Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9200

Search results for: mental health service needs

9200 Exploring the Meaning of Safety in Acute Mental Health Inpatient Units from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Natalie Cutler, Lorna Moxham, Moira Stephens

Abstract:

Safety is a priority in mental health services, and no more so than in the acute inpatient setting. Mental health service policies and accreditation frameworks commonly approach safety from a risk reduction or elimination perspective leading to service approaches that are arguably more focused on risk than on safety. An exploration what safety means for people who have experienced admission to an acute mental health inpatient unit is currently under way in Sydney, Australia. Using a phenomenographic research approach, this study is seeking to understand the meaning of safety from the perspective of people who use, rather than those who deliver mental health services. Preliminary findings suggest that the meanings of safety for users of mental health services vary from the meanings inherent in the policies and frameworks that inform how mental health services and mental health practice are delivered. This variance has implications for the physical and environmental design of acute mental health inpatient facilities, the policies and practices, and the education and training of mental health staff in particular nurses, who comprise the majority of the mental health workforce. These variances will be presented, along with their implications for the way quality and safety in mental health services are evaluated.

Keywords: acute inpatient, mental health, nursing, phenomenography, recovery, safety

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9199 The Importance of Mental Health Literacy: Interventions in a Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes, Portugal

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, Ana Charraz, Ana Matos Pires

Abstract:

Introduction: Health literacy empowers people of knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand, evaluate and mobilize information relating to health. Although the benefits of public knowledge of physical disease are widely accepted, knowledge about mental disorder has been compatibly neglected. Nowadays there is considerably evidence that literacy is of great importance for the promotion of health and prevention of mental illness. Objective: Disclosure the concept and importance of mental health literacy and introduce the literacy program of Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes. Methodology: A search was conducted on PubMed, using keywords “literacy” and “mental health”. A description of mental health literacy interventions implemented on Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes was performed, namely, psychoeducation programs for depression and bipolar disorder. Results and discussion: Health literacy enables patient to be able to actively participate in his treatment. The improving of mental health literacy can promote early identification of mental disorders, improve treatment results, increase the use of health services and allow the community to take action to achieve better mental health. Psychoeducation is very useful in improving the course of disease and in reducing the number of episodes and hospitalizations. Bipolar patients who received psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy have no relapses during the program and last year. Conclusion: Mental health literacy is not simply a matter of having knowledge, rather, it is knowledge linked to action which can benefit mental health.

Keywords: mental health, literacy, psychoeducation, knowledge, empowerment

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9198 Responding to the Mental Health Service Needs of Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in China: Current Situation and Future Directions

Authors: Yujun Liu, Maosheng Ran

Abstract:

Background: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers’ mental health problems raise attentions from different social sectors. However, situation of present mental health services provided to this population has not been discovered. This study attempts to describe the current mental health service situation, identify the gaps and give the future directions based on the quantitative data. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 2017 rural-to-urban migrant workers in 13 cities and 100 social work service organizations in 5 cities in 2014. Data was collected by face-to-face structured interview by trained interviewers. Findings: Migrant workers’ mental health status was not good. Compared to the severity of mental distress, mental health service for this population was lacking and insufficient, which accounted for only 14.4% of all services in our sample. And the group work and case work were the most frequently-used methods. By estimating a series of regression models, we revealed that life experiences and working conditions were significantly associated with migrant workers’ mental health status. Therefore, the macro social work practices aimed at this whole group were advocated to promote their mental wellbeing. That is, practitioners should not only focus on the improvement of migrant workers’ emotion management capacity, but also pay attention to raise awareness and improve their living and working condition; not only concentrate on the solving of individuals’ dilemma, but also promote gradual reformation of present labor regime and hukou system in China.

Keywords: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers, macro social work practice, mental health service needs, mental health status

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9197 Priority Analysis for Korean Disaster Mental Health Service Model Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Myung-Soo Lee, Sun-Jin Jo, Kyoung-Sae Na, Joo-Eon Park

Abstract:

Early intervention after a disaster is important for recovery of disaster victims and each country has its own professional mental health service system such as Disaster Psychiatric Assistant Team in Japan and Crisis Counseling Program in the USA. The purpose of this study was to determine key prior components of the Korean Disaster Psychiatric Assistant Team (K-DPAT) for building up Korean disaster mental health service system. We conducted an Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) with disaster mental health experts using pairwise comparison questionnaire which compares the relative importance of the key components of Korean disaster mental health service system. Forty-one experts answered the first online survey, and among them, 36 responded to the second. Ten experts were participated in panel meeting and discussed the results of the survey and AHP process. Participants decided the relative importance of the Korean disaster mental health service system regarding initial professional intervention as follows. K-DPAT could be organized at a national level (43.0%) or regional level (40.0%). K-DPAT members should be managed (59.0%) and educated (52.1%) by national level than regional or local level. K-DPAT should be organized independent of the preexisting mental health system (70.1%). Funding for K-DPAT should be from the Ministry of Public Safety and the system could be managed by Ministry of Health (65.8%). Experts agreed K-DPAT leader is suitable for key decision maker for most types of disaster except infectious disease. We expect new model for disaster mental health services can improve insufficiency of the system such as fragmentation and decrease the unmet needs of early professional intervention for the disaster victims.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision making, disaster, DPAT, mental health services

