Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 538

Search results for: aerobic exercises

538 Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, M. Golzadeh Gangeraj, Alireza Barari, S. Shirali, S. Amini

Abstract:

Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Saffron, aerobic exercises, type 2 diabetes, HFABP, troponin T

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537 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women

Authors: Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Mohammad Sajadian, Shadi Alipour

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The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.

Keywords: heart diseases, aerobic exercise, inflammation, CRP, overweight

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536 The Effects of Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercises with Moderate Intensity on Serum Levels of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Aerobic Capacity in Obese Children

Authors: Ali Golestani, Vahid Naseri, Hossein Taheri

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Recently, some of studies examined the effect of exercise on neurotrophic factors influencing the growth, protection, plasticity and function in central and peripheral nerve cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous and interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity on serum levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and aerobic capacity in obese children. 21 obese students with an average age of 13.6 ± 0.5 height 171 ± 5 and BMI 32 ± 1.2 were divided randomly to control, continuous aerobic and interval aerobic groups. Training protocol included continuous or interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity 50-65%MHR, three times per week for 10 weeks. 48 hours before and after executing of protocol, blood samples were taken from the participants and their GDNF serum levels were measured by ELISA. Aerobic power was estimated using Shuttle-run test. T-test results indicated a small increase in their GDNF serum levels, which was not statistically significant (p =0.11). In addition, the results of ANOVA did not show any significant difference between continuous and interval aerobic training on the serum levels of their GDNF but their aerobic capacity significantly increased (p =0.012). Although continuous and interval aerobic exercise improves aerobic power in obese children, they had no significant effect on their serum levels of GDNF.

Keywords: aerobic power, continuous aerobic training, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), interval aerobic training, obese children

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535 The Influence of Aerobic Physical Exercise with Different Frequency to Concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Brain Tissue of Wistar Rat

Authors: Rostika Flora, Muhammad Zulkarnain, Syokumawena

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Background: Aerobic physical exercises are recommended to keep body fit and healthy although physical exercises themselves can increase body metabolism and oxygen and can lead into tissue hypoxia. Oxygen pressure can serve as Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulator. Hypoxia increases gene expression of VEGF through ascendant regulation of HIF-1. VEGF is involved in regulating angiogenesis process. Aerobic physical exercises can increase the concentration of VEGF in brain and enables angiogenesis process. We have investigated the influence of aerobic physical exercise to the VGEF concentration of wistar rat’s brain. Methods: This was experimental study using post test only control group design. Independent t-test was used as statistical test. The samples were twenty four wistar rat (Rattus Norvegicus) which were divided into four groups: group P1 (control group), group P2 (treatment group with once-a-week exercise), group P3 (treatment group with three time-a-week exercise), and group P4 (treatment group with seven time-a-week exercise). Group P2, P3, and P4 were treated with treadmil with speed of 20 m/minute for 30 minutes. The concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a significant increase of VEGF in treatment group compared with control one (<0.05). The maximum increase was found in group P2 (129.02±64.49) and the minimum increase was in group P4 (96.98±11.20). Conclusion: The frequency of aerobic physical exercises influenced the concentration of Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) of brain tissue of Rattus Norvegicus.

Keywords: brain tissue, hypoxia, physical exercises, vascular endhothelial growth factor

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534 Response of Selected Echocardiographic Features to Aerobic Training in Obese Hypertensive Males

Authors: Abeer Ahmed Abdelhameed

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercises on LV parameters, lipid profile, and anthropometric measurements in hypertensive middle aged male subjects. Thirty obese patients were recruited for the study from the outpatient clinic of National Heart Institute, Egypt. Their ages ranges from 40 to 60 years. All participants underwent an aerobic training program including regular aerobic sub-maximal exercises in the form of treadmill walking and abdominal exercises 3/week for four months, the exercise were individually tailored for each participant depending on the result of cardiopulmonary exercise test. The result showed no significant difference observed in both LVPWT and LVSWT data from pre-test values to post-test values in all subjects after 4 months, with a significant reduction in WHR, systolic blood pressure, TAG and LDL records. Result also revealed a significant increase in HDL, Eƒ, LVEDD and FS records for all participants. The significant improvement in ventricular functions in form of ejection fraction of electrical group more than exercise group after 4 months at the end of the study may be due to the beneficial effect of faradic stimulation in lipolysis of storage adipose tissues, stimulation of lean body mass and muscles and/or thermal effect that improves vascularization.

