Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 775

Search results for: activation

775 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao


Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

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774 Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method

Authors: Ilkham Gafurovich Atabaev, Khimmatali Nomozovich Juraev


The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.

Keywords: activation energy, aluminum, low temperature diffusion, SiC

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773 Improving Cyclability and Capacity of Lithium Oxygen Batteries via Low Rate Pre-Activation

Authors: Zhihong Luo, Guangbin Zhu, Lulu Guo, Zhujun Lyu, Kun Luo


Cycling life has become the threshold for the prospective application of Li-O₂ batteries, and the protection of Li anode has recently regarded as the key factor to the performance. Herein, a simple low rate pre-activation (20 cycles at 0.5 Ag⁻¹ and a capacity of 200 mAh g⁻¹) was employed to effectively improve the performance and cyclability of Li-O₂ batteries. The charge/discharge cycles at 1 A g⁻¹ with a capacity of 1000 mAh g⁻¹ were maintained for up to 290 times versus 55 times for the cell without pre-activation. The ultimate battery capacity and high rate discharge property were also largely enhanced. Morphology, XRD and XPS analyses reveal that the performance improvement is in close association with the formation of the smooth and compact surface layer formed on the Li anode after low rate pre-activation, which apparently alleviated the corrosion of Li anode and the passivation of cathode during battery cycling, and the corresponding mechanism was also discussed.

Keywords: lithium oxygen battery, pre-activation, cyclability, capacity

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772 A Study on the Strategy for Domestic Space Industry Activation

Authors: Hangil Park, Hwayeon Song, Jingyung Sim


In this study, a business ecosystem of a domestic space industry is comprehensively analyzed to derive the influence factors. The priority level of each element as well as the disparity between the ideal and reality are investigated through a literature review and an expert survey. The three major influence factors determined are: (a) investment scale and approach, (b) propulsion system, and (c) industrialization with overseas expansion. Related issues based on the current status are evaluated, followed by a proposed activation strategy. This research's findings offer a direction for R&D budget allocation and law system maintenance for the activation of the domestic space industry.

Keywords: space industry, activation, strategy, business ecosystem

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771 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen


The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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770 Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs

Authors: L. Giraudet, O. Simonetti, G. de Tournadre, N. Dumelié, B. Clarenc, F. Reisdorffer


In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.

Keywords: mobility field activation, numerical simulation, OTFT, saturation failure

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769 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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768 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels

Authors: M. Münch, R. Brandt


Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.

Keywords: activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creep

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767 Inhibitory Effects of PPARγ Ligand, KR-62980, on Collagen-Stimulated Platelet Activation

Authors: Su Bin Wang, Jin Hee Ahn, Tong-Shin Chang


The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are member of nuclear receptor superfamily that act as a ligand-activated transcription factors. Although platelets lack a nucleus, previous studies have shown that PPARγ agonists, rosiglitazone, inhibited platelet activation induced by collagen. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of KR-62980, a newly synthesized PPARγ agonist, on collagen receptor-stimulated platelet activation. The specific tyrosine phosphorylations of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk and PLCγ2) for collagen receptor signaling pathways were suppressed by KR-62980. KR-62980 also attenuated downstream responses including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. PPARγ was found to associate with multiple proteins within the LAT signaling complex in collagen-stimulated platelets. This association was prevented by KR-62980, indicating a potential mechanism for PPARγ function in collagen-stimulated platelet activation. Furthermore, KR-62980 inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. Collectively, these data suggest that KR-62980 inhibits collagen-stimulated platelet activation and thrombus formation through modulating the collagen receptor signaling pathways.

