Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 198

Search results for: conception

198 Comparison of Presented Definitions to Authenticity and Integrity

Authors: Golnaz Salehi Mourkani

Abstract:

Two conception of Integrity and authenticity, in texts have just applied respectively for adaptive reuse and conservation, which in comparison with word “Integrity” in texts related to adaptive reuse is much more seen than Authenticity, which is often applied with conservation. According to Stove, H., (2007) in some cases, this conception have used with this form “integrity/authenticity” in texts, that cause to infer one conception of both. In this article, with referring to definitions and comparison of aspects specialized to both concept of “Authenticity and Integrity” through literature review, it was attempted to examine common and distinctive aspects of each one, then with this method we can reach their differences in adaptive reuse.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, integrity, authenticity, conservation

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197 Comparison of Presented Definitions and Aspects of Authenticity and Integrity in Adaptive Reuse

Authors: Golnaz Salehi Mourkani

Abstract:

Two conception of Integrity and authenticity, in texts have just applied respectively for adaptive reuse and conservation, which in comparison with word “Integrity” in texts related to adaptive reuse is much more seen than Authenticity, which is often applied with conservation. According to Stove, H. (2007) in some cases, this conception have used with this form “integrity/authenticity” in texts, that cause to infer one conception of both. In this article, with referring to definitions and comparison of aspects specialized to both concept of “Authenticity and Integrity” through literature review, it was attempted to examine common and distinctive aspects of each one, then with this method we can reach their differences in adaptive reuse.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, integrity, authenticity, conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
196 The Victim as a Public Actor: Understanding the Victim’s Role as an Agent of Accountability

Authors: Marie Manikis

Abstract:

This paper argues that the scholarship to date on victims in the criminal process has mainly adopted a private conception of victims –as bearers of individual interests, rights, and remedies– rather than a conception of the victim as an actor with public functions and interests, who has historically and continuously taken on an active role in the common law tradition. This conception enables a greater understanding of the various developments around victim participation in common law criminal justice systems and provides a useful analytical tool to understand the different roles of victims in England and Wales and the United States. Indeed, the main focus on individual rights and the conception of the victim as a private entity undermines the distinctive and increasing role victims play in the wider criminal justice process as agents of accountability through administrative-based processes within and outside courts, including private prosecutions, internal review processes within prosecutorial agencies, judicial review, and ombudsmen processes.

Keywords: victims, participation, criminal justice, accountability

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195 A Descriptive Study on Comparison of Maternal and Perinatal Outcome of Twin Pregnancies Conceived Spontaneously and by Assisted Conception Methods

Authors: Aishvarya Gupta, Keerthana Anand, Sasirekha Rengaraj, Latha Chathurvedula