Keywords: left ventricular parameters, aerobic training, electrical stimulation, lipid profile

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533 The Effect of Aerobic Exercises on the Amount of Urea, Uric Acid and Creatine in Blood of Iranian Soccer Players

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

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The purpose of this research was to study the effect of aerobic exercises with 75% heart beats on the amount of urea, uric acid and creatine in blood of Iranian soccer national U-23 players. 27 players were selected according to the following demographic specifications: age: 21.4±1.60 years old; weight: 68±9.4 kg; height: 174.2±8.6 cm. Urea, uric acid and creatine in blood are considered as dependent variations where as 40 minutes running on a track with maximum 75% heart beats are independent variations. Heart beat and blood pressure in rest time, age, height, and weight are considered as the controlled variations. Maximum heart beats are recorded under maximum exercises (8 minutes and 150-250 watt energy) on ergo meter. Then, in order to determine independent variations, 75% maximum heart beats are considered for each player. Blood is taken twice (before and after determining independence variation). Moreover, the players are given a few instructions to be fulfilled 24 hours before the main exercises. Laboratory analysis method for blood urea sample is deacetyl ammoniom, for uric acid Karvy test and for creatine pyric acid. 'T' formula is applied for analyzing statistical data in dependent groups with degree of freedom 7 (d.f=7) urea and uric acid contain P>0.01 and P>0.05 for creatine. 1. Aerobic exercise can effect on the concentration of urea of blood as well as uric acid and creatine in blood serum and increase the amount of them. 2. Urea of blood serum increases from 26.75±2.59 to 28.9±2.67 (25%) with 40 minutes running and 75% heart beat. 3. Aerobic exercise causes uric acid increase 12.5% from 5.7±0.52 (before exercise) to 6.1±0.71 (after exercise). Creatine of blood serum increases from 1.36±0.27 (before exercise) to 1.85±0.49 (after exercise). We came to this result that during aerobic exercise catabolism of protein substrate increases. Moreover, augmentation of urea, uric acid and creatine in blood serum as metabolic poisons causes disorder in kidney. Also, tendons and joints are affected by these poisons. Appropriate diet and exercise can prevent production of these poisons resulted from heavy exercise.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, urea, uric acid, creatine, blood, soccer national players

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532 Interaction Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation and Aerobic Exercises on Balance and Physical Performance in Children with Down Syndrome

Authors: Mohamed A. Eid, Sobhy M. Aly, Marwa M. Ibrahim, Nadia L. Radwan

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To investigate the interaction effects of vitamin D supplementation combined with aerobic exercises (AE) and conventional physical therapy program (CPTP) on balance and physical performance in children with Down syndrome (DS).Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 38 children with DS, with ages ranging from 8 to 12 years. They were divided randomly to two groups. The control group (n=19) received the CPTP, while the study group (n=19) received the CPTP, AE, and vitamin D in the form of an oral daily dose of vitamin D3 400 IU (Cholecalciferol). Evaluation of balance by using the Biodex Stability System and physical performance by using the six-minute walk test (6MWT)was performed before and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Findings: All groups showed a significant improvement in balance and physical performance after treatment (p < 0.05). The study group showed a significant improvement in balance and physical performancecompared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation combined with AE and CPTP could improve balance and physical performance in children with DS. Therefore, vitamin D and AEshould be considered as adjunctive to the rehabilitation program of these children.

Keywords: aerobic exercises, balance, down syndrome, physical performance, vitamin D

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531 Assessment of Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Aerobic Exercises in Sedentary Adults and Amateur Athletes

Authors: Caner Yilmaz, Zuhal Didem Takinaci

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Introduction: Today, our knowledge about the effects of physical activity performed at the different intensity of the cardiovascular system are still not clear. Therefore, to contribute to the literature, in our study, sedentary individuals and amateur athletes were assessed in a single session with the aim of evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the moderate and severe exercise. Methods: 80 participants (40 amateur athletes and 40 sedentary, young adults) participated in our study. Participants were divided into two groups: amateur athletes (mean age: 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) and sedentary in group II (mean age: 23.8 ± 3.7 yrs). Participants in both groups were assessed twice, namely, firstly, at moderate intensity (5km/h 30 min. walking) and secondly at the vigorous intensity (8km/h 20 min. jogging). Participants’ SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), HR (Heart Rate), SpO₂ (Oxygen Saturation), BT (Body Temperature) and RR (Respiratory Rate) were measured. Results: In our study, the findings showed that after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, change in SBP, DBP, and SpO₂ were significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). After the severe intensity aerobic exercises, change in SBP, SpO₂, HR, and RR was significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). The BORG score of Group II was significantly higher after both moderate and severe intensity aerobic exercise (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The cardiovascular responses of amateur athletes were closer to initial values, and the differences between the two groups were increased in direct proportion to the intensity of the exercise. Both exercise intensities could be adequate.