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9196 A Computationally Intelligent Framework to Support Youth Mental Health in Australia

Authors: Nathaniel Carpenter

Abstract:

Web-enabled systems for supporting youth mental health management in Australia are pioneering in their field; however, with their success, these systems are experiencing exponential growth in demand which is straining an already stretched service. Supporting youth mental is critical as the lack of support is associated with significant and lasting negative consequences. To meet this growing demand, and provide critical support, investigations are needed on evaluating and improving existing online support services. Improvements should focus on developing frameworks capable of augmenting and scaling service provisions. There are few investigations informing best-practice frameworks when implementing e-mental health support systems for youth mental health; there are fewer which implement machine learning or artificially intelligent systems to facilitate the delivering of services. This investigation will use a case study methodology to highlight the design features which are important for systems to enable young people to self-manage their mental health. The investigation will also highlight the current information system challenges, to include challenges associated with service quality, provisioning, and scaling. This work will propose methods of meeting these challenges through improved design, service augmentation and automation, service quality, and through artificially intelligent inspired solutions. The results of this study will inform a framework for supporting youth mental health with intelligent and scalable web-enabled technologies to support an ever-growing user base.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, information systems, machine learning, youth mental health

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9195 Mental Health Literacy in the Arabic Community

Authors: Yamam Abuzinadah

Abstract:

Mental health literacy has become a very influential topic around the world due to the increase of mental health issues that have been reported through national research and surveys. Mental health literacy refers to the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills when dealing with mental illness. This research explores mental health literacy in the Arabic and the ways culture informs perceptions of mental health in general. Also, the impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking attitudes, relationships and community interactions. The outcomes of this research will contribute to raising mental health awareness among the Arabic community, develop and enhance mental health service provision and explore new ideas in regards to elevating mental health literacy in the Arabic community. This research aims to explore attitudes, beliefs, perspective, values and perceptions toward mental health in general among the Arabic community. It will also aim to highlight the factors contributing to theses beliefs, perspective, value and perception and accordingly the role these factors play in regards to awareness, services access, recovery and care provided from the family and the community. This thesis will aim to reflect a detailed theorisation and exploration of: (1) The impact of cultural factors on mental health literacy ie. attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills. (2) The ways culture informs perceptions of mental health literacy. (3) The impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking behaviors, and relationships and community interactions.

Keywords: Arab, mental health, literacy, awareness

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9194 Caring for the Carers: A Qualitative Study to Evaluate the Perspective of Mental Health Carers on the Effectiveness of Community Services in the Illawarra Region (NSW)

Authors: Mona Nikidehaghani, Freda Hui

Abstract:

In Australia, one-third of mental health carers provide 40 hours or more of unpaid care per week. These hidden workers contribute significantly to the Australian mental health workforce by providing unpaid services both direct and indirect to people in their care. However, carers are often neglected in the healthcare system because Government services focus on those with a mental health condition rather than those supporting them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of mental health carers on the effectiveness of community services designed for carers and how these services could be improved. We collaborated with One Door Mental Health, a community organisation that supports mental health carers. Through semi-structured interviews with 27 mental health carers residing in the Illawarra region (NSW), we documented their daily challenges and evaluated outcomes of the current programs for carers. Our findings demonstrate that services such as education programs enable capacity building and improve the social life and mental health of carers. Drawing on the perceptions of mental health carers, this study maps pathways for making meaningful changes in the lives of carers and proposes an outcome framework to evaluate the impact of a community organisation on the lives of their clients. The framework prepared by this project would be replicable, allowing other community organisations to measure the outcomes and improve their services.

Keywords: capacity building, community development, community service, mental health carers

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9193 Reintegrating Forensic Mental Health Service Users into Communities in the Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Zolani Metu

Abstract:

The death of more than 140 psychiatric patients who were unethically deinstitutionalized from the Life Esidimeni hospital Johannesburg, in 2016, shined a light on South Africa’s failing public mental healthcare system. Compounded by insufficient research evidence on African deinstitutionalization, this necessitates inquiries into deinstitutionalized mental healthcare, reintegration and community-based mental healthcare within the South African context. This study employed a quantitative research approach which utilized a cross-sectional research design, to investigate experiences with the reintegration of institutionalized forensic mental health service users into communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. A convenience sample of 100 mental health care workers from different occupational and organizational backgrounds in the Western Cape was purposively selected using the Western Cape Health Directorate as a sampling frame. A self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) was used as the data collection instrument. The results of the study indicate that criminogenic factors such as substance use, history of violent behaviour, criminal history and disruptive social behaviour complicate the reintegration of forensic mental health service users into communities. The current extent of reintegration of forensic mental health service users was found to be 'poor' (46%; n= 46); and financial difficulties, criminogenic factors and limited Community-Based Care (CBC) facilities were identified as key barriers to the reintegration process. 56% of all job applications for forensic mental health service users were unsuccessful, and 53% of all applications for their admission into CBC facilities were declined. Although social support (informal) was found to be essential for successful reintegration, institutional support (formal) through assertive community treatment (35%; n= 35) and CBC facilities (21%) and the disability grant (DG=50%) was found to be more important for family coping and reintegration. Moreover, 72% of respondents had positive perceptions about the process of reintegration; no statistically significant relationship was found between years of experience and perceptions about reintegration (P-value = 0.062); and perceptions were not found to be a barrier to reintegration. No statistically significant relationship was found between years of working experience and understanding the legislative framework of deinstitutionalization (P-Value =.0.061). However, using a Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P-value = 0.021) was found between sex and understanding the legal framework involved in the process of reintegration. The study recommends a post-2020 deinstitutionalization agenda that factors-in criminogenic realities associated with forensic mental health service users, and affirms the strengthening of PHC and community based care systems as precedents of successful deinstitutionalization and reintegration of mental health service users.

Keywords: forensic mental health, deinstitutionalization, reintegration, mental health service users

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9192 Organisational Culture and the Role of the Mental Health Nurse: An Ethnography of the New Graduate Nurse Experience

Authors: Mary-Ellen Hooper, Graeme Browne, Anthony Paul O'Brien

Abstract:

Background: It has been reported that the experience of the organisational workplace culture for new graduate mental health nurses plays an important role in their attraction and retention to the discipline. Additionally, other research indicates that a negative workplace culture contributes to their dissatisfaction and attrition rate. Method: An ethnographic research design was applied to explore the subcultural experiences of new graduate nurses as they encounter mental health nursing. Data was collected between April and September 2017 across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units. Data comprised of semi-structured interviews (n=24) and 31 episodes of field observation (62 hours). A total number of 26 new graduate and recent graduate nurses participated in the study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduated nurses. Results: A key finding from this study was the New Graduate difficulty in articulating the role the of mental health nurse. Participants described a dichotomy between their ideological view of the mental health nurse and the reality of clinical practice. The participants’ ideological view of the mental health nurse involved providing holistic and individualised care within a flexible framework. Participants, however, described feeling powerless to change the recovery practices within the mental health service(s) because of their low status within the hierarchy. Resulting in participants choosing to fit into the existing culture, or considering leaving the field altogether. Conclusion: An incongruence between the values and ideals of an organisational culture and the reality shock of practice are shown to contribute to role ambiguity within its members. New graduate nurses entering the culture of mental health nursing describe role ambiguity resulting in dissatisfaction with practice. The culture and philosophy inherent to a service are posited to be crucial in creating positive experiences for graduate nurses.

Keywords: culture, mental health nurse, mental health nursing role, new graduate nurse

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9191 How Social Support, Interaction with Clients and Work-Family Conflict Contribute to Mental Well-Being for Employees in the Human Service System

Authors: Uwe C. Fischer

Abstract:

Mental health and well-being for employees working in the human service system are getting more and more important given the increasing rate of absenteeism at work. Besides individual capacities, social and community factors seem to be important in the working setting. Starting from a demand resource framework including the classical demand control aspects, social support systems, specific demands and resources of the client work, and work-family conflict were considered in the present study. We state hypothetically, that these factors have a meaningful association with the mental quality of life of employees working in the field of social, educational and health sectors. 1140 employees, working in human service organizations (education, youth care, nursing etc.) were asked for strains and resources at work (selected scales from Salutogenetic Subjective Work Assessment SALSA and own new scales for client work), work-family conflict, and mental quality of life from the German Short Form Health Survey. Considering the complex influences of the variables, we conducted a multiple hierarchical regression analysis. One third of the whole variance of the mental quality of life can be declared by the different variables of the model. When the variables concerning social influences were included in the hierarchical regression, the influence of work related control resource decreased. Excessive workload, work-family conflict, social support by supervisors, co-workers and other persons outside work, as well as strains and resources associated with client work had significant regression coefficients. Conclusions: Social support systems are crucial in the social, educational and health related service sector, regarding the influence on mental well-being. Especially the work-family conflict focuses on the importance of the work-life balance. Also the specific strains and resources of the client work, measured with new constructed scales, showed great impact on mental health. Therefore occupational health promotion should focus more on the social factors within and outside the working place.