Keywords: KR-62980, PPARγ, antiplatelet, thrombosis

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766 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin


Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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765 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: clean coal technology, CO₂ gasification, activation energy, underground coal gasification

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764 The Retinoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Fungal Ingredient 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Inhibition of Retinal Müller and Microglial Activation

Authors: Yu-Wen Cheng, Jau-Der Ho, Liang-Huan Wu, Fan-Li Lin, Li-Huei Chen, Hung-Ming Chang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, George Hsiao


Retina glial activation and neuroinflammation have been confirmed to cause devastating responses in retinodegenerative diseases. The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be exerted as the crucial pathological factors in glaucoma- and blue light-induced retinal injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the retinoprotective effects and mechanisms of fungal ingredient 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) isolated from Phellinus linteus in the retinal glial activation and retinodegenerative animal models. According to the cellular studies, DBL significantly and concentration-dependently abrogated MMP-9 activation and expression in TNFα-stimulated retinal Müller (rMC-1) cells. We found the inhibitory activities of DBL were strongly through the STAT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DBL dramatically attenuated MMP-9 activation in the stimulated Müller cells exposed to conditioned media from LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. On the other hand, DBL strongly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS in microglia BV-2 cells. Consistently, the phosphorylation of STAT was substantially blocked by DBL in LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In the evaluation of retinoprotective functions, the high IOP-induced scotopic electroretinographic (ERG) deficit and blue light-induced abnormal pupillary light response (PLR) were assessed. The deficit scotopic ERG responses markedly recovered by DBL in a rat model of glaucoma-like ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. DBL also reduced the aqueous gelatinolytic activity and retinal MMP-9 expression in high IOP-injured conditions. Additionally, DBL could restore the abnormal PLR and reduce retinal MMP-9 activation. In summary, DBL could ameliorate retinal neuroinflammation and MMP-9 activation by predominantly inhibiting STAT3 activation in the retinal Müller cells and microglia, which exhibits therapeutic potential for glaucoma and other retinal degenerative diseases.

Keywords: glaucoma, blue light, DBL, retinal Müller cell, MMP-9, STAT, Microglia, iNOS, ERG, PLR

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763 The Role of a Novel DEAD-Box Containing Protein in NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

Authors: Yi-Hui Lai, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Li-Chung Hsu


The inflammasome is a protein complex that modulates caspase-1 activity, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18, into their bioactive forms. It has been shown that the inflammasomes play a crucial role in the clearance of pathogenic infection and tissue repair. However, dysregulated inflammasome activation contributes to a wide range of human diseases such as cancers and auto-inflammatory diseases. Yet, regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains largely unknown. We discovered a novel DEAD box protein, whose biological function has not been reported, not only negatively regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by interfering NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and cellular localization but also mitigate pyroptosis upon pathogen evasion. The DEAD-box protein is the first DEAD-box protein gets involved in modulation of the inflammasome activation. In our study, we found that caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β production were largely enhanced upon LPS challenge in the DEAD box-containing protein- deleted THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). In addition, this DEAD box-containing protein migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon LPS stimulation, which is required for its inhibitory role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The DEAD box-containing protein specifically interacted with the LRR motif of NLRP3 via its DEAD domain. Furthermore, due to the crucial role of the NLRP3 LRR domain in the recruitment of NLRP3 to mitochondria and binding to its adaptor ASC, we found that the interaction of NLRP3 and ASC was downregulated in the presence of the DEAD box-containing protein. In addition to the mechanical study, we also found that this DEAD box protein protects host cells from inflammasome-triggered cell death in response to broad-ranging pathogens such as Candida albicans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, etc., involved in nosocomial infections and severe fever shock. Collectively, our results suggest that this novel DEAD box molecule might be a key therapeutic strategy for various infectious diseases.

Keywords: inflammasome, inflammation, innate immunity, pyroptosis

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762 Effect of TPA and HTLV-1 Tax on BRCA-1 and ERE Controlled Genes Expression