Keywords: aerobic, exercise, sedantary, cardi̇ovascular

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530 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

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An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

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529 The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Somayeh Negahdari, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Masoud Nikbakht, Heshmatolah Tavakol

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Asthma, obesity and overweight are the main factors causing change within the heart and respiratory airways. Asthma symptoms are normally observed during exercising. Epidemiological studies have indicated asthma symptoms occurring due to certain lifestyle habits; for example, a sedentary lifestyle. In this study, eight weeks of aerobic exercises resulted in a positive effect overall in overweight women experiencing mild chronic asthma. The quasi-experimental applied research has been done based on experimental and control groups. The experimental group (seven patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded before and after the test. According to the Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index, the training intensity has determined. Participants in the study performed a sub-maximal aerobic activity schedule (45% to 80% of maximum heart rate) for two months, while the control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance compared both the pre-test and post-test with paired t-test at significance level of P≤ 0.05. After eight weeks of exercise, the results of the experimental group show a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation, while a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance activity (P ≤ 0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters ((P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate the aerobic activity can strengthen the respiratory muscles, while other physiological factors could result in breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters, and exercise tolerance of overweight women with chronic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, respiratory cardiac index, exercise tolerance, aerobic, overweight

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528 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

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Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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527 The Effect of Aerobics and Yogic Exercise on Selected Physiological and Psychological Variables of Middle-Aged Women

Authors: A. Pallavi, N. Vijay Mohan

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A nation can be economically progressive only when the citizens have sufficient capacity to work efficiently to increase the productivity. So, good health must be regarded as a primary need of the community. This helps the growth and development of the body and the mind, which in turn leads to progress and prosperity of the nation. An optimum growth is a necessity for an efficient existence in a biologically adverse and economically competitive world. It is also necessary for the execution of daily routine work. Yoga is a method or a system for the complete development of the personality in a human being. It can be further elaborated as an all-around and complete development of the body, mind, morality, intellect and soul of a being. Sri Aurobindo defines yoga as 'a methodical effort towards self-perfection by the development of the potentialities in the individual.' Aerobic exercise as any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmic I nature. It is a type of exercise that overloads the heart and lungs and causes them to work harder than at rest. The important idea behind aerobic exercise today, is to get up and get moving. There are more activities that ever to choose from, whether it is a new activity or an old one. Find something you enjoy doing that keeps our heart rate elevated for a continuous time period and get moving to a healthier life. Middle aged selected and served as the subjects for the purpose of this study. The selected subjects were in the age group of 30 to 40 years. By going through the literature and after consulting the experts in yoga and aerobic training, the investigator had chosen the variables which are specifically related to the middle-aged men. The selected physiological variables are pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure; percent body fat and vital capacity. The selected psychological variables are job anxiety, occupational stress. The study was formulated as a random group design consisting of aerobic exercise and yogic exercises groups. The subjects (N=60) were at random divided into three equal groups of twenty middle-aged men each. The groups were assigned the names as follows: 1. Experimental group I- aerobic exercises group, 2. Experimental group II- yogic exercises, 3. Control group. All the groups were subjected to pre-test prior to the experimental treatment. The experimental groups participated in their respective duration of twenty-four weeks, six days in a week throughout the study. The various tests administered were: prior to training (pre-test), after twelfth week (second test) and twenty-fourth weeks (post-test) of the training schedule.

Keywords: pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure; percent body fat and vital capacity, psychological variables, job anxiety, occupational stress, aerobic exercise, yogic exercise

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526 The Effects of 6-Weeks Aerobic Dance among Women

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Muhammad Amir Asyraf Rosli

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Aerobic dance has becoming a popular mode of exercise especially among women due to its fun nature. With a catchy music background and joyful dance steps, aerobic dancers would be able to have fun while sweating out. Depending on its level of aggressiveness, aerobic may also improve and maintain cardiorespiratory fitness other than being a great tool for weight loss. This study intends to prove that aerobic dance activity can bring the same, if not better impacts on health than other types of cardiovascular exercise such as jogging and cycling. The objective of this study was to evaluate and identify the effect of six weeks aerobic dance on cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among women. This study, which was held in Seremban Fit Challenge, used a quasi-experimental design. The subjects selected include a total of 14 women (n = 14) with age (32.4 years old ± 9.1), weight (65.93 kg ± 11.24) and height (165.36 ± 3.46) who joined the Seremban Fit Challenge Season 13. The subjects were asked to join an aerobic dance class with duration of one hour for six weeks in a row. As for the outcome, cardiovascular fitness was measured with a 1-mile run test while any changes on weight was measured using the weighing scale. The result showed that there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for cardiovascular fitness when p = 0.02 < 0.05 and weight loss when p = 0.00 < 0.05. In conclusion, a six-week long aerobic dance program would have a positive effect on cardiovascular fitness and weight. Therefore, aerobic dance may be used as an alternative tool for people who wish to lead a healthy lifestyle in a fun way.

