Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3044

Search results for: aerobic training

3044 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

Abstract:

Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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3043 Acylated Ghrelin in Response to Aerobic Training Induced Weight Loss in Obese Men

Authors: Masoumeh Hosseini

Abstract:

Obesity is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the effect of a long term aerobic training program on serum ghrelin in obese men. For this purpose, twenty four sedentary adult obese men aged 30-40 years and body mass index 30-36 kg/m2 were participated in this study and divided randomly into exercise (3 months aerobic training, 3 times/weekly) or control (no training) groups. Serum ghrelin and cardiovascular risk factor (TG, TC, LDL, and HDL) were measured before and after treatment. Anthropometrical markers were measured at two occasions. Data were analyzed by independent-paired T-test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Aerobic training resulted in significant decrease in serum ghrelin and TG in exercise group. All anthropometrical markers decreased significantly in exercise group but not in control subjects. Based on these data, it is concluded that weight loss by aerobic training can be affect serum ghrelin in obese subject, although some cardiovascular risk factor remained without changed.

Keywords: aerobic training, homeostasis, lipid profile, obesity

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3042 Serum Cortisol and Osteocalsin in Response to Eight Weeks Aerobic Training in Asthma Men with Mild to Moderate Intensity

Authors: Eizadi Mojtaba

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training on serum osteocalsin as an osteoblasts hormone and cortisol in adult men with asthma. For this purpose, twenty four non-trained adult men with mild to moderate asthma were participated in study voluntarily and divided into exercise (aerobic training, 8 weeks/3 times per week) and control groups by randomly. Pre and post training of serum osteocalsin and cortisol were measured of two groups. Student’s paired ‘t’ test was applied to compare the pre and post training values. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to all anthropometrical and biochemical markers between the exercise and control groups at baseline ( P > 0.05 ). Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum osteocalsin and decrease in cortisol ( P > 0.05 ), but not in control group. Based on these data, we concluded that aerobic training can be improved Processes of bone formation in asthma patients.

Keywords: osteoblasts, asthma, aerobic exercise, sedentary

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3041 Effect of Eight Weeks Aerobic Training with Purslane Seeds on Peroxidant and Antioxidants Indicators in Women with Type2 Diabetes

Authors: Shima Dehghan

Abstract:

Aim: imbalance between antioxidant defensive system and increasing production of free radicals caused oxidative stress that can be rolled in cellular damage and occurring some of diseases such as diabetes. The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on peroxidant and antioxidants indicators in women with type2 diabetes. Methodology: thirty two inactive women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into four groups: 1. control, 2. Aerobic training, 3. Purslane seed and 4. Aerobic training + Purslane seed groups. Subjects were asked to accomplish eight weeks aerobic training (50 min aerobic exercise, 3 days/week, for to achieve 65-75% maximum of heart rate). Also, subjects in certain groups received purslane seeds for eight weeks. Blood samples were obtained in two sets (one session and after 8 weeks). Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA. A significant difference was accepted at p < 0/05 level. Results: After eight weeks of aerobic training with purslane seeds supplementation, malon dyaldehyde (MDA) concentration in training group were significantly decreased (p < 0/000), but A difference significant was not found in control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) concentrations in training group were significantly increased (p < 0/000), while difference significant wasnot found in control group. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicates that disciplined aerobic training with purslane seeds supplementation can be caused improvement in peroxidant/antioxidant balance in women with type2 diabetes.

Keywords: aerobic training, purslane seed, peroxidant/antioxidant balance, diabetes2

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3040 Low Term Aerobic Training Is Not Associated with Anti-Inflammatory in Obese Women

Authors: Zohreh Afsharmand, Sokhanguei Yahya

Abstract:

A growing body of literature suggests that that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. In this study, the effect of 6 weeks aerobic training on IL-6 and IL-1B as inflammatory cytokine were investigated in adult obese women. For this purpose, 26 sedentary adult obese women were divided into exercise and control groups (n=12). Pre and post training of mentioned cytokines were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were significant within-group changes in the outcomes. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the exercise and control groups with regard to anthropometrical markers or inflammatory cytokines. Despite the significant decrease in all anthropometrical markers, no significant differences were found in serum IL-6 and IL-1B by aerobic training with compared to baseline. Our findings indicate that aerobic training intervention for a short time is not associated with the anti-inflammatory property in obese women.