Authors: Azhar Jabareen, Mahmoud Huleihel


BRCA-1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor. The activated ERα is a transcriptional factor which activates various genes either by direct binding to the DNA at E2-responsive elements (EREs) and indirectly associated with a range of alternative non-ERE elements. Interference with BRCA-1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Our lab investigated the involvement of Human T-cell leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) in breast cancer, since HTLV-1 Tax was found to strongly inhibit BRCA-1 expression. In addition, long exposure of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is one of the stress-inducing agents activated the HTLV-1 promoter. So here the involvement of TPA in breast cancer had been examined by testing the effect of TPA on BRCA-1 and ERE expression. The results showed that TPA activated both BRCA-1 and ERE expression. In the 12 hours TPA activated the tow promoters more than others time, and after 24 hours the level of the tow promoters was decreased. Tax inhibited BRCA-1 expression but did not succeed to inhibit the effect of TPA. Then the activation of the two promoters was not through ERα pathway because TPA had no effect on ERα binding to the two promoters of the BRCA-1 and ERE. Also, the activation was not via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway because when the inhibitory of NF-κB had been added to the TPA, it still activated the tow promoters. However, it seems that 53BP1 may be involved in TPA activation of these promoters because ectopic high expression of 53BP1 significantly reduced the TPA activity. In addition, in the presence of Bisindolylmaleimide-I (BI)- the inhibitor of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- there was no activation for the two promoters, so the PKC is agonized BRCA-1 and ERE activation.

Keywords: BRCA-1, ERE, HTLV-1, TPA

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761 Integration of the Electro-Activation Technology for Soy Meal Valorization

Authors: Natela Gerliani, Mohammed Aider


Nowadays, the interest of using sustainable technologies for protein extraction from underutilized oilseeds is growing. Currently, a major disposal problem for the oil industry is by-products of plant food processing such as soybean meal. That is why valorization of soybean meal is important for the oil industry since it contains high-quality proteins and other valuable components. Generally, soybean meal is used in livestock and poultry feed but is rarely used in human feed. Though chemical composition of this meal compensate nutritional deficiency and can be used to balance protein in human food. Regarding the efficiency of soybean meal valorization, extraction is a key process for obtaining enriched protein ingredient, which can be incorporated into the food matrix. However, most of the food components such as proteins extracted from oilseeds by-products imply the utilization of organic and inorganic chemicals (e.g. acids, bases, TCA-acetone) having a significant environmental impact. In a context of sustainable production, the use of an electro-activation technology seems to be a good alternative. Indeed, the electro-activation technology requires only water, food grade salt and electricity as main materials. Moreover, this innovative technology helps to avoid special equipment and trainings for workers safety as well as transport and storage of hazardous materials. Electro-activation is a technology based on applied electrochemistry for the generation of acidic and alkaline solutions on the basis of the oxidation-reduction reactions that occur at the vicinity electrode/solution interfaces. It is an eco-friendly process that can be used to replace the conventional acidic and alkaline extraction. In this research, the electro-activation technology for protein extraction from soybean meal was carried out in the electro-activation reactor. This reactor consists of three compartments separated by cation and anion exchange membranes that allow creating non-contacting acidic and basic solutions. Different current intensities (150 mA, 300 mA and 450 mA) and treatment durations (10 min, 30 min and 50 min) were tested. The results showed that the extracts obtained by the electro-activation method have good quality in comparison to conventional extracts. For instance, extractability obtained with electro-activation method was 55% whereas with the conventional method it was only 36%. Moreover, a maximum protein quantity of 48 % in the extract was obtained with the electro-activation technology comparing to the maximum amount of protein obtained by conventional extraction of 41 %. Hence, the environmentally sustainable electro-activation technology seems to be a promising type of protein extraction that can replace conventional extraction technology.

Keywords: by-products, eco-friendly technology, electro-activation, soybean meal

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760 Effects of Strain-Induced Melt Activation Process on the Structure and Morphology Mg₂Si in Al-15%Mg₂Si Composite

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Mohammad Alipour


The effect of deformation on the semisolid microstructure and degree of globularity of Al–15%Mg₂Si composite produced by the strain induced melt activation (SIMA) process was studied. Deformation of 25% was used. After deformation, the samples were heated to a temperature above the solidus and below the liquidus point and maintained in the isothermal conditions at three different temperatures (560, 580 and 595 °C) for varying time (5, 10, 20 and 40 min). The microstructural study was carried out on the alloy by the use of optical microscopy. It was observed that strain induced deformation and subsequently melt activation has caused the globular morphology of Mg₂Si particles. The results showed that for the desired microstructures of the alloy during SIMA process, the optimum temperature and time are 595 °C and 40 min respectively.