Keywords: aerobic dance, cardiovascular fitness, weight loss, 1-mile run test

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525 Effect of High-Intensity Core Muscle Exercises Training on Sport Performance in Dancers

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng

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Traditional core stability, core endurance, and balance exercises on a stable surface with isometric muscle actions, low loads, and multiple repetitions, which may not improvements the swimming and running economy performance. However, the effects of high intensity core muscle exercise training on jump height, sprint, and aerobic fitness remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity core muscle exercises training could improve sport performances in dancers. Thirty healthy university dancer students (28 women and 2 men; age 20.0 years, height 159.4 cm, body mass 52.7 kg) were voluntarily participated in this study, and each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30-second, with 30-second of rest between exercises, two times per week for eight weeks and each exercise session was increased by 10-second every week. We measured agility, explosive force, anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness in dancer performance before and after eight weeks of training. The results showed that the 8-week high intensity core muscle training would significantly increase T-test agility (7.78%), explosive force of acceleration (3.35%), vertical jump height (8.10%), jump power (6.95%), lower extremity anaerobic ability (7.10%) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (4.15%). Therefore, it can be concluded that eight weeks of high intensity core muscle exercises training can improve not only agility, sprint ability, vertical jump ability, anaerobic and but also cardiovascular fitness measures as well.

Keywords: balance, jump height, sprint, maximal oxygen uptake

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524 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak

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Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

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523 Investigation of the Effects of Aerobic Exercise Programs on Hematological Parameters of Sedentary People

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Swati Choudhary

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Background: A variety of studies warn that sedentary lifestyles can contribute to many preventable causes of death. This study was taken to determine the effects of two types of aerobic training programs on erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets and hematocrit of sedentary people (N=60) with age group 20 to 30 years. Methods: All the subjects were randomly divided into three groups i.e. two experiments groups (aerobic dance & cardio fitness) and control group. Each group having 10 male and 10 females. Experimental groups undergone 60 minutes of training 5 times a week for 12 weeks whereas the control group did not participate in any training program except their daily routine. The aerobic dance group was chosen to perform exercise like step –touch, side-to-side, V-step and hand and body movements, etc. The cardio fitness group was chosen to perform exercises with modern fitness equipment like treadmill, elliptical trainer, stationary bike and rowing machine. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale developed by Gunner Borg was used to monitor the intensity of the workout. Aerobic programs were encompassed of low-impact (0- 4 week & perceived exertion from 6 to 12), moderate-impact (4-8 week and perceived exertion from 12 to 16) and high-impact (8- 12 week & perceived exertion from 16 to 20). Results: To test the effectiveness of training programs paired t-test was used and significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, hematocrit but no significant effects of training was found in leukocytes (p>0.05). Paired t-test also showed that no effect of time was seen in the control group in all the cases (p>0.05). Further analysis of covariance was used to know which program was more effective and it was seen that F value was found significant in the case of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, and hematocrit as their associated p-value (p<0.05) is lesser than 0.05. As F value was found significant for hematological parameters, fishers least significant difference test was used and results of post hoc mean comparison indicated that experimental groups (aerobic dance group and cardio fitness group) had significant difference with control group in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets and hematocrit and insignificant difference was found between aerobic dance group & cardio fitness group in all the cases. Thus, it may be concluded that in general, both the aerobic training programs had adequate effects on all the hematological parameters except leukocytes.

Keywords: aerobic dance, cardio fitness, hematological variables, rating perceived exertion scale

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522 The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise after Consumption of Four Different Diets on Serum Levels Irisin, Insulin and Glucose in Overweight Men

Authors: Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Abdolhamid Habibi, Majid Mohammad Shahi

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The combination of exercise and diet as the most important strategy to reduce weight and control obesity-related factors, including Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose was raised. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise combined with four different diets on serum levels of Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose in overweight men. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 8 overweight men (BMI 29.23±0.47) with average age of (23±1.6) voluntarily participated in 4 sessions by one-week interval. The study was done in exercise physiology lab. In each session, subjects performed a 30 minutes treadmill test with 60-70% of maximum heart rate, after consuming a high carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein and normal diet. For biochemical measurement, three blood samples were taken in fasting state, two hours after meals and after exercise Results: Statistical analysis of data showed that the serum levels of Irisin after consumption all four diets had been reduced which this reduce as a result of high-fat diet that were significantly (p ≤ 0/038). Serum concentration of Insulin and Glucose increased after consuming four diets. However, increase in serum Insulin and Glucose was significant only after consuming high-carbohydrate diet (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/042). In addition, during exercise after consuming all four regular diet, high carbohydrate, high-protein and high-fat, Irisin significant increased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/021, p ≤ 0/049, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/003), Insulin decreased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/002, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002) and Glucose were significantly reduced (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002). After aerobic activity following the consumption of a high protein diet the highest increase in irisin levels, and after aerobic exercise following consumption of high carbohydrate diet the greatest decrease in insulin and glucose levels were observed. Conclusion: It seems that diet alone and exercises following different consumption diets can have a significant effect on Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose serum levels in overweight young men.