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Introduction: Advances in assisted reproductive technology and increase in the proportion of infertile couples have both contributed to the steep increase in the incidence of twin pregnancies in past decades. Maternal and perinatal complications are higher in twins than in singleton pregnancies. Studies comparing the maternal and perinatal outcomes of ART twin pregnancies versus spontaneously conceived twin pregnancies report heterogeneous results making it unclear whether the complications are due to twin gestation per se or because of assisted reproductive techniques. The present study aims to compare both maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies which are spontaneously conceived and after assisted conception methods, so that targeted steps can be undertaken in order to improve maternal and perinatal outcome of twins. Objectives: To study perinatal and maternal outcome in twin pregnancies conceived spontaneously as well as with assisted methods and compare the outcomes between the two groups. Setting: Women delivering at JIPMER (tertiary care institute), Pondicherry. Population: 380 women with twin pregnancies who delivered in JIPMER between June 2015 and March 2017 were included in the study. Methods: The study population was divided into two cohorts – one conceived by spontaneous conception and other by assisted reproductive methods. Association of various maternal and perinatal outcomes with the method of conception was assessed using chi square test or Student's t test as appropriate. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the independent association of assisted conception with maternal outcomes after adjusting for age, parity and BMI. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the independent association of assisted conception with perinatal outcomes after adjusting for age, parity, BMI, chorionicity, gestational age at delivery and presence of hypertension or gestational diabetes in the mother. A p value of < 0.05 was considered as significant. Result: There was increased proportion of women with GDM (21% v/s 4.29%) and premature rupture of membranes (35% v/s 22.85%) in the assisted conception group and more anemic women in the spontaneous group (71.27% v/s 55.1%). However assisted conception per se increased the incidence of GDM among twin gestations (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.34 – 8.61) and did not influence any of the other maternal outcomes. Among the perinatal outcomes, assisted conception per se increased the risk of having very preterm (<32 weeks) neonates (OR 3.013, 95% CI 1.432 – 6.337). The mean birth weight did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.429). Though there were higher proportion of babies admitted to NICU in the assisted conception group (48.48% v/s 36.43%), assisted conception per se did not increase the risk of admission to NICU (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.76 – 1.98). There was no significant difference in perinatal mortality rates between the two groups (p = 0.829). Conclusion: Assisted conception per se increases the risk of developing GDM in women with twin gestation and increases the risk of delivering very preterm babies. Hence measures should be taken to ensure appropriate screening methods for GDM and suitable neonatal care in such pregnancies.

Keywords: assisted conception, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes, twin gestation

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194 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani, Amin Tamadon

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Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

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193 The Conception of Implementation of Vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania

Authors: Eglė Bilevičiūtė, Vidmantas Egidijus Kurapka, Snieguolė Matulienė, Sigutė Stankevičiūtė

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The Council of European Union (EU Council) has stressed on several occasions the need for a concerted, comprehensive and effective solution to delinquency problems in EU communities. In the context of establishing a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe, EU Council believes that forensic science can significantly contribute to the efficiency of law enforcement, crime prevention and combating crimes. Lithuanian scientists have consolidated to implement a project named “Conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 implementation in Lithuania” (the project is funded for the period of 1 March 2014 - 31 December 2016) with the objective to create a conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania by 1) evaluating the current status of Lithuania’s forensic system and opportunities for its improvement; 2) analysing achievements and knowledge in investigation of crimes listed in conclusions of EU Council on the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 including creation of a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe: trafficking in human beings, organised crime and terrorism; 3) analysing conceptions of criminalistics, which differ in different EU member states due to the variety of forensic schools, and finding means for their harmonization. Apart from the conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania, the project is expected to suggest provisions that will be relevant to other EU countries as well. Consequently, the presented conception of implementation of vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania could initiate a project for a common vision of European Forensic Science and contribute to the development of the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice. The article presents main ideas of the project of the conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 of EU Council and analyses its legal background, as well as prospects of and challenges for its implementation in Lithuania and the EU.

Keywords: EUROVIFOR, standardization, vision for European Forensic Science 2020, Lithuania

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192 2021 Study of 529 Donor-Conceived Adults

Authors: Wendy Kramer

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How and when a donor-conceived person (DCP) learns about their conception significantly affects their experiences and choices, including whether they'd consider using a donor or donating their own gametes. Objective: We sought to identify factors that positively and negatively impact the experience of being a DCP. We sought to determine if DCP would consider utilizing donor gametes themselves, if unable to conceive spontaneously and if DCP were likely to be donors themselves. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adult DCP was disseminated to members of the Donor Sibling Registry. The survey consisted of 31 items including whether experience as DCP was positive or negative, the willingness to use donor gametes if spontaneous conception was not an option, and questions regarding donating gametes. Results: 529 people (81.7% female) completed the survey, the median age was 28 years (range 18-77 years) and 94.7% were conceived via donor sperm. Most felt "neutral" (31.6%), "positive" (26.3%) or "very positive" (20.8%) about being a DCP regardless of donor type. While most found out about being a DCP after age 18 (63.4%), those with a positive experience were more likely to "have always known" (40.7%). Conclusions: People conceived by donor-assisted reproduction are more likely to have neutral to positive overall feelings surrounding their conception if they are told at a very young age about their donor-conceived origins by a family member. The majority of DCP are willing to adopt but would not consider using donated gametes themselves if unable to conceive spontaneously. DCP are not likely to become donors themselves despite the majority of DCP having a high positive feeling regarding being donor-conceived.