Keywords: deformation, semisolid, SIMA, Mg₂Si phase, modification

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759 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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758 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation

Authors: Sarisha Devnath, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi


In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.

Keywords: sporeformers, bacillus, spores, activation, milk

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757 Degradation of Acetaminophen with Fe3O4 and Fe2+ as Activator of Peroxymonosulfate

Authors: Chaoqun Tan, Naiyun Gao, Xiaoyan Xin


Perxymonosulfate (PMS)-based oxidation processes, as an alternative of hydrogen peroxide-based oxidation processes, are more and more popular because of reactive radical species (SO4-•, OH•) produced in systems. Magnetic nano-scaled particles Fe3O4 and ferrous anion (Fe2+) were studied for the activation of PMS for degradation of acetaminophen (APAP) in water. The Fe3O4 MNPs were found to effectively catalyze PMS for APAP and the reactions well followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern (R2 > 0.95), while the degradation of APAP in PMS-Fe2+ system proceeds through two stages: a fast stage and a much slower stage. Within 5 min, approximately 7% and 18% of 10 ppm APAP was accomplished by 0.2 mM PMS in Fe3O4 (0.8g/L) and Fe2+ (0.1mM) activation process. However, as reaction proceed to 120 min, approximately 75% and 35% of APAP was removed in Fe3O4 activation process and Fe2+ activation process, respectively. Within 120 min, the mineralization of APAP was about 7.5% and 5.0% (initial APAP of 10 ppm and [PMS]0 of 0.2 mM) in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, while the mineralization could be greatly increased to about 31% and 40% as [PMS]0 increased to 2.0 mM in in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, respectively. At last, the production of reactive radical species were validated directly from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR) tests with 0.1 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO). Plausible mechanisms on the radical generation from Fe3O4 and Fe2+ activation of PMS are proposed on the results of radial identification tests. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 MNPs activated PMS and Fe2+ anion activated PMS systems are promising technologies for water pollution caused by contaminants such as pharmaceutical. Fe3O4-PMS system is more suitable for slowly remediation, while Fe2+-PMS system is more suitable for fast remediation.

Keywords: acetaminophen, peroxymonosulfate, radicals, Fe3O4

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756 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar


Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.


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755 Effect of Particle Size on Alkali-Activation of Slag

Authors: E. Petrakis, V. Karmali, K. Komnitsas


In this study grinding experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill using Polish ferronickel slag in order to study the effect of the particle size on alkali activation and the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). In this regard, the particle size distribution and the specific surface area of the grinding products in relation to grinding time were assessed. The experimental results show that products with high compressive strength, e.g. higher than 60 MPa, can be produced when the slag median size decreased from 39.9 μm to 11.9 μm. Also, finer fractions are characterized by higher reactivity and result in the production of AAMs with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.

Keywords: alkali activation, compressive strength, grinding time, particle size distribution, slag, structural integrity

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754 Effect of Eddy Irrigant Activation on Cleanliness of the Root Canal Wall during Pulpectomy of Primary Teeth

Authors: Rasha Sharaf, Nehal Sharaf


Pulpectomy of primary teeth aims to remove the necrotic pulp tissue from the infected root canal and clean the root canal walls from any remnant of pulp tissue. Different irrigant activation systems have been recently used, and one of these devices is the Eddy which helps in removal of smear layer and improves the intimate contact between the filling material and the root canal wall. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Eddy in cleanliness of the root canal during pulpectomy of primary teeth. Materials and methods: 45 freshly extracted primary anterior teeth were divided into 3 equal groups, in the 1st group sodium hypochlorite only was used during pulpectomy, in the 2nd group irrigation using sodium hypochlorite with file agitation was performed and in the 3rd group sodium hypochlorite was used with Eddy for irrigant activation. All samples were sectioned longitudinally and scanned using scanning electron microscope to evaluate the cleanliness of the root canals. Results: It was found that Eddy showed high efficacy in removal of smear layer during pulpectomy of primary teeth.