Keywords: acute aerobic exercise, diet, irisin, overweight

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521 Resistance Training Contribution to the Aerobic Component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines in Adults

Authors: Neha Bharti, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

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Mostly attributed to lack of time, only 15% of adults currently reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines, which state that every adult should achieve minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week at moderate to vigorous intensity in minimum bouts of 10 minutes each, in addition to two days of resistance training. Recent studies have suggested that any bout of aerobic exercise reaching moderate intensity has potential to improve health. If one could reach moderate intensity while doing resistance training, this could reduce the total weekly time involvement to reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Objectives: 1) To determine whether overweight and older adults can reach a minimum of moderate intensity while doing resistance training compared with young non-overweight adults, 2) To identify if the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity is different in overweight adults and older adults when compared with young non-overweight adults when lifting 70% or 80% of maximal load, 3) To determine variables associated with proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity while doing resistance training. Methods: Sixty participants already doing resistance training were recruited (20 young non-overweight adults, 20 overweight adults, and 20 older adults). Participants visited fitness facility three times, separated by at least 48 hours, and performed eight resistance exercises each time. First visit was to collect baseline measurements and to measure maximal load for each of the eight exercises. Second and third visits were performed wearing a heart rate monitor to record heart rate and to measure exercise intensity. The two exercise sessions were performed at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity. Moderate intensity was defined as 40% of heart rate reserve. Results: The proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity ranged from 51% to 93% among the three groups. No difference was observed between the young group and the overweight adults group in the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity, 82.6% (69.2-94.6) vs 92.5% (73.3-99.1). However, older adults spent lower proportion of time at moderate to vigorous intensity for both sessions 51.5% (22.0-86.6); P < .01. When doing resistance training at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity, the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was 82.3% (56.1-94.7) and 82.0% (59.2-98.0) with no significant difference (P=.83). Conclusion: This study suggests that overweight adults and older adults can reach moderate intensity for at least 51% of the time spent doing resistance training. However, time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was lower for older adults compared to young non-overweight adults. For adults aged 60 or less, three resistance training sessions of 60 minutes weekly could be enough to reach both aerobic and resistance training components of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Further research is needed to test if resistance training at moderate to vigorous intensity can have the same health benefits compared with adults completing the International Physical Activity Guidelines as currently suggested.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, international physical activity guidelines, moderate to vigorous intensity, resistance training

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520 Acylated Ghrelin in Response to Aerobic Training Induced Weight Loss in Obese Men

Authors: Masoumeh Hosseini

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Obesity is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the effect of a long term aerobic training program on serum ghrelin in obese men. For this purpose, twenty four sedentary adult obese men aged 30-40 years and body mass index 30-36 kg/m2 were participated in this study and divided randomly into exercise (3 months aerobic training, 3 times/weekly) or control (no training) groups. Serum ghrelin and cardiovascular risk factor (TG, TC, LDL, and HDL) were measured before and after treatment. Anthropometrical markers were measured at two occasions. Data were analyzed by independent-paired T-test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Aerobic training resulted in significant decrease in serum ghrelin and TG in exercise group. All anthropometrical markers decreased significantly in exercise group but not in control subjects. Based on these data, it is concluded that weight loss by aerobic training can be affect serum ghrelin in obese subject, although some cardiovascular risk factor remained without changed.

Keywords: aerobic training, homeostasis, lipid profile, obesity

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519 Effect of Eight Weeks Aerobic Training with Purslane Seeds on Peroxidant and Antioxidants Indicators in Women with Type2 Diabetes

Authors: Shima Dehghan

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Aim: imbalance between antioxidant defensive system and increasing production of free radicals caused oxidative stress that can be rolled in cellular damage and occurring some of diseases such as diabetes. The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on peroxidant and antioxidants indicators in women with type2 diabetes. Methodology: thirty two inactive women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into four groups: 1. control, 2. Aerobic training, 3. Purslane seed and 4. Aerobic training + Purslane seed groups. Subjects were asked to accomplish eight weeks aerobic training (50 min aerobic exercise, 3 days/week, for to achieve 65-75% maximum of heart rate). Also, subjects in certain groups received purslane seeds for eight weeks. Blood samples were obtained in two sets (one session and after 8 weeks). Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA. A significant difference was accepted at p < 0/05 level. Results: After eight weeks of aerobic training with purslane seeds supplementation, malon dyaldehyde (MDA) concentration in training group were significantly decreased (p < 0/000), but A difference significant was not found in control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) concentrations in training group were significantly increased (p < 0/000), while difference significant wasnot found in control group. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicates that disciplined aerobic training with purslane seeds supplementation can be caused improvement in peroxidant/antioxidant balance in women with type2 diabetes.