Keywords: donor conception, donor offspring, sperm donation, egg donation, donor-conceived people

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
191 Validity of Universe Structure Conception as Nested Vortexes

Authors: Khaled M. Nabil

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This paper introduces the Nested Vortexes conception of the universe structure and interprets all the physical phenomena according this conception. The paper first reviews recent physics theories, either in microscopic scale or macroscopic scale, to collect evidence that the space is not empty. But, these theories describe the property of the space medium without determining its structure. Determining the structure of space medium is essential to understand the mechanism that leads to its properties. Without determining the space medium structure, many phenomena; such as electric and magnetic fields, gravity, or wave-particle duality remain uninterpreted. Thus, this paper introduces a conception about the structure of the universe. It assumes that the universe is a medium of ultra-tiny homogeneous particles which are still undiscovered. Like any medium with certain movements, possibly because of a great asymmetric explosion, vortexes have occurred. A vortex condenses the ultra-tiny particles in its center forming a bigger particle, the bigger particles, in turn, could be trapped in a bigger vortex and condense in its center forming a much bigger particle and so on. This conception describes galaxies, stars, protons as particles at different levels. Existing of the particle’s vortexes make the consistency of the speed of light postulate is not true. This conception shows that the vortex motion dynamic agrees with the motion of all the universe particles at any level. An experiment has been carried out to detect the orbiting effect of aggregated vortexes of aligned atoms of a permanent magnet. Based on the described particle’s structure, the gravity force of a particle and attraction between particles as well as charge, electric and magnetic fields and quantum mechanics characteristics are interpreted. All augmented physics phenomena are solved.

Keywords: astrophysics, cosmology, particles’ structure model, particles’ forces

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190 Experiences of 529 Donor-Conceived Adults: Disclosure, Using a Donor, Donating

Authors: Wendy Kramer

Abstract:

How and when a donor-conceived person (DCP) learns about their conception significantly affects their experiences and choices, including whether they'd consider using a donor or donating their own gametes. Objective: We sought to identify factors that positively and negatively impact the experience of being a DCP. We sought to determine if DCP would consider utilizing donor gametes themselves, if unable to conceive spontaneously and if DCP were likely to be donors themselves. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adult DCP was disseminated to members of the Donor Sibling Registry. The survey consisted of 31 items, including whether experience as DCP was positive or negative, the willingness to use donor gametes if spontaneous conception was not an option, and questions regarding donating gametes. Results: 529 people (81.7% female) completed the survey, the median age was 28 years (range 18-77 years), and 94.7% were conceived via donor sperm. Most felt "neutral" (31.6%), "positive" (26.3%) or "very positive" (20.8%) about being a DCP regardless of donor type. While most found out about being a DCP after age 18 (63.4%), those with a positive experience were more likely to "have always known" (40.7%). Conclusions: People conceived by donor-assisted reproduction are more likely to have neutral to overall positive feelings surrounding their conception if they are told at a very young age about their donor-conceived origins by a family member. The majority of DCPs are willing to adopt but would not consider using donated gametes themselves if unable to conceive spontaneously. DCPs are not likely to become donors themselves despite the majority of DCP having a high positive feeling regarding being donor-conceived.