Keywords: aerobic training, cytokine, inflammation, obesity

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3039 Effect of Fenugreek Seed with Aerobic Exercise Training on Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: M. Nasiri

Abstract:

Aim: Considering the hypoglisimic ad hipolipidimic effect of the fenugreek seed and aerobic exercise training, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fenugreek and aerobic exercise training on insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Methodology: 32 patients with type II diabetes were selected and randomly divided into four groups: control, fenugreek, training and fenugreek - training. Fenugreek groups used 10 grams of fenugreek seeds daily for eight weeks on two occasions before noon and evening meal. Training of groups is also performed a regular program of aerobic exercise 65-55% of maximum heart rate (4 days per week).Two days before and after the training period, blood samples were taken from their brachial veins in a fasting state (12 hours prior to the test) in a sitting position. The data was analyzed used of t-independent and ANOVA at a significance level of α < 0.05. Results: Intra-group changes in all experimental groups showed that significant decrease insulin resistance, and the difference between groups showed significant difference between the groups of fenugreek - training than other groups there. Conclusions: According to the research findings to fenugreek combined with aerobic exercise more beneficial effect on the inhibition of insulin resistance in women with diabetes are recommended to them.

Keywords: fenugreek, training, insulin resistance, diabetes

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3038 The Effects of Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercises with Moderate Intensity on Serum Levels of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Aerobic Capacity in Obese Children

Authors: Ali Golestani, Vahid Naseri, Hossein Taheri

Abstract:

Recently, some of studies examined the effect of exercise on neurotrophic factors influencing the growth, protection, plasticity and function in central and peripheral nerve cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous and interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity on serum levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and aerobic capacity in obese children. 21 obese students with an average age of 13.6 ± 0.5 height 171 ± 5 and BMI 32 ± 1.2 were divided randomly to control, continuous aerobic and interval aerobic groups. Training protocol included continuous or interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity 50-65%MHR, three times per week for 10 weeks. 48 hours before and after executing of protocol, blood samples were taken from the participants and their GDNF serum levels were measured by ELISA. Aerobic power was estimated using Shuttle-run test. T-test results indicated a small increase in their GDNF serum levels, which was not statistically significant (p =0.11). In addition, the results of ANOVA did not show any significant difference between continuous and interval aerobic training on the serum levels of their GDNF but their aerobic capacity significantly increased (p =0.012). Although continuous and interval aerobic exercise improves aerobic power in obese children, they had no significant effect on their serum levels of GDNF.

Keywords: aerobic power, continuous aerobic training, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), interval aerobic training, obese children

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3037 An Integrated Approach of Isolated and Combined Aerobic and Anaerobic Interval Training for Improvement of Stride Length and Stride Frequency of Soccer Players

Authors: K. A. Ramesh

Abstract:

Purpose: The study is to find out the effect of isolated and combined aerobic and anaerobic interval training on stride length and stride frequency of Soccer players. Method(s): To achieve this purpose, 45 women Soccer players who participated in the Anna University, Tamilnadu, India. Intercollegiate Tournament was selected as subjects and were randomly divided into three equal groups of fifteen each, such as an anaerobic interval training group (group-I), anaerobic interval training group (group-II) and combined aerobic-anaerobic interval training group (group-III). The training program was conducted three days per weeks for a period of six weeks. Stride length and Stride frequency was selected as dependent variables. All the subjects of the three groups were tested on selected criterion variables at prior to and immediately after the training program. The concepts of dependent test were employed to find out the significant improvement due to the influence of training programs on all the selected criterion variables. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was also used to analyze the significant difference, if, any among the experimental groups. Result(s): The result of the study revealed that combined group was higher than aerobic interval training and anaerobic interval training groups. Conclusion(s): It was concluded that when experimental groups were compared with each other, the combined aerobic – anaerobic interval training program was found to be greater than the aerobic and the anaerobic interval training programs on the development of stride length and stride frequency. High intensity, combined aerobic – anaerobic interval training program can be carried out in a more soccer specific way than plain running.