Keywords: aerobic training, purslane seed, peroxidant/antioxidant balance, diabetes2

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518 Aerobic Capacity Outcomes after an Aerobic Exercise Program with an Upper Body Ergometer in Diabetic Amputees

Authors: Cecilia Estela Jiménez Pérez Campos

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Introduction: Amputation comes from a series of complications in diabetic persons; at that point, of the illness evolution they have a deplored aerobic capacity. Adding to that, cardiac rehabs programs are almost base in several activities in a standing position. The cardiac rehabilitation programs have to improve for them, based on scientific advice. Objective: Evaluation of aerobic capacity of diabetic amputee after an aerobic exercise program, with upper limb ergometer. Methodology: The design is longitudinal, prospective, comparative and no randomized. We include all diabetic pelvic limb amputees, who assist to the cardiac rehabilitation. We made 2 groups: an experimental and a control group. The patients did the exercise testing, with the author’s design protocol. The experimental group completed 24 exercise sessions (3 sessions/week), with an intensity determined with the training heart rate. At the end of 8 weeks period, the subjects did a second exercise test. Results: Both groups were a homogeneous sample in age (experimental n=15) 57.6+12.5 years old and (control n=8) 52.5+8.0 years old, sex, occupation, education and economic features. (square chi) (p=0.28). The initial aerobic capacity was similar in both groups. And the aerobic capacity accomplishes after the program was statistically greater in the experimental group than in the control one. The final media VO2peak (mlO2/kg/min) was experimental (17.1+3.8), control (10.5+3.8), p=0.001. (t student). Conclusions: The aerobic capacity improved after an arm ergometer exercise program and the quality of life improve too, in diabetic amputees. So this program is fundamental in diabetic amputee’s rehabilitation management.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, metabolic equivalent (MET), oxygen output, upper limb ergometer

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517 Systolic Blood Pressure Responses to Aerobic Exercise among HIV Positive Patients

Authors: Ka'abu Mu'azu

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The study examines the effect of varied intensities of aerobic exercise on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among HIV/AIDS positive patients. Participants of mean age of 20.4 years were randomized into four groups. High Intensity Group (HIG), Moderate Intensity Group (MIG), Low Intensity Group (LIG) and Control Group (COG). SBP was measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise (8 weeks). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant training effect on resting values of SBP (F [3, 15] = 8.9, P < 0.05). Sheffe post hoc analysis indicated that both HIG and MIG significantly differ from control (P < 0.05). Dependent t- test indicates difference in HIG (t [7] = 6.5, P < 0.05) and slightly in MIG (t [7] = 5.4, P < 0.05). The study concluded that aerobic exercise is effective in reducing resting values of SBP particularly the activities that are high intensity in nature. The study recommends that high and moderate intensity aerobic exercise should be used for improving health condition of HIV/AIDS patients as regard to decrease in resting value of SBP.

Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aerobic exercise, HIV patients, health sciences

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516 Low Term Aerobic Training Is Not Associated with Anti-Inflammatory in Obese Women

Authors: Zohreh Afsharmand, Sokhanguei Yahya

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A growing body of literature suggests that that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. In this study, the effect of 6 weeks aerobic training on IL-6 and IL-1B as inflammatory cytokine were investigated in adult obese women. For this purpose, 26 sedentary adult obese women were divided into exercise and control groups (n=12). Pre and post training of mentioned cytokines were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were significant within-group changes in the outcomes. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the exercise and control groups with regard to anthropometrical markers or inflammatory cytokines. Despite the significant decrease in all anthropometrical markers, no significant differences were found in serum IL-6 and IL-1B by aerobic training with compared to baseline. Our findings indicate that aerobic training intervention for a short time is not associated with the anti-inflammatory property in obese women.