Keywords: donor conception, sperm donation, oocyte donation, donor-conceived people, infertility

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189 Ill-Defined and Ill-Equipped: Understanding the Limits of the Concept of Truth in South Africa’S Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Authors: Keo Mbebe

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The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is widely regarded as a blueprint for countries seeking to transcend the atrocities of their past and create a new human rights-based administration. The aim of these societies is to establish historical truth. Within the TRC, the aspects of truth-finding and truth-telling were considered to be catalysts for national unity and reconciliation. Truth-seeking, in addition, was mandated in the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (TRC Act), which is the legislation behind the TRC. However, there is an incongruency between the conception of truth outlined in the Act, and the conception of truth explained in the Report of the TRC proceedings. The aim of this paper is to delineate these two kinds of “truth” and to critically analyze them. Doing so, it will then be evident in the discussion that there is a need for substantial clarity in the conception of truth used in transitional justice settings based on truth-finding and truth-seeking, and the paper will present ways in which such clarity may be achieved. The paper will begin with a philosophical engagement on the notion of historical truth used by the TRC legislation. Thereafter, the historical background to the political context in which the TRC Act was mandated will be provided. The next section would then be a sketch of the conceptions of historical truth and historical injustice in the Act, as well as its supporting documents. Lastly, it will be argued that the subversion of the TRC’s mandate to promote reconciliation and national unity by bringing to light past human rights violations during apartheid is betrayed by its amorphous conception of historical truth.

Keywords: historical truth, human rights, transitional justice, truth commission

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188 Kant’s Conception of Human Dignity and the Importance of Singularity within Commonality

Authors: Francisco Lobo

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Kant’s household theory of human dignity as a common feature of all rational beings is the starting point of any intellectual endeavor to unravel the implications of this normative notion. Yet, it is incomplete, as it neglects considering the importance of the singularity or uniqueness of the individual. In a first, deconstructive stage, this paper describes the Kantian account of human dignity as one among many conceptions of human dignity. It reads carefully into the original wording used by Kant in German and its English translations, as well as the works of modern commentators, to identify its shortcomings. In a second, constructive stage, it then draws on the theories of Aristotle, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Stuart Mill, and Hannah Arendt to try and enhance the Kantian conception, in the sense that these authors give major importance to the singularity of the individual. The Kantian theory can be perfected by including elements from the works of these authors, while at the same time being mindful of the dangers entailed in focusing too much on singularity. The conclusion of this paper is that the Kantian conception of human dignity can be enhanced if it acknowledges that not only morality has dignity, but also the irreplaceable human individual to the extent that she is a narrative, original creature with the potential to act morally.

Keywords: commonality, dignity, Kant, singularity

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187 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan

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The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

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186 Ovarian Hormones and Antioxidants Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Synchronized with Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release/Ovsynch GPG Program during Breeding Season

Authors: Heba Hozyen, Ragab Mohamed, Amal Abd El Hameed, Amal Abo El-Maaty

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This study aimed to investigate the effect of CIDR and ovsynch (Gonadotropin-prostaglandine-gonadotropin GPG) protocols for synchronization of follicular waves of dromedary camels on ovarian hormones, oxidative stress and conception during breeding season. Twelve dark colored dromedary camels were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to CIDR insertion for 7 days and blood samples were collected each other day from the day of CIDR insertion (day 0) till day 21. The other group was subjected to GPG system (Ovsynch) and blood samples were collected daily for 11 days. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol were assayed using commercial ELISA diagnostic EIA kits. Catalase (CAT), total antioxidants capacity (TAC), glutathione reduced (GHD), lipid peroxide product (malondialdehyde, MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured colorimetrically using spectrophotometer. Results revealed that CIDR treated camels had significantly high P4 (P= 0.0001), estradiol (P= 0.0001), CAT (P= 0.034), NO (P= 0.016) and TAC (P= 0.04) but significantly low MDA (P= 0.001) and GHD (P= 0.003) compared to GPG treated ones. Camels inserted with CIDR had higher conception rate (66.7%) compared to those treated with GPG (33%). In conclusion, camels treated with CIDR had higher hormonal response and antioxidant capacity than those synchronized with GPG which positively reflected on their conception rate. The better response of camels to CIDR and the higher conception compared to GPG protocol recommends its use for future reproductive management in camels.