Keywords: client interaction, human service system, mental health, social support, work-family conflict

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9190 Mental Health on Three Continents: A Comparison of Mental Health Disorders in the Usa, India and Brazil

Authors: Henry Venter, Murali Thyloth, Alceu Casseb

Abstract:

Historically, mental and substance use disorders were not a global health priority. Since the 1993 World Development Report, the importance of the contribution of mental health and substance abuse on the relative global burden associated with disease morbidity has been recognized with 300 million people worldwide suffering from depression alone. This led to an international effort to improve the mental health of populations around the world. Despite these efforts some countries remain at the top of the list of countries with the highest rate of mental illness. Important research questions were asked: Would there be commonalities regarding mental health between these countries; would there be common factors leading to the high prevalence of mental illness; and how prepared are these countries with mental health delivery? Findings from this research can aid organizations and institutions preparing mental health service providers to focus training and preparation to address specific needs revealed by the study. Methods: Researchers decided to compare three distinctly different countries at the top of the list of countries with the highest rate of mental illness, the USA, India and Brazil, situated on three different continents with different economies and lifestyles. Data were collected using archival research methodology, reviewing records and findings of international and national health and mental health studies to subtract and compare data and findings. Results: The findings indicated that India is the most depressed country in the world, followed by the USA (and China) with Brazil in Latin America with the greatest number of depressed individuals. By 2020 roughly 20% of India, acountry of over one billion citizens, will suffer from some form of mental illnees, yet there are less than 4,000 experts available. In the USA 164.8 million people were substance abusers and an estimate of 47.6 million adults, 18 or older, had any mental illness in 2018. That means that about one in five adults in the USA experiences some form of mental illness each year, but only 41% of those affected received mental health care or services in the past year. Brazil has the greatest number of depressed individuals, in Latin America. Adults living in Sao Paulo megacity has prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world with more than one million adults with serious impairment levels. Discussion: The results show that, despite the vast socioeconomic differences between the three countries, there are correlations regarding mental health prevalence and difficulty to provide adequate services including a lack of awareness of how serious mental illness is, stigma for seeking mental illness, with comorbidity a common phenomenon, and a lack of partnership between different levels of service providers, which weakens mental health service delivery. The findings also indicate that mental health training institutions have a monumental task to prepare personnel to address the future mental health needs in each of the countries compared, which will constitute the next phase of the research.

Keywords: mental health epidemiology, mental health disorder, mental health prevalence, mental health treatment

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9189 Development, Evaluation and Scale-Up of a Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP) in Nepal

Authors: Nagendra P. Luitel, Mark J. D. Jordans

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Globally, there is a significant gap between the number of individuals in need of mental health care and those who actually receive treatment. The evidence is accumulating that mental health services can be delivered effectively by primary health care workers through community-based programs and task-sharing approaches. Changing the role of specialist mental health workers from service delivery to building clinical capacity of the primary health care (PHC) workers could help in reducing treatment gap in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We developed a comprehensive mental health care plan in 2012 and evaluated its feasibility and effectiveness over the past three years. Initially, a mixed method formative study was conducted for the development of mental health care plan (MHCP). Routine monitoring and evaluation data, including client flow and reports of satisfaction, were obtained from beneficiaries (n=135) during the pilot-testing phase. Repeated community survey (N=2040); facility detection survey (N=4704) and the cohort study (N=576) were conducted for evaluation of the MHCP. The resulting MHCP consists of twelve packages divided over the community, health facility, and healthcare organization platforms. Detection of mental health problems increased significantly after introducing MHCP. Service implementation data support the real-life applicability of the MHCP, with reasonable treatment uptake. Currently, MHCP has been implemented in the entire Chitwan district where over 1400 people (438 people with depression, 406 people with psychosis, 181 people with epilepsy, 360 people with alcohol use disorder and 51 others) have received mental health services from trained health workers. Key barriers were identified and addressed, namely dissatisfaction with privacy, perceived burden among health workers, high drop-out rates and continue the supply of medicines. The results indicated that involvement of PHC workers in detection and management of mental health problems is an effective strategy to minimize treatment gap on mental health care in Nepal.

Keywords: mental health, Nepal, primary care, treatment gap

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9188 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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9187 A Brief Study on the Mental Health vs. Mental Disorders in China, Suicide and the Entertainment Media

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenço

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Mental Health, mental illnesses, and suicide are old topics made young. While broadly addressed on a global scale to various extents and degrees, mental health, mental disorders, and suicide remain to a large extent a, taboo in a number of societies such as the Chinese. The country’s report on mental health was scrutinized for an in-depth understanding of the prevalence of mental disorders domestically, emphasizing depression, which is more accentuated in rural settings than urban, affecting a significant number of students, retired individuals and that unemployed country-wise. Depression in China is linked to anxiety in younger years, both decreasing as the population grows in age. Mental health, mental disorders and suicide remain for the most part, “forgotten”, despite statistically significant and the media’s yet small efforts in educating the population about the terms i.e. through online/television dramas that approach the topics, trying to demystify them. Whereas crucial to openly address mental health, mental disorders, and suicide, the issues remain an ongoing challenge in China, where series draw light into a reality the media and the population do not broadly converse about. The media in general and the entertainment media, in particular, have a vital role in helping China acknowledge mental health, mental disorders and suicide, albeit having a long way to go in assisting the Chinese population in dealing with the health of their inner minds.

