil pH and EC with the increase in the application rate of BBA2, BBA3 and by using CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), WC(2.0-4.75mm) as soil amendment reached to each appropriate value range, respectively. In addition, the mixture amendments with BBA2, BBA3 CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), and WC(2.0-4.75mm) could ameliorate at a smaller amount of application rate in case of BBA only. And the exchangeable Al concentration decreased drastically with the increase in pH due to soil amelioration and was under the standard value. Lastly, the heavy metal (Cd, As, Se, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mo, B, Cu, Zn) contents in new soil amendments were under control standard values for agricultural use in China. Thus we could propose a new acid soil amelioration method using coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete in China.

Keywords: acid soil, coal bio-briquette ash, soil amelioration, waste concrete

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302 Co-Pyrolysis of Bituminous Coal with Peat by Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Ceren Efe, Hale Sütçü


In this study, the pyrolysis of bituminous coal, peat and their blends formed by mixing various ratios of them were examined by thermogravimetric analysis method. Thermogravimetric analyses of peat, bituminous coal and their blends in the proportions of 25 %, 50 % and 75 % were performed at heating rate of 10 °C/min and from the room temperature until to 800 °C temperature, in a nitrogen atmosphere of 100 ml/min. Kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis process were calculated using Coats&Redfern kinetic model.

Keywords: bituminous coal, peat, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Coats&Redfern

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