Keywords: aerobic training, cytokine, inflammation, obesity

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515 Eight Weeks of Suspension Systems Training on Fat Mass, Jump and Physical Fitness Index in Female

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng

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Greater core stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. Core stability exercises on instability device (such as the TRX suspension systems) were found to be able to induce higher core muscle activity than performing on a stable surface. However, high intensity interval TRX suspension exercises training on sport performances remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity TRX suspension training could improve sport performance. Twenty-four healthy university female students (age 19.0 years, height 157.9 cm, body mass 51.3 kg, fat mass 25.2 %) were voluntarily participated in this study. After a familiarization session, each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30 seconds, followed by 30 seconds break, two times per week for eight weeks while each exercise session was increased by 10 seconds every week. The results showed that the fat mass (about 12.92%) decreased significantly, sit and reach test (9%), 1 minute sit-up test (17.5%), standing broad jump (4.8%), physical fitness index (10.3%) increased significantly after 8-week high intensity TRX suspension training. Hence, eight weeks of high intensity interval TRX suspension exercises training can improve hamstring flexibility, trunk endurance, jump ability, aerobic fitness and fat mass percentage decreased substantially.

Keywords: core endurance, jump, flexibility, cardiovascular fitness

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514 Serum Cortisol and Osteocalsin in Response to Eight Weeks Aerobic Training in Asthma Men with Mild to Moderate Intensity

Authors: Eizadi Mojtaba

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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training on serum osteocalsin as an osteoblasts hormone and cortisol in adult men with asthma. For this purpose, twenty four non-trained adult men with mild to moderate asthma were participated in study voluntarily and divided into exercise (aerobic training, 8 weeks/3 times per week) and control groups by randomly. Pre and post training of serum osteocalsin and cortisol were measured of two groups. Student’s paired ‘t’ test was applied to compare the pre and post training values. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to all anthropometrical and biochemical markers between the exercise and control groups at baseline ( P > 0.05 ). Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum osteocalsin and decrease in cortisol ( P > 0.05 ), but not in control group. Based on these data, we concluded that aerobic training can be improved Processes of bone formation in asthma patients.

Keywords: osteoblasts, asthma, aerobic exercise, sedentary

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513 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Chun-Chin Huang

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Individuals with prediabetes increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Exercise is a potent stimulator of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus good for maintaining glucose homeostasis. That could be a conducive method to improve blood glucose regulation and prevent type 2 diabetes without medication intake. The aim of this study was to summarize mechanisms of insulin resistance and investigate the beneficial effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Aerobic exercise regulates glucose homeostasis and reduces blood glucose, insulin concentrations. Therefore, the type of aerobic exercise brings positive effects to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: insulin resistance, glucose sensitivity, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance

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512 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on the Improvement of Nursing Staff's Sleep Quality: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Niu Shu Fen

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Sleep disturbance is highly prevalent among shift-working nurses. We aimed to evaluate whether aerobic exercise (i.e., walking combined with jogging) improves objective Sleepparameters among female nurses at the end of an 8-week exercise program and 4 weeks after study completion. This single-blinded, parallel design, randomized controlled trial was conducted in the floor classroom of a would-be medical center in northern Taiwan. Sixtyeligible female nurses were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (n = 30) or usual care (n = 30) group. The moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program was performed over 5days (60 min per day) a week for 8 weeks after work hours. Objective sleep outcomes including total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE), were retrieved using an Actigraph device. A generalized estimated equation model was used for data analyses. The aerobic exercise group had significant improvements in TST and SE at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared with baseline evaluation(TST: B = 70.49 and 55.96, both p < 0.001; SE: B = 5.21 and 3.98, p < 0.001 and 0.002).Significant between-group differences were observed in SOL and WASO at 4 weeks but not8 weeks compared with the baseline evaluation (SOL: B = −7.18, p = 0.03; WASO: B =−11.38, p = 0.008). The positive lasting effects for TST were observed only until the 4-week follow-up. To improve sleep quality and quantity, we encourage female nurses to regularly perform moderate-intensity aerobic exercise.

Keywords: sleep quality, aerobic exercise, nurses, shift work

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511 The Effect of Compound Exercises Emphasizing Local and Global Stability on the Dynamic Balance in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

Authors: Elnaz Sabzehparvar, Pouya Rabiei, Houman Rezaei

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Few studies have been conducted about the effects of compound exercises emphasizing local stability and global stabilization subsystems on the performance of athletes. The present research aimed to study the effect of 6 weeks of compound exercises emphasizing local and global stability on the dynamic balance of elite male Taekwondo athletes. Twenty-seven elite male Taekwondo athletes (with a mean age, mass, and height of 24.4 ± 4.9 years, 75.7 ± 15.1kg, and 181.4 ± 7.8 cm, respectively) were assigned to two groups of control (n=12) and exercise (n=15). 6 weeks of compound exercises in 2 local and global phases. The first phase included activation exercises which were done separately and locally for 3 weeks. Then, integrative exercises specific to the global stabilization subsystems (longitudinal-depth, posterior oblique and anterior, and lateral) was carried out for next 3 weeks. The dynamic balance of subjects was measured in the pre-test and post-test using the Y Balance Test (YBT). After 6 weeks of compound exercises, scores of the YBT in the exercise group showed a significant improvement in all three anterior (p=0.035), posterolateral (p=0.017) and medial (p=0.001) directions in the post-test compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons). The findings of the present study suggested that compound exercises focusing on muscle as separate units and then as interdependent chains (muscular subsystems) can significantly increase YBT on elite male Taekwondo athletes in all three directions.