Keywords: mental health, mental disorders, suicide, media, China, Chinese entertainment

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9186 The Mental Health of Indigenous People During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Sarah J. Ponton, Mikaela D. Gabriel, Roy Strebel, Xinyi Lu

Abstract:

Indigenous Peoples have faced unique barriers to accessing and receiving culturally safe and appropriate mental health care while also facing daunting rates of mental health diagnoses and comorbidities. Indigenous researchers and clinicians have well established the connection of the current mental health issues in Indigenous communities as a direct result of colonization by way of intergenerational trauma throughout Canada’s colonial history. Such mental health barriers and challenges have become exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, access to mental health, cultural, ceremonial, and community services were severely impacted and restricted; however, it is these same cultural activities and community resources that are key to supporting Indigenous mental health from a traditional and community-based perspective. This research employed a unique combination of a thorough, analytical scoping review of the existent mental health literature of Indigenous mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside narrative interviews employing an oral storytelling tradition methodology with key community informants that provide comprehensive cultural services to the Indigenous community of Toronto, as well as across Canada. These key informant interviews provided a wealth of insights into virtual transitions of Indigenous care and mental health support; intersections of historical underfunding and current financial navigation in technology infrastructure; accessibility and connection with Indigenous youth in remote locations; as well as maintaining community involvement and traditional practices in a current pandemic. Both the scoping review and narrative interviews were meticulously analyzed for overarching narrative themes to best explore the extent of the literature on Indigenous mental health and services during COVID-19; identify gaps in this literature; identify barriers and supports for the Indigenous community, and explore the intersection of community and cultural impacts to mental health. Themes of the scoping review included: Historical Context; Challenges in Culturally-Based Services; and Strengths in Culturally-Based Services. Meta themes across narrative interviews included: Virtual Transitions; Financial Support for Indigenous Services; Health Service Delivery & Wellbeing; and Culture & Community Connection. The results of this scoping review and narrative interviews provide wide application and contribution to the mental health literature, as well as recommendations for policy, service provision, autonomy in Indigenous health and wellbeing, and crucial insights into the present and enduring mental health needs of Indigenous Peoples throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: indigenous community services, indigenous mental health, indigenous scoping review, indigenous peoples and Covid-19

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9185 An Evaluation of a Psychotherapeutic Service for Engineering Students: The Role of Race, Gender and Language

Authors: Nazeema Ahmed

Abstract:

Mental health in higher education has received increasing attention over the past few decades. The high academic demands of the engineering degree, coupled with students’ mental health challenges, have led to higher education institutions offering psychotherapeutic services to students. This paper discusses an evaluation of the psychotherapy service at the University of Cape Town. The aim was to determine (i) the efficacy of the service; and (ii) the impact of race, gender, and language of the therapist on the students’ therapeutic process. An online survey was sent to 109 students who attended psychotherapy. The majority expressed favorable experiences of psychotherapy, with reports of increased capacity to engage with their academic work. Most students did not experience the gender, race, or language of the psychologists to be barriers to their therapy. The findings point to a need for ongoing psychological support for students.

Keywords: psychotherapy, efficacy, engineering, education

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9184 Rural to Urban Migration and Mental Health Consequences in Urbanizing China

Authors: Jie Li, Nick Manning

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The mass rural-urban migrants in China associated with the urbanization processes bear significant implications on public health, which is an important yet under-researched area. Urban social and built environment, such as noise, air pollution, high population density, and social segregation, has the potential to contribute to mental illness. In China, rural-urban migrants are also faced with institutional discrimination tied to the hukou (household registration) system, through which they are denied of full citizenship to basic social welfare and services, which may elevate the stress of urban living and exacerbate the risks to mental illness. This paper aims to link the sociospatial exclusion, everyday life experiences and its mental health consequences on rural to urban migrants living in the mega-city of Shanghai. More specifically, it asks what the daily experience of being a migrant in Shanghai is actually like, particularly regarding sources of stress from housing, displacement, service accessibility, and cultural conflict, and whether these stresses affect mental health? Secondary data from literature review on migration, urban studies, and epidemiology research, as well as primary data from preliminary field trip observations and interviews are used in the analysis.

Keywords: migration, urbanisation, mental health, China

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9183 Teacher Mental Health during Online Teaching

Authors: Elisabeth Desiana Mayasari, Laurensia Aptik Evanjeli, Brigitta Erlita Tri Anggadewi

Abstract:

The condition of the COVID-19 pandemic demands adaptation in various aspects of human life, including in the field of education. Teachers are expected to do distance learning or Learning From Home (LFH). The teacher said that he experienced stress, anxiety, feeling depressed, and afraid based on the interview. Learning adaptations and pandemic situations can impact the mental health of teachers, so the purpose of this study is to determine the mental health of teachers while teaching online. This research was conducted with a quantitative approach using a survey method. The subjects in this study were 330 elementary school teachers under the auspices of a foundation in Yogyakarta. Teachers' mental health was measured using the Indonesian version of The Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38), which has a reliability of 0.888. The results showed that the teachers generally had a good mental health condition marked by a lower negative aspect score than the positive aspect. In addition, the overall mental health aspect shows that some teachers have better mental health when compared to the average score, as well as higher positive aspect scores in all sub-aspects.