Keywords: stride length, stride frequency, interval training, soccer

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3036 The Effect of Aerobic Training Program on Some Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in Smokers

Authors: Laleh Behboudi Tabrizi, Melika Naserzare

Abstract:

Accumulating experimental and epidemiologic data smoker individuals are more prone to systemic inflammation than non-smokers. In this study we aimed to determine serum TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) as pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to 3 months aerobic training in smoker men. A total 30 middle-aged healthy smokers selected for participate in this study and were divided into either control or exercise groups. The subjects in exercise group were completed a 3 months aerobic training program for 3 sessions per week at 60 – 80 % of maximal heart rate. Those in control group did nit participated in exercise training. Pre and post-training of CRP and TNF-α were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were signigcant within-group changes in the outcomes. P value of <0.05 was accepted as significant. No significant differences were found in anthropometrical and biochemical markers between two groups at baseline. Aerobic training program resulted in a significant decrease in anthropometrical markers and serum TNF-α but not in serum CRP in exercise group. All variables remained without changes in control groups. Based on these finding, it is concluded that aerobic training can be improve inflammatory cytokine with emphasis on TNF-α in smokers.

Keywords: cigarette, cytokine, chronic training, inflammation

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3035 Effects of Aerobic Training on MicroRNA Let-7a Expression and Levels of Tumor Tissue IL-6 in Mice With Breast Cancer

Authors: Leila Anoosheh

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess The effects of aerobic training on microRNA let-7a expression and levels of tumor tissue IL-6 in mice with breast cancer. Method: Twenty BALB/c c mice (4-5 weeks,17 gr mass) were cancerous by injection of estrogen-dependent receptor breast cancer cells MC4-L2 and divided into two groups: tumor-training(TT) and tumor-control(TC) group. Then TT group completed aerobic training for 6 weeks, 5 days per week (14-18 m/min). After tumor emersion, tumor width and length were measured by digital caliper every week. 48 hours after the last exercise subjects were killed. Tissue sampling were collected and stored in -70ᵒ. Tumor tissue was homogenized and let-7a expression and IL-6 levels were accounted with Real time-PCR and ELISA Kit respectively. Statistical analysis of let-7a was conducted by the REST software. Repeated measures and independent tests were used to assess tumor size and IL-6, respectively. Results: Tumor size and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in TT group compare with TC group (p<0.05). microRNA let-7a was increased significantly in TT against control group respectively (p=0/000). Conclusion: Reduction in tumor size, followed by aerobic exercise can be attributed to the loss of inflammatory factors such as IL-6; It seems that regarding to up regulation effects of aerobic exercise training on let-7a and down regulation effects of that on IL-6 in mice with breast cancer, This type of training can be used as adjuvant therapy in conjunction with other therapies for breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, aerobic training, microRNA let-7a, IL-6

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3034 Effect of Aerobic Training with Coriandrum sativum Extract on Selection of Oxidative Stress Markers in Diabetic Rats

Authors: M. Golzade Gangraj, A. Abdi, N. ganji

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Effect of aerobic training with Coriandrum sativum extract on selection of oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Methods: The population of male Wistar rats is the Pasteur Institute. Forty rats were randomly selected as subjects. After moving the mouse in vitro and stay for a week in a cage for sustainability, were diabetic. Diabetes induced by injection STZ (55 mg per kg of body weight of mice) was performed. According blood glucose was randomly divided into four experimental groups (control, training, extract and training-extract). Extract group consumed 150 mg per kg of body weight per day coriander juice. Training group performed aerobic training (50-55% VO2max). Result: The results showed that aerobic exercise training and coriander seed extract caused a significant increase in total antioxidant; superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly decreased malondialdehyde. Conclusion: the research findings can be stated that the exercise with coriander seed extract has the ability to inhibit free radicals and can have beneficial effects on the body's antioxidant defense system and reduce oxidative stress in diabetic rats with STZ. Because it improves the body's antioxidant defense by increasing serum levels of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: aerobic training, coriandrum sativum, antioxidant, diabetes

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3033 Response of Insulin Resistance Indicators to Aerobic Exercise at Different Intensities in Obese College Students

Authors: Long-Shan Wu, Ming-Chen Ko, Chien-Chang Ho, Po-Fu Lee, Li-Yun Chen, Ching-Yu Tseng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine whether progressive aerobic exercise intensity effects the changes in insulin resistance indicators among obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) ≧ 27 kg/m2, aged 18-26 years old] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG): 40-50% of their heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG): 50-70% of their HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG): 70-80% of their HRR, and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was performed 60 minutes per day on a treadmill three days/week in a training period of 12 weeks. All subjects’ anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, all insulin resistance indicators did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG had significantly more changes in insulin level than the MITG, LITG, and CG. Our findings suggested that a short-term aerobic exercise program can play an important role in improving insulin resistance indicators; either middle-intensity training significantly increases the insulin level, but the high-intensity exercise training program effectively improves obese college students’ insulin resistance.