Keywords: antioxidants, camel, CIDR, season, steroid hormones

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185 An Approach to Capture, Evaluate and Handle Complexity of Engineering Change Occurrences in New Product Development

Authors: Mohammad Rostami Mehr, Seyed Arya Mir Rashed, Arndt Lueder, Magdalena Missler-Behr

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This paper represents the conception that complex problems do not necessarily need a similar complex solution in order to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, a simple solution based on established methods can provide a sufficient way to deal with the complexity. To verify this conception, the presented paper focuses on the field of change management as a part of the new product development process in the automotive sector. In this field, dealing with increasing complexity is essential, while only non-flexible rigid processes that are not designed to handle complexity are available. The basic methodology of this paper can be divided into four main sections: 1) analyzing the complexity of the change management, 2) literature review in order to identify potential solutions and methods, 3) capturing and implementing expertise of experts from the change management field of an automobile manufacturing company and 4) systematical comparison of the identified methods from literature and connecting these with defined requirements of the complexity of the change management in order to develop a solution. As a practical outcome, this paper provides a method to capture the complexity of engineering changes (EC) and includes it within the EC evaluation process, following case-related process guidance to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, this approach supports the conception that dealing with complexity is possible while utilizing rather simple and established methods by combining them into a powerful tool.

Keywords: complexity management, new product development, engineering change management, flexibility

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184 Effects of Punicalagin on Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in Virgin Rabbit Does

Authors: Nada A. El-Shahaw, Anas A.Salem, M. Kobeisy, Hoda M. Shabaan

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is collective term both oxygen radical, such superoxide (O₂•), hydroxyl(OH•), peroxyl (RO₂), and hydroperoxyl (HO₂•), and certain non-radical oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), hypochlorous acid (HOCL), and ozone (O₃), that can be convert easily to radical. The importance of antioxidants is shown here punicalagin. Punicalagin is preventing the harmful effect of (ROS) in all cells, specially gonadal cells. So, the aim of study was to investigate effects of punicalagin (PL) on maternal live body weight (MLBW), number of services/conception (NS), conception rate (CR), gestation length (GL), kindling rate (KR), total litter size (TLS), live litter size (LLS), kit weight (KW), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations at 1st and 2nd pregnancy of young does. A total of 28 healthy virgin does (6 months old) were divided into 2 equal groups. Group I, each doe, was injected IM with 100 ug PL twice/week pre-mating and one time 3 days post-mating. Group II, each doe was injected IM with sterilized water (control). Blood samples were taken at pre-mating, mating, post-mating, throughout pregnancy, and immediately post-kindling for assaying P4 and E2. All does were naturally mated with fertile bucks. Results revealed that PL displayed their significant impacts on MLBW, NS/conception, CR, GL, KR, TLS, LLS, KWs (birth and weaning), P4 and E2 concentrations either at 1ˢᵗ/2ⁿᵈ pregnancy or both of them. Conclusively, PL improved pregnancy outcomes of young do particularly at 2ⁿᵈ pregnancy and could be recommended in rabbit's farms.

Keywords: punicalagin, pregnancy, estradiol-17β, progesterone, does

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183 Raising High School English Teachers' Awareness of World Englishes

Authors: Julio Cesar Torres Rocha

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The present study is a three-stage action research that aims at raising EFL teachers’ awareness of World Englishes (WE) within a critical perspective of inquiry. Through a taught module on English and its varieties, a survey, a reflection paper, and a semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that there was a clear change of conception, at the theoretical level, in teachers’ papers. However, WE was regarded as future possibility for action. On the one hand, all of the participants said the module changed their conception of other varieties of English different from British and American ones. They all went from identifying themselves with either American or British variety, a celebratory perspective, to acknowledging and accepting other English varieties, a critical perspective of English as an international language (EIL).