Keywords: Eddy, irrigant activation, irrigation, pulpectomy

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753 Removal of Heavy Metals by KOH Activated Diplotaxis harra Biomass: Experimental Design Optimization

Authors: H. Tounsadi, A. Khalidi, M. Abdennouri, N. Barka


The objective of this study was to produce high quality activated carbons from Diplotaxis harra biomass by potassium hydroxide activation and their application for heavy metals removal. To reduce the number of experiments, full factorial experimental design at two levels were carried out to occur optimal preparation conditions and better conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of different variables during the activation process, such as carbonization temperature, activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio (g KOH/g carbon) have been investigated, and the best production conditions were determined. The experimental results showed that removal of cadmium and cobalt ions onto activated carbons was more sensitive to methylene blue index instead of iodine number. Although, the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions is more influenced by activation temperature with a negative effect followed by the impregnation ratio with a positive impact. Based on the statistical data, the best conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt by prepared activated carbons have been established. The maximum iodine number and methylene blue index obtained under these conditions and the greater sorption capacities for cadmium and cobalt were investigated. These sorption capacities were greater than those of a commercial activated carbon used in water treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, cadmium, cobalt, Diplotaxis harra, experimental design, potassium hydroxide

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752 Test of Moisture Sensor Activation Speed

Authors: I. Parkova, A. Vališevskis, A. Viļumsone


Nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting is intermittent incontinence during sleep of children after age 5 that may precipitate wide range of behavioural and developmental problems. One of the non-pharmacological treatment methods is the use of a bed-wetting alarm system. In order to improve comfort conditions of nocturnal enuresis alarm system, modular moisture sensor should be replaced by a textile sensor. In this study behaviour and moisture detection speed of woven and sewn sensors were compared by analysing change in electrical resistance after solution (salt water) was dripped on sensor samples. Material of samples has different structure and yarn location, which affects solution detection rate. Sensor system circuit was designed and two sensor tests were performed: system activation test and false alarm test to determine the sensitivity of the system and activation threshold. Sewn sensor had better result in system’s activation test – faster reaction, but woven sensor had better result in system’s false alarm test – it was less sensitive to perspiration simulation. After experiments it was found that the optimum switching threshold is 3V in case of 5V input voltage, which provides protection against false alarms, for example – during intensive sweating.

Keywords: conductive yarns, moisture textile sensor, industry, material

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751 Radical Degradation of Acetaminophen with Peroxymonosulfate-Based Oxidation Processes

Authors: Chaoqun Tan, Naiyun Gao, Xiaoyan Xin


Perxymonosulfate (PMS)-based oxidation processes, as an alternative of hydrogen peroxide-based oxidation processes, are more and more popular because of reactive radical species (SO4-•, OH•) produced in systems. Magnetic nano-scaled particles Fe3O4 and ferrous anion (Fe2+) were studied for the activation of PMS for degradation of acetaminophen (APAP) in water. The Fe3O4 MNPs were found to effectively catalyze PMS for APAP and the reactions well followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern (R2>0.95). While the degradation of APAP in PMS-Fe2+ system proceeds through two stages: a fast stage and a much slower stage. Within 5 min, approximately 7% and 18% of 10 ppm APAP was accomplished by 0.2 mM PMS in Fe3O4 (0.8g/L) and Fe2+ (0.1mM) activation process. However, as reaction proceed to 120 min, approximately 75% and 35% of APAP was removed in Fe3O4 activation process and Fe2+ activation process, respectively. Within 120 min, the mineralization of APAP was about 7.5% and 5.0% (initial APAP of 10 ppm and [PMS]0 of 0.2 mM) in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, while the mineralization could be greatly increased to about 31% and 40% as [PMS]0 increased to 2.0 mM in in Fe3O4-PMS and Fe2+-PMS system, respectively. At last, the production of reactive radical species were validated directly from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR) tests with 0.1 M 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO). Plausible mechanisms on the radical generation from Fe3O4 and Fe2+ activation of PMS are proposed on the results of radial identification tests. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 MNPs activated PMS and Fe2+ anion activated PMS systems are promising technologies for water pollution caused by contaminants such as pharmaceutical. Fe3O4-PMS system is more suitable for slowly remediation, while Fe2+-PMS system is more suitable for fast remediation.