Keywords: aerobic training, exercise intensity, insulin resistance, obesity

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3032 Investigating Combined Effect of Aerobic Training and Crataegus elbursensis Extract on Plasma Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Behnam Hasanzadeh, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ailin Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of Crataegus monogyna on VEGF variations and plasma angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: A number of 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control Crataegus monogyna (N=8), training Crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on the treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of Crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg Crataegus monogyna extract per gram of body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior verna cava. Results: the results showed that progressive endurance training caused insignificant reductions in plasma VEGF concentration in the training group, Crataegus monogyna group and training-Crataegus monogyna group comparing the control group. Plasma ANG-1 concentration reduced in the training, Crataegus monogyna and training-Crataegus monogyna groups while plasma ANG-2 concentration significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.022) comparing with the control group. The results showed that the ratio of plasma ANG-2 to ANG-1 significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.028) comparing with the control group. Conclusion: the findings suggest that combination of aerobic training and Crataegus monogyna extract has no synergistic effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators and Crataegus monogyna extract had a stronger effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators.

Keywords: angiopoetin-1/2, VEGF, Crataegus monogyna extract, aerobic training

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3031 The Effect of 8 Weeks Aerobic Training and Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester (L-NAME) on Plasma apelin in Male’s Rats

Authors: Abbassi Daloii Asieh, Yazdani Hoda

Abstract:

Background and Objective: evidence supports systemic inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance. Apelin that is secreted by adipose tissue plays an important role in the inflammation process and appear act as an anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was the effect of eight weeks aerobic training and nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) on plasma apelin in male’s rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 24 male Wistar rats aged 20 months were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, training, training and L-NAME and L-NAME. Training intervention was eight weeks aerobic exercise (5 time/weekly) at 75-80 (%) of maximal oxygen consumption. All rats were killed 72 hours after lasted exercise session; blood samples collected and plasma were stored. Data was analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tucky Test. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically signigcant. Results: The results showed that after eight weeks of endurance training exercise Apelin plasma compared to the control group did not change significantly. Also, the results showed that there was significant difference in plasma Apelin between groups(P > 0/05). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the insulin levels and glucose of four groups (P > 0/05). Conclusion: It seems that aerobic exercise plasma Apelin levels in male rats is not affected. On the other hand, nitric oxide inhibitors can reduce levels of plasma Apelin.

Keywords: aerobic training, L-NAME, plasma Apelin, male’s rats

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3030 The Comparison between Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Overweight Sedentary Female

Authors: Marzieh Sayyad, Mohsen Salesi

Abstract:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors, is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The prevalence of MetS is on the rise with more women affected than men. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome components in non-athlete, middle-aged woman. 51 non-athlete overweight female participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were divided randomly into three groups including resistance, aerobic and control group (number of each group 17). 24 hours before the beginning of training program, the blood sample was taken in fasting state. The two training groups participated in sport activities for eight weeks, three times a week duration 60-90 minutes. Two days following the end of the 8th week, all the measurements were performed similar to the pretest phase. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased weight (p=.05), triglyceride (p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.02) and HDL-c (p<0.01) was significantly increased. Also in resistance exercise training group TG decreased significantly (p<0.01) and HDL-c (p<0.05) was significantly increased. This study demonstrated that a regular physical activity program improved several metabolic and physiological parameters in healthy, previously sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, it seems that this type of training can be efficient, safe and inexpensive way in order to reduce and prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, metabolic syndrome, overweight sedentary female, resistance exercise

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3029 Effect of Aerobic Training on Visfatin Levels and Lipid Profile in Obese Women

Authors: Banaeifar Abdolali, Rahmanimoghadam Neda, Sohyli Shahram

Abstract:

Obesity is an increase in body fat , in addition it has been introduced as a risk factor for the progress of lipid disorders, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (1,2). In recent years, Adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ that secretes many cytokines such as: interleukin 6, leptin, and visfatin (3). Visfatin is an adipocytokine that release from adiposities. It is unidentified whether training also influences concentrations of visfatin. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on visfatin levels and lipid profile in obese women. Method: Thirty two obese women (age = 37.8 ± 13.2 years, body mass index = of 39.4 ± 6.4 kg/m2 .) volunteered to participate in a 12-wk exercise program. They were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 16) or control (n = 14) group. The training group exercised for 70 minutes per session, 3 days per week during the 12 week training program. The control group was asked to maintain their normal daily activities. Samples were obtained before and at the end of training program. We use t.paire and independent,test for data analyzes. Results: Exercise training resulted in a decrease in body weight (p < 0.05), percent body fat (% fat) and BMI (p < 0.05), fasting glucose level and visfatin concentration decreased but wasn’t significant (p > 0.05). Also the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change significantly. Conclution: In conclusion, three month aerobic training program used in this study was very effective for producing significant benefits to body composition and HDL.c but didn’t significant chenging visfatin levels and lipid profile in these obese women.

Keywords: aerobic training, visfatin, lipid profile, women

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3028 Effects of Aerobic, Resistance, and Concurrent Training on Secretion of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Elderly Women

Authors: Kh Jalali Dehkordi, A. Jalali Dehkordi, A. Tofighi

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training on secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in elderly women. Methods: A total number of 60 elderly women were randomly allocated to four groups of aerobic training (n = 15), resistance training (n = 15), concurrent training (n = 15), and control (n = 15). Blood samples were taken before and 4 weeks after the initiation of exercise training and also at the end of the 8-week course of training. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Peak) was measured after 48 hours using Rockport walk test. Inferential analysis of the collected data was performed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were further evaluated by the least significant difference (LSD) test. The relation between VO2Peak and secretion of GH and IGF-1 was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The significance level was considered as P ≤ 0.05 in all tests. Findings: The results showed that 8 weeks of regular exercise significantly increased levels of GH and IGF-1. A significant increase was also observed in VO2Peak values after 8 weeks of regular exercise (P < 0.05). VO2Peak was directly correlated with GH and IGF (P < 0.001, r = 0.72). Conclusion: In conclusion, regular exercise significantly increased levels of anabolic hormones. Moreover, the combined-exercise training better enhanced GH and IGF-1. VO2Peak increased with increases in GH and IGF-1 levels.

Keywords: women, training, GH, IGF-1

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3027 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Aqueous Extract of C. monogyna (Hawthorn) on Plasma and Heart Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Sports information suggests that physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and clinical protests. However, exercise can have beneficial effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis by reducing hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, plaque density, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is improved. Despite these findings, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the body and its relation to sport and there arteriosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of crataegus monogyna on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variations and angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in plasma and heart tissue in male Wistar rats. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control crataegus monogyna (N=8), training crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg crataegus monogyna extract per gram of the body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of the normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior Verna cava. Conclusion: It is likely that crataegus monogyna extract compared with aerobic training and even combination of both training and crataegus monogyna extract is more effective on angiogenesis.

Keywords: angiopoietin 1, 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, aerobic exercise

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3026 Effects of Six Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Training with a Pomegranate Juice on Plasma Leptin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: M. Golzade Gangraj, A. Abdi, H.faraji

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with pomegranate juice (PJ) on plasma leptin in adult women selection of type-2 diabetes. Methods: Survey postmenopausal diabetic women aged 45 to 60 years in the city of Babylon, who coordinated Diabetes Association presented the city, among them 34 were selected as subjects were randomly divided into four groups: control, PJ, practice and PJ. Experimental groups consisted of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training program three times a week for at least 45 minutes per meeting. Two days before and after the training period in the fasting state (12 h) blood samples from the brachial vein was performed in a sitting position. Results: Results showed that aerobic exercise with consumption of pomegranate juice alone and interaction with each significantly decrease levels of leptin plasma in older women with type 2 diabetes compared to control group. Conclusion: According to the research findings can be stated the exercise with pomegranate juice beneficially effects fat tissue and decreases plasma leptin in adult women with type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, pomegranate, leptin, diabetes

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3025 Combined Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Decitin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Ayoub Saeidi, Nikoo Khosravi, Hanieh Nohbaradar, Seyedeh Parya Barzanjeh, Hassane Zouhal

Abstract:

Exercise training and herbs supplement represent have role in the treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear combined effects of exercise training and herbs supplements on diabetic risk markers. This study aimed to determine the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercise and broccoli supplementation on decitin-1 and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes. Forty-four type 2 diabetes men (age, 48.52 ± 4.36) were randomly allocated to training -supplement (TS, n = 11), training- placebo (TP, n = 11), supplement (S, n = 11) and control- placebo (CP, n = 11) groups. The combined exercise program included 12 weeks, three sessions per week, that each session contained 45 minutes of resistance training with intensity 60-70% of one maximal repetition and 30 minutes aerobic training (running) with intensity 60-70% of maximum heart rate. In addition supplement groups consumed 10 grams of Broccoli per day for 12 weeks. Plasma Decitin-1, HOMA-IR, Insulin, glucose and body composition were assessed before and after training. Plasma Dectin-1, HOMA-IR, glucose and BMI significantly decreased in TS, TP and S groups compared with CP group (P < .05). In addition Insulin and skeletal muscles mass showed significant increase in TS and TP groups compared with S and CP groups (P < .05). It is concluded that both combined exercise training (aerobic-resistance) or broccoli supplement can improve plasma Decitin-1 and insulin resistance in two diabetic patients however combine of exercise training and broccoli supplement have more effective on these markers.

Keywords: broccoli supplements, combined training, decitin-1, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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3024 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail

Abstract:

Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.

Keywords: blood Pressure, exercise, hypertension, peak VO2

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3023 Response of Selected Echocardiographic Features to Aerobic Training in Obese Hypertensive Males

Authors: Abeer Ahmed Abdelhameed

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercises on LV parameters, lipid profile, and anthropometric measurements in hypertensive middle aged male subjects. Thirty obese patients were recruited for the study from the outpatient clinic of National Heart Institute, Egypt. Their ages ranges from 40 to 60 years. All participants underwent an aerobic training program including regular aerobic sub-maximal exercises in the form of treadmill walking and abdominal exercises 3/week for four months, the exercise were individually tailored for each participant depending on the result of cardiopulmonary exercise test. The result showed no significant difference observed in both LVPWT and LVSWT data from pre-test values to post-test values in all subjects after 4 months, with a significant reduction in WHR, systolic blood pressure, TAG and LDL records. Result also revealed a significant increase in HDL, Eƒ, LVEDD and FS records for all participants. The significant improvement in ventricular functions in form of ejection fraction of electrical group more than exercise group after 4 months at the end of the study may be due to the beneficial effect of faradic stimulation in lipolysis of storage adipose tissues, stimulation of lean body mass and muscles and/or thermal effect that improves vascularization.

Keywords: left ventricular parameters, aerobic training, electrical stimulation, lipid profile

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3022 The Effect of Six Weeks Aerobic Training and Taxol Consumption on Interleukin 8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 on Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firoozi, Maryam Ebrahimzadeh, Romina Roohan Ardeshiri, Maryam Kamarloeei

Abstract:

Background: The The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of six-week aerobic training and taxol consumption on interleukin 8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in mice with cervical cancer. Material and method: In this experimental study, 40 female C57 mice, eight weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 groups: cancer, cancer-taxol complement, cancer-training and cancer-training - taxol complement with 10 mice in each group. The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/ kg/day, a pure extract of Taxol was injected peritoneal Data were analyzed by t-test, One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferron's at the significant level P<0. 05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between mean values of interleukin-8 (P < 0.05, F = 12.25) and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P < 0.05, P=0.10737) in four groups. A significance level of less than 0.05 in Tukey test for both variables also showed a significant difference between the "control" group and the complementary "exercise" group. Namely, six weeks of aerobic training, along with taxol, have a significant effect on the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and interleukin-8 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Considering the effect of training on these variables, this type of exercise can be used as a complementary therapeutic approach along with other therapies for cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, interleukin 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

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3021 Investigation of the Effects of Aerobic Exercise Programs on Hematological Parameters of Sedentary People