Keywords: teachers’ s awareness, English as an international language, introducing world Englishes, critical applied linguistics

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182 Cultural Biases, Cognitive Dispositions and Conception of Marriage in Indian Families: Role of Urbanization

Authors: Nandita Chaube, S. S. Nathawat, Shweta Jha

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Keeping in view a drastic change in social and cultural scenario in India, influencing the marriage patterns, preferences and the concept of marriage, the present study examined cultural biases, cognitive dispositions and conception of marriage among Indian families hailing from urban, semi-urban and rural backgrounds. Structured interviews were conducted on 15 families of Jaipur region and its nearby villages including young adults and aged family members. The sample was comprised of both male and female family members. Qualitative analyses of interview data revealed a considerable difference amongst the families on the basis of residential background and other cultural, cognitive and conceptual levels. Hence, it is concluded that Indian families hailing from different cultural and residential backgrounds differ in their conceptions of marriage.

Keywords: cognitive dispositions, cultural biases, families, marriage, urbanization

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181 The Role of the Method of Conception in Description of Intensity and Type of Motivation for Parenthood

Authors: Mila Radovanovic, Jovana Jestrovic, Ivana Mihic

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Deciding whether to have a child is a complex psychological process, and the child's birth is an everlasting change in the life of the family. Researchers from all over the world have been recognized the importance of the motivation for parenthood in latter family life, but there is no very clear picture of factors which make the difference in this motivation. One of these factors can be the method of conception and results of the earlier studies are different- some showed the differences, but the others did not. The aim of this study was to determine the type and intensity of motivation for parenting among women in Serbia and to examine whether there are differences in motivation depend on the method of conception. The total sample consisted of 94 women- 57 pregnant women who conceive naturally and the same number of women in the process of in vitro fertilization, who still haven’t known the final result of the process- are they pregnant or no. The Child Study Inventory, which estimates four types of motivation for parenthood- altruistic, instrumental, narcissistic and fatalistic-was used for this purpose. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to answer the main question of the study. The results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups of women, while the most common is the altruistic motivation that emphasizes the psychological value of the child, and sees the motivation for parenting as a desire to give love to the child. The results are encouraging because altruistic motivation is intrinsic one and the protective factor for latter family relations and care about child and sensitivity of parents. Altruistic motivation is showed like a good predictor in developing stable emotional relationship between mother and her baby but also is correlated with the higher satisfaction with marriage.

Keywords: development of parental role, in vitro fertilization, motivation for parenthood, pregnancy

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180 Emancipation through the Inclusion of Civil Society in Contemporary Peacebuilding: A Case Study of Peacebuilding Efforts in Colombia

Authors: D. Romero Espitia

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Research on peacebuilding has taken a critical turn into examining the neoliberal and hegemonic conception of peace operations. Alternative peacebuilding models have been analyzed, but the scholarly discussion fails to bring them together or form connections between them. The objective of this paper is to rethink peacebuilding by extracting the positive aspects of the various peacebuilding models, connecting them with the local context, and therefore promote emancipation in contemporary peacebuilding efforts. Moreover, local ownership has been widely labelled as one, if not the core principle necessary for a successful peacebuilding project. Yet, definitions of what constitutes the 'local' remain debated. Through a qualitative review of literature, this paper unpacks the contemporary conception of peacebuilding in nexus with 'local ownership' as manifested through civil society. Using Colombia as a case study, this paper argues that a new peacebuilding framework, one that reconsiders the terms of engagement between international and national actors, is needed in order to foster effective peacebuilding efforts in contested transitional states.

Keywords: civil society, Colombia, emancipation, peacebuilding

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179 Enactments of Global Citizenship Education: Social Justice in Public Spheres of Education

Authors: Sabrina Jafralie

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This proposed chapter explains how civic religious literacy is a means to promote social justice in Canada. It will first present the specific conception of global citizenship education that will undergird the discussion in the chapter. Then, it will offer a conception of civic religious literacy that explains how it promotes social justice as a form of global citizenship education. To illustrate this point, I will list specific examples of social and political inequities in Canada, such as hate crime statistics from 2013-2018 across the country and in specific provinces and cities. I will also highlight different types of discrimination, such as that towards religious minorities, Indigenous peoples, and those that conflate race and religion, and other intersections of identity that civic religious literacy can address. To conclude this initial section of the chapter, I will cite international studies that discuss religious literacy as a means to promote characteristics and aims of global citizenship education.