Keywords: mental health, teacher, COVID-19 pandemic, MHI-38

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9182 A Comparative Study of Mental Health and Well-Being between Qugong Practitioners and Non-Practitioners

Authors: Masoumeh Khosravi

Abstract:

Introduction: The complementary therapies and Qigong exercises is important in order to maintain physical and mental health. Objective: This study was done to compare and investigate well-being and mental health's state between practitioners of a Qigong practice (Falun Dafa) and non-practitioners. Method: It was a comparative study with 60 samples (30 practitioners of Falun Dafa, and 30 non-practitioners), who were selected by random sampling from Tehran city of Iran. Data were collected by mental health inventory (SCL90) and well-being questionnaire. Multivariate variance analyzing and t-test were used for analyzing data. Results: Results showed significant differences in most components of mental health including anxiety, aggressiveness, obsessive-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization disorder, depression, phobia between practitioners and non-practitioners. Well-being was significantly higher in practitioners than non-practitioners. Conclusion: Accordingly, we concluded Falun Gong exercises have high impact on mental health and well-being in people.

Keywords: mental health, well-being, Qigong, Falun Dafa

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9181 The Development of Psychosis in Offenders and Its Relationship to Crime

Authors: Belinda Crissman

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Serious mental disorder is greatly overrepresented in prisoners compared to the general community, with consequences for prison management, recidivism and the prisoners themselves. Incarcerated individuals with psychotic disorders experience insufficient detection and treatment and higher rates of suicide in custody. However direct evidence to explain the overrepresentation of individuals with psychosis in prisons is sparse. The current study aimed to use a life course criminology perspective to answer two key questions: 1) What is the temporal relationship between psychosis and offending (does first mental health contact precede first recorded offence, or does the offending precede the mental health diagnosis)? 2) Are there key temporal points or system contacts prior to incarceration that could be identified as opportunities for early intervention? Data from the innovative Queensland Linkage project was used to link individuals with their corrections, health and relevant social service systems to answer these questions.

Keywords: mental disorder, crime, life course criminology, prevention

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9180 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

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A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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9179 Creating Systems Change: Implementing Cross-Sector Initiatives within the Justice System to Support Ontarians with Mental Health and Addictions Needs

Authors: Tania Breton, Dorina Simeonov, Shauna MacEachern

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Ontario’s 10 Year Mental Health and Addictions Strategy has included the establishment of 18 Service Collaborative across the province; cross-sector tables in a specific region coming together to explore mental health and addiction system needs and adopting an intervention to address that need. The process is community led and supported by implementation teams from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), using the framework of implementation science (IS) to enable evidence-based and sustained change. These justice initiatives are focused on the intersection of the justice system and the mental health and addiction systems. In this presentation, we will share the learnings, achievements and challenges of implementing innovative practices to the mental health and addictions needs of Ontarians within the justice system. Specifically, we will focus on the key points across the justice system - from early intervention and trauma-informed, culturally appropriate services to post-sentence support and community reintegration. Our approach to this work involves external implementation support from the CAMH team including coaching, knowledge exchange, evaluation, Aboriginal engagement and health equity expertise. Agencies supported the implementation of tools and processes which changed practice at the local level. These practices are being scaled up across Ontario and community agencies have come together in an unprecedented collaboration and there is a shared vision of the issues overlapping between the mental health, addictions and justice systems. Working with ministry partners has allowed space for innovation and created an environment where better approaches can be nurtured and spread.

Keywords: implementation, innovation, early identification, mental health and addictions, prevention, systems

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9178 Relationship of Workplace Stress and Mental Wellbeing among Health Professionals

Authors: Rabia Mushtaq, Uroosa Javaid

Abstract:

It has been observed that health professionals are at higher danger of stress in light of the fact that being a specialist is physically and emotionally demanding. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between workplace stress and mental wellbeing among health professionals. Sample of 120 male and female health professionals belonging to two age groups, i.e., early adulthood and middle adulthood, was employed through purposive sampling technique. Job stress scale, mindful attention awareness scale, and Warwick Edinburgh mental wellbeing scales were used for the measurement of study variables. Results of the study indicated that job stress has a significant negative relationship with mental wellbeing among health professionals. The current study opened the door for more exploratory work on mindfulness among health professionals. Yielding outcomes helped in consolidating adapting procedures among workers to improve their mental wellbeing and lessen the job stress.