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Swati Choudhary

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Background: A variety of studies warn that sedentary lifestyles can contribute to many preventable causes of death. This study was taken to determine the effects of two types of aerobic training programs on erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets and hematocrit of sedentary people (N=60) with age group 20 to 30 years. Methods: All the subjects were randomly divided into three groups i.e. two experiments groups (aerobic dance & cardio fitness) and control group. Each group having 10 male and 10 females. Experimental groups undergone 60 minutes of training 5 times a week for 12 weeks whereas the control group did not participate in any training program except their daily routine. The aerobic dance group was chosen to perform exercise like step –touch, side-to-side, V-step and hand and body movements, etc. The cardio fitness group was chosen to perform exercises with modern fitness equipment like treadmill, elliptical trainer, stationary bike and rowing machine. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale developed by Gunner Borg was used to monitor the intensity of the workout. Aerobic programs were encompassed of low-impact (0- 4 week & perceived exertion from 6 to 12), moderate-impact (4-8 week and perceived exertion from 12 to 16) and high-impact (8- 12 week & perceived exertion from 16 to 20). Results: To test the effectiveness of training programs paired t-test was used and significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, hematocrit but no significant effects of training was found in leukocytes (p>0.05). Paired t-test also showed that no effect of time was seen in the control group in all the cases (p>0.05). Further analysis of covariance was used to know which program was more effective and it was seen that F value was found significant in the case of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, and hematocrit as their associated p-value (p<0.05) is lesser than 0.05. As F value was found significant for hematological parameters, fishers least significant difference test was used and results of post hoc mean comparison indicated that experimental groups (aerobic dance group and cardio fitness group) had significant difference with control group in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets and hematocrit and insignificant difference was found between aerobic dance group & cardio fitness group in all the cases. Thus, it may be concluded that in general, both the aerobic training programs had adequate effects on all the hematological parameters except leukocytes.

Keywords: aerobic dance, cardio fitness, hematological variables, rating perceived exertion scale

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3020 Effect of 10 Weeks of Aerobic Exercise Training on Serum Concentrations of Surfactant Protein D and Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Sajjad Rezaei, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Azadeh Jamali

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Background and purpose: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a lung-specific protein that is detectable in human plasma. Effect of exercise training on SP-D levels as well as its relation to metabolic indices is not known. The present study then aimed to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels of SP-D and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: Twenty-two overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited through deliberate sampling and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (11 in each group). The intervention group underwent a progressive aerobic training program for 10 weeks, 3 days per week, 30-55 min/day at 50-75% heart rate reserve (HRR). Control group continued with its everyday routine. Blood samples were obtained before and after training for biochemical analysis. Within-group and between-group differences were analyzed with paired and independent t-tests in spss software, respectively, and the relation between variables was analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (all at P = 0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups in leptin, glucose, waist circumference and VO2 max after training. SP-D was decreased and VO2 max was increased significantly in intervention group. However, no significant correlation was observed between SP-D and other variables. Conclusion: Since there was no corresponding decrease in insulin resistance with decreased levels of SP-D, it seems unlikely for SP-D to mediate the association between obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics.

Keywords: exercise training, SP-D, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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3019 Systolic Blood Pressure Responses to Aerobic Exercise among HIV Positive Patients

Authors: Ka'abu Mu'azu

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The study examines the effect of varied intensities of aerobic exercise on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among HIV/AIDS positive patients. Participants of mean age of 20.4 years were randomized into four groups. High Intensity Group (HIG), Moderate Intensity Group (MIG), Low Intensity Group (LIG) and Control Group (COG). SBP was measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise (8 weeks). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant training effect on resting values of SBP (F [3, 15] = 8.9, P < 0.05). Sheffe post hoc analysis indicated that both HIG and MIG significantly differ from control (P < 0.05). Dependent t- test indicates difference in HIG (t [7] = 6.5, P < 0.05) and slightly in MIG (t [7] = 5.4, P < 0.05). The study concluded that aerobic exercise is effective in reducing resting values of SBP particularly the activities that are high intensity in nature. The study recommends that high and moderate intensity aerobic exercise should be used for improving health condition of HIV/AIDS patients as regard to decrease in resting value of SBP.

Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aerobic exercise, HIV patients, health sciences

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3018 Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parvin Farzanegi

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Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, antioxidant, diabetes mellitus, type 2

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3017 Resistance Training Contribution to the Aerobic Component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines in Adults