Keywords: Taekwondo, compound exercises, local and global stability, muscular subsystems

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510 Plasma Collagen XVIII in Response to Intensive Aerobic Running and Aqueous Extraction of Black Crataegus Elbursensis in Male Rats

Authors: A. Abdi, A. Abbasi Daloee, A. Barari

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Aim: The adaptations that occur in human body after doing exercises training are a factor to help healthy people stay away from certain diseases. One of the main adaptations is a change in blood circulation, especially in vessels. The increase of capillary density is dependent on the balance between angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Most studies show that the changes made to angiogenic developmental factors resulted from physical exercises indicate the low level of stimulators compared with inhibitors. It is believed that the plasma level of VEGF-A, the important angiogenic factor, is reduced after physical exercise. Findings indicate that the extract of crataegus plant reduces the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) autophosphorylation in human's fibroblast. More importantly, crataegus (1 to 100 mg in liter) clearly leads to the inhibition of PDGFR autophosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Angiogenesis is a process that can be classified into physiological and pathophysiological forms. collagen XVIII is a part of extracellular protein and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in vascular epithelial and endothelial basement membrane cause the release of endostatin from noncollagenous collagen XVIII. Endostatin inhibits the growth of endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis, weakens different types of cancer, and the growth of tumors. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of intensive aerobic running with or without aqueous extraction of black Crataegus elbursensis on Collagen XVIII in male rats. Design: Thirty-two Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 125-135 gr weight) were acquired from the Pasteur's Institute (Amol, Mazandaran), and randomly assigned into control (n = 16) and training (n = 16) groups. Rats were further divided into saline-control (SC) (n=8), saline-training (ST) (n=8), crataegus pentaegyna extraction -control (CPEC) (n=8), and crataegus pentaegyna extraction - training (CPET) (n=8). The control (SC and CPEC) groups remained sedentary; whereas the training groups underwent a high running exercise program. plasma were excised and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Statistical analysis was performed using a one way analysis of variance and Tukey test. Significance was accepted at P = 0.05. Results: The results show that aerobic exercise group had the highest concentration collagen XVIII compared to other groups and then respectively black crataegus, training-crataegus and control groups. Conclusion: In general, researchers in this study concluded that the increase of collagen XVIII (albeit insignificant) as a result of physical activity and consumption of black crataegus extract could possibly serve as a regional inhibitor of angiogenesis and another evidence for the anti-cancer effects of physical activities. Since the research has not managed in this study to measure the amount of plasma endostatin, it is suggested that both indices are measured with important angiogenic factors so that we can have a more accurate interpretation of changes to angiogenic and angiostatic factors resulted from physical exercises.

Keywords: aerobic running, Crataegus elbursensis, Collagen XVIII

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509 Effects of Aerobic Training on MicroRNA Let-7a Expression and Levels of Tumor Tissue IL-6 in Mice With Breast Cancer

Authors: Leila Anoosheh

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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess The effects of aerobic training on microRNA let-7a expression and levels of tumor tissue IL-6 in mice with breast cancer. Method: Twenty BALB/c c mice (4-5 weeks,17 gr mass) were cancerous by injection of estrogen-dependent receptor breast cancer cells MC4-L2 and divided into two groups: tumor-training(TT) and tumor-control(TC) group. Then TT group completed aerobic training for 6 weeks, 5 days per week (14-18 m/min). After tumor emersion, tumor width and length were measured by digital caliper every week. 48 hours after the last exercise subjects were killed. Tissue sampling were collected and stored in -70ᵒ. Tumor tissue was homogenized and let-7a expression and IL-6 levels were accounted with Real time-PCR and ELISA Kit respectively. Statistical analysis of let-7a was conducted by the REST software. Repeated measures and independent tests were used to assess tumor size and IL-6, respectively. Results: Tumor size and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in TT group compare with TC group (p<0.05). microRNA let-7a was increased significantly in TT against control group respectively (p=0/000). Conclusion: Reduction in tumor size, followed by aerobic exercise can be attributed to the loss of inflammatory factors such as IL-6; It seems that regarding to up regulation effects of aerobic exercise training on let-7a and down regulation effects of that on IL-6 in mice with breast cancer, This type of training can be used as adjuvant therapy in conjunction with other therapies for breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, aerobic training, microRNA let-7a, IL-6

Procedia PDF Downloads 357