Keywords: health professionals, job stress, mental wellbeing, mindfulness

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9177 An Assessment of Self-Perceived Health after the Death of a Spouse among the Elderly

Authors: Shu-Hsi Ho

Abstract:

The problems of aging and number of widowed peers gradually rise in Taiwan. It is worth to concern the related issues for elderly after the death of a spouse. Hence, this study is to examine the impact of spousal death on the surviving spouse’s self-perceived health and mental health for the elderly in Taiwan. A cross section data design and ordered logistic regression models are applied to investigate whether marriage is associated significantly to self-perceived health and mental health for the widowed older Taiwanese. The results indicate that widowed marriage shows significant negative effects on self-perceived health and mental health regardless of widows or widowers. Among them, widows might be more likely to show worse mental health than widowers. The belief confirms that marriage provides effective sources to promote self-perceived health and mental health, particularly for females. In addition, since the social welfare system is not perfect in Taiwan, the findings also suggest that family and social support reveal strongly association with the self-perceived health and mental health for the widows and widowers elderly.

Keywords: logistic regression models, self-perceived health, widow, widower

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9176 An Examination of Economic Evaluation Approaches in Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Targeted at Black and Asian Minority Ethnic Communities in the UK: A Critical Discourse Analysis

Authors: Phillipa Denise Peart

Abstract:

Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people are more at risk of developing mental health disorders because they are more exposed to unfavorable social, economic, and environmental circumstances. These include housing, education, employment, community development, stigma, and discrimination. However, the majority of BAME mental health intervention studies focus on treatment with therapeutically effective drugs and use basic economic methods to evaluate their effectiveness; as a result, little is invested in the economic assessment of psychosocial interventions in BAME mental health. The UK government’s austerity programme and reduced funds for mental health services, has increased the need for the evaluation and assessment of initiatives to focus on value for money. The No Health without Mental Health policy (2011) provides practice guidance to practitioners, but there is little or no mention of the need to provide mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities that are effective in terms of their impact and the cost-effectiveness. This, therefore, appears to contradict with and is at odds with the wider political discourse, which suggests there should be an increasing focus on health economic evaluation. As a consequence, it could be argued that whilst such policies provide direction to organisations to provide mental health services to the BAME community, by not requesting effective governance, assurance, and evaluation processes, they are merely paying lip service to address these problems and not helping advance knowledge and practice through evidence-based approaches. As a result, BAME communities suffer due to lack of efficient resources that can aid in the recovery process. This research study explores the mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities, and analyses the techniques used when examining the cost effectiveness of mental health initiatives for BAME mental health communities. Using critical discourse analysis as an approach and method, mental health services will be selected as case studies, and their evaluations will be examined, alongside the political drivers that frame, shape, and direct their work. In doing so, it will analyse what the mental health policies initiatives are, how the initiatives are directed and demonstrate how economic models of evaluation are used in mental health programmes and how the value for money impacts and outcomes are articulated by mental health programme staff. It is anticipated that this study will further our understanding in order to provide adequate mental health resources and will deliver creative, supportive research to ensure evaluation is effective for the government to provide and maintain high quality and efficient mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities.

Keywords: black, Asian and ethnic minority, economic models, mental health, health policy

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9175 Service Provision in 'the Jungle': Describing Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Offered to Residents of the Calais Camp

Authors: Amy Darwin, Claire Blacklock

Abstract:

Background: Existing literature about delivering evidence-based mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in emergency settings is limited. It is difficult to monitor and evaluate the approach to MHPSS in informal refugee camps such as ‘The Jungle’ in Calais, where there are multiple service providers and where the majority of providers are volunteers. AIM: To identify experiences of MHPSS delivery by service providers in an informal camp environment in Calais, France and describe MHPSS barriers and opportunities in this type of setting. Method: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 individuals from different organisations offering MHPSS in Calais and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: Unsafe, uncertain and unsanitary conditions in the camp meant MHPSS was difficult to implement, and such conditions contributed to the poor mental health of the residents. The majority of MHPSS was offered by volunteers who lacked resources and training, and there was no overall official camp leadership which meant care was poorly coordinated and monitored. Strong relationships existed between volunteers and camp residents, but volunteers felt frustrated that they could not deliver the kind of MHPSS that they felt residents required. Conclusion: While long-term volunteers had built supportive relationships with camp residents, lack of central coordination and leadership of MHPSS services and limited access to trained professionals made implementation of MHPSS problematic. Similarly, the camp lacked the necessary infrastructure to meet residents’ basic needs. Formal recognition of the camp, and clear central leadership were identified as necessary steps to improving MHPSS delivery.