Keywords: acetaminophen, peroxymonosulfate, radicals, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ESR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
750 Force Distribution and Muscles Activation for Ankle Instability Patients with Rigid and Kinesiotape while Standing

Authors: Norazlin Mohamad, Saiful Adli Bukry, Zarina Zahari, Haidzir Manaf, Hanafi Sawalludin


Background: Deficit in neuromuscular recruitment and decrease force distribution were the common problems among ankle instability patients due to altered joint kinematics that lead to recurrent ankle injuries. Rigid Tape and KT Tape had widely been used as therapeutic and performance enhancement tools in ankle stability. However the difference effect between this two tapes is still controversial. Objective: To investigate the different effect between Rigid Tape and KT Tape on force distribution and muscle activation among ankle instability patients while standing. Study design: Crossover trial. Participants: 27 patients, age between 18 to 30 years old participated in this study. All the subjects were applied with KT Tape & Rigid Tape on their affected ankle with 3 days of interval for each intervention. The subjects were tested with their barefoot (without tape) first to act as a baseline before proceeding with KT Tape, and then with Rigid Tape. Result: There were no significant difference on force distribution at forefoot and back-foot for both tapes while standing. However the mean data shows that Rigid Tape has the highest force distribution at back-foot rather than forefoot when compared with KT Tape that had more force distribution at forefoot while standing. Regarding muscle activation (Peroneus Longus), results showed significant difference between Rigid Tape and KT Tape (p= 0.048). However, there was no significant difference on Tibialis Anterior muscle activation between both tapes while standing. Conclusion: The results indicated that Peroneus longus muscle was more active when applied Rigid Tape rather than KT Tape in ankle instability patients while standing.

Keywords: ankle instability, kinematic, muscle activation, force distribution, Rigid Tape, KT tape

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
749 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin


Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chemical activation, microwave, pomegranate peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
748 Rh(III)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction of 8-Methylquinolines with Maleimides

Authors: Sangil Han, In Su Kim


Transition-metal-catalyzed C–H bond activation and its subsequent functionalization has been one of the most attractive topics in organic synthesis because of its remarkable potential for atom economy and environmental sustainability. In this addition, a variety of C(sp2)–H functionalization has been developed under metal catalysis in the past decade. Recently, much attention has been moved towards the C(sp3)–H functionalization events, which continue to be a challenging issue. In this area, directing group assisted sp3 C–H functionalization has been explored by use of amides, carboxylic acids, oximes, N-heterocycles, and etc. In particular, 8-methylquinolines have been found as good substrates for sp3 C–H functionalization due to its ability to form cyclometalated complexes. Succinimides have been recognized as privileged structural cores found in a number of bioactive natural products, pharmaceuticals, and functional materials. Furthermore, the reduced derivatives such as pyrrolidines and γ-lactams have been also found in a large number of pharmaceutical relevant molecules, thus making them one of the most important and promising compounds. We herein describe the first C(sp3)–H activation of 8-methylquinolines and subsequent functionalization with maleimides to afford various succinimide derivatives.

Keywords: C(sp3)–H activation, 8-methylquinolines, maleimides, succinimides

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
747 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli


This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusion coefficients, drying model, drying time, ginger rhizomes, moisture ratio, thin layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
746 Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Nusrat Masood, Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman


Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.

Keywords: Caspase 3, terpenoids, flavonoids, activation constant, binding energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 145