Authors: Neha Bharti, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

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Mostly attributed to lack of time, only 15% of adults currently reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines, which state that every adult should achieve minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week at moderate to vigorous intensity in minimum bouts of 10 minutes each, in addition to two days of resistance training. Recent studies have suggested that any bout of aerobic exercise reaching moderate intensity has potential to improve health. If one could reach moderate intensity while doing resistance training, this could reduce the total weekly time involvement to reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Objectives: 1) To determine whether overweight and older adults can reach a minimum of moderate intensity while doing resistance training compared with young non-overweight adults, 2) To identify if the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity is different in overweight adults and older adults when compared with young non-overweight adults when lifting 70% or 80% of maximal load, 3) To determine variables associated with proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity while doing resistance training. Methods: Sixty participants already doing resistance training were recruited (20 young non-overweight adults, 20 overweight adults, and 20 older adults). Participants visited fitness facility three times, separated by at least 48 hours, and performed eight resistance exercises each time. First visit was to collect baseline measurements and to measure maximal load for each of the eight exercises. Second and third visits were performed wearing a heart rate monitor to record heart rate and to measure exercise intensity. The two exercise sessions were performed at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity. Moderate intensity was defined as 40% of heart rate reserve. Results: The proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity ranged from 51% to 93% among the three groups. No difference was observed between the young group and the overweight adults group in the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity, 82.6% (69.2-94.6) vs 92.5% (73.3-99.1). However, older adults spent lower proportion of time at moderate to vigorous intensity for both sessions 51.5% (22.0-86.6); P < .01. When doing resistance training at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity, the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was 82.3% (56.1-94.7) and 82.0% (59.2-98.0) with no significant difference (P=.83). Conclusion: This study suggests that overweight adults and older adults can reach moderate intensity for at least 51% of the time spent doing resistance training. However, time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was lower for older adults compared to young non-overweight adults. For adults aged 60 or less, three resistance training sessions of 60 minutes weekly could be enough to reach both aerobic and resistance training components of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Further research is needed to test if resistance training at moderate to vigorous intensity can have the same health benefits compared with adults completing the International Physical Activity Guidelines as currently suggested.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, international physical activity guidelines, moderate to vigorous intensity, resistance training

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3016 The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Somayeh Negahdari, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Masoud Nikbakht, Heshmatolah Tavakol

Abstract:

Asthma, obesity and overweight are the main factors causing change within the heart and respiratory airways. Asthma symptoms are normally observed during exercising. Epidemiological studies have indicated asthma symptoms occurring due to certain lifestyle habits; for example, a sedentary lifestyle. In this study, eight weeks of aerobic exercises resulted in a positive effect overall in overweight women experiencing mild chronic asthma. The quasi-experimental applied research has been done based on experimental and control groups. The experimental group (seven patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded before and after the test. According to the Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index, the training intensity has determined. Participants in the study performed a sub-maximal aerobic activity schedule (45% to 80% of maximum heart rate) for two months, while the control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance compared both the pre-test and post-test with paired t-test at significance level of P≤ 0.05. After eight weeks of exercise, the results of the experimental group show a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation, while a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance activity (P ≤ 0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters ((P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate the aerobic activity can strengthen the respiratory muscles, while other physiological factors could result in breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters, and exercise tolerance of overweight women with chronic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, respiratory cardiac index, exercise tolerance, aerobic, overweight

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3015 Aerobic Capacity Outcomes after an Aerobic Exercise Program with an Upper Body Ergometer in Diabetic Amputees

Authors: Cecilia Estela Jiménez Pérez Campos

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Introduction: Amputation comes from a series of complications in diabetic persons; at that point, of the illness evolution they have a deplored aerobic capacity. Adding to that, cardiac rehabs programs are almost base in several activities in a standing position. The cardiac rehabilitation programs have to improve for them, based on scientific advice. Objective: Evaluation of aerobic capacity of diabetic amputee after an aerobic exercise program, with upper limb ergometer. Methodology: The design is longitudinal, prospective, comparative and no randomized. We include all diabetic pelvic limb amputees, who assist to the cardiac rehabilitation. We made 2 groups: an experimental and a control group. The patients did the exercise testing, with the author’s design protocol. The experimental group completed 24 exercise sessions (3 sessions/week), with an intensity determined with the training heart rate. At the end of 8 weeks period, the subjects did a second exercise test. Results: Both groups were a homogeneous sample in age (experimental n=15) 57.6+12.5 years old and (control n=8) 52.5+8.0 years old, sex, occupation, education and economic features. (square chi) (p=0.28). The initial aerobic capacity was similar in both groups. And the aerobic capacity accomplishes after the program was statistically greater in the experimental group than in the control one. The final media VO2peak (mlO2/kg/min) was experimental (17.1+3.8), control (10.5+3.8), p=0.001. (t student). Conclusions: The aerobic capacity improved after an arm ergometer exercise program and the quality of life improve too, in diabetic amputees. So this program is fundamental in diabetic amputee’s rehabilitation management.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, metabolic equivalent (MET), oxygen output, upper limb ergometer

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