Keywords: calais, mental health, refugees, the jungle, MHPSS

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9174 [Keynote Talk]: Mental Health Challenges among Women in Dubai, Mental Health Needs Assessment for Dubai (2015), Public Health and Safety Department - Dubai Health Authority (DHA)

Authors: Kadhim Alabady

Abstract:

Purpose: Mental health problems affect women and men equally, but some are more common among women. To Provide a baseline of the current picture of major mental health challenges among women in Dubai. which can then be used to measure the impact of interventions or service development. Method: We have used mixed methods evaluation approaches. This was used to increase the validity of findings by using a variety of data collection techniques. We have integrated qualitative and quantitative methods in this piece of work. Conducting the two approaches is to explore issues that might not be highlighted enough through one method. Results: The key findings are: The prevalence of people who suffer from different types of mental disorders remains largely unknown, many women are unwilling to seek professional help because of lack of awareness or the stigma attached to it. -It is estimated there were around 2,928–4,392 mothers in Dubai (2014) suffering from postnatal depression of which 858–1,287, early intervention can be effective. -The system for managing health care for women with mental illness is fragmented and contains gaps and duplications. -It is estimated 1,029 girl aged 13–19 years affected with anorexia nervosa and there would be an estimated 1,029 girl aged 13–19 years affected with anorexia nervosa. Recommendations: -Work is required with primary health care in order to identify women with undiagnosed mental illnesses. Further work is undertaken within primary health care to assess disease registries with the aim of helping GP practices to improve their disease registers. -It is important to conduct local psychiatric morbidity surveys in Dubai to obtain data and assess the prevalence of essential mental health symptoms and conditions that are not routinely collected to get a clear sense of what is needed and to assist decision and policy making in getting a complete picture on what services are required. -Emergency Mental Health Care – there is a need for a crisis response team to respond to emergencies in the community. -Continuum of care – a significant gap in the services for women once they diagnosed with mental disorder.

Keywords: mental health, depression, schizophrenia, women

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9173 Innovations in International Trauma Education: An Evaluation of Learning Outcomes and Community Impact of a Guyanese trauma Training Graduate Program

Authors: Jeffrey Ansloos

Abstract:

International trauma education in low and emerging economies requires innovative methods for capacity building in existing social service infrastructures. This study details the findings of a program evaluation used to assess the learning outcomes and community impact of an international trauma-focused graduate degree program in Guyana. Through a collaborative partnership between Lesley University, the Government of Guyana, and UNICEF, a 2-year low-residency masters degree graduate program in trauma-focused assessment, intervention, and treatment was piloted with a cohort of Guyanese mental health professionals. Through an analytical review of the program development, as well as qualitative data analysis of participant interviews and focus-groups, this study will address the efficacy of the programming in terms of preparedness of professionals to understand, evaluate and implement trauma-informed practices across various child, youth, and family mental health service settings. Strengths and limitations of this international trauma-education delivery model will be discussed with particular emphasis on the role of capacity-building interventions, community-based participatory curriculum development, innovative technological delivery platforms, and interdisciplinary education. Implications for further research and subsequent program development will be discussed.

Keywords: mental health promotion, global health promotion, trauma education, innovations in education, child, youth, mental health education

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9172 Adoption of Lean Thinking and Service Improvement for Care Home Service

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

Ageing population is a global trend; therefore the need of care service has been increasing dramatically. There are three basic forms of service delivered to the elderly: institution, community, and home. Particularly, the institutional service can be seen as an extension of medical service. The nursing home or so-called care home which is equipped with professional staff and facilities can provide a variety of service including rehabilitation service, short-term care, and long term care. Similar to hospital and other health care service, care home service do need to provide quality and cost-effective service to satisfy the dwellers. The main purpose of this paper is to show how lean thinking and service innovation can be applied to care home operation. The issues and key factors of implementing lean practice are discussed.

Keywords: lean, service improvement, SERVQUAL, care home service

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9171 State and Determinant of Caregiver’s Mental Health in Thailand: A Household Level Analysis

Authors: Ruttana Phetsitong, Patama Vapattanawong, Malee Sunpuwan, Marc Voelker

Abstract:

The majority of care for older people at home in Thai society falls upon caregivers resulting in caregiver’s mental health problem. Beyond individual characteristics, household factors might have a profound effect on the caregiver’s mental health. But reliable data capturing this at the household level have been limited to date. The objectives of the present study were to explore the levels of Thai caregiver’s mental health and to investigate the factors affecting the mental health at household level. Data were obtained from the 2011 National Survey of Thai Older Persons conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand. Caregiver’s mental health was measured by using the 15- items-short version of the Thai Mental Health Indicator (TMHI-15) developed by the Department of Mental Health, the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the impact of potential factors on caregiver’s mental health. The THMI-15 produced an overall average caregiver mental health score of 30.9 out of 45 (SD 5.3). The score can be categorized into good (34.02-45), fair (27.01-34), and poor (0-27). Duration of care for older people, household wealth, and functional dependency of the older people significantly predicted total caregiver’s mental health. Household economic factor was key in predicting better mental health. Compared to those poorest households, the adjusted effect of the fifth quintile household wealth was high (OR=2.34; 95%CI=1.47-3.73). The findings of this study provide a fuller picture to a better understanding of the level and factors that cause the mental health of Thai caregivers. Health care providers and policymakers should consider these factors when designing interventions aimed at alleviating caregiver’s psychological burden when provided care for older people at home.

Keywords: caregiver’s mental health, household, older people, Thailand

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