Keywords: Civic Literacy, Pedagogy, Quebec, Social Justice

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178 Physical Education and Bodily Practices as an Alternative for Body Design and Acceptance in LGBTI Students

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina

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In the last decades, there have been changes in the organization of society. It is not by chance that in our schools we have witnessed a growing interest in actions to address violence, prejudice, and discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transvestites, and transsexuals. Considering that gender is a category that is present in the broad scope of relations that physical education covers, it seems that the theme has not aroused due attention. The body is not just a body. It is also their environment. Society forms not only personality and behavior, but also, how the body appears. In order to problematize gender in the field of physical education, it makes sense to put the body in focus because it is of bodily practices, that body's movement, which is spoken. The sports are part of the cultural manifestations of the most different social groups. Through workshops and interviews, we will investigate the role of Sports in the process of conception and acceptance of the body in LGBTTI students. From this work we intend to work towards a greater inclusion of these students in physical education classes, as well as a better understanding of their body and their sexuality. We hope that our work will enable greater acceptance and better body design of LGBTTI students.

Keywords: body, conception, LGBTTI students, physical education

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177 The Intersection of Masculinity and Disability in the Spatial Experience of Visually Impaired Men

Authors: Lucie Pospíšilová, Robert Osman, Hana Porkertová

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The scholarly literature demonstrates disability and masculinity in conflict with each other. While disability is associated with dependence, weakness, or helplessness, masculinity is associated with independence, strength, and power. Thus, disabled masculinity might be a dilemma experienced on a personal level. The relationship between masculinity and disability is also interesting from a geographical point of view because the conception of space is gendered. In our society, the skills like spatial orientation, working with the maps, and navigation technologies as same as with scale are associated with masculinity. And because these skills are related to the visual imagination, it is the blindness that is associated with the limitation or even the absence of them. Thus, the conflict of masculinity and disability in the spatial experience is very well apparent in the case of visually impaired men. To study this conflict can tell us a lot not only about the experience of visually impaired men but also about the conception of space in geography and in our society. The paper uses Henri Lefebvre's theory of space based on a triad of spatial practice, representations of space, and representational space. It answers the question: How masculinity and disability intersect in the spatial experience of visually impaired men? The data come from research conducted in Brno and Prague (Czechia) in 2020 and 2021 and include 7 interviews and 6 go-alongs with visually impaired men.

Keywords: disability, masculinity, abstract space, spatial experience, visually impaired men

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176 Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) Suppositories Are Promising Approach for Treatment of Unexplained Infertility

Authors: Shahinaz El-Shourbagy El-Shourbagy, Ahmed M. E Ossman Ossman, Ashraf El-Mohamady El-Mohamady

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Objective: To investigate if there is a role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in the treatment of infertile couples for idiopathic cause. Design: An observational study. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic of Tanta University Hospital Egypt. Patient(s): 50 unexplained infertility women {endometrial thickness (EM) and the mean resistance index (RI)} compared to 50 fertile control group attended for check-up in the same period and receiving no treatment. Intervention(s): unexplained infertility women were given 25 mg of sildenafil citrate suppositories four times per day for seven days starting from the 5th day of the menstrual cycle for three cycles. Main Outcome Measures: EM and RI of endometrial spiral artery were assessed by transvaginal color-pulsed Doppler ultrasound in unexplained infertility women before and after sildenafil citrate treatment and compared with control. The conception rate and pregnancy outcome were recorded in the two groups. Result(s): Women with unexplained infertility had significantly thinner endometrium and a higher spiral artery resistance index, meaning lower peri-implantation blood flow than the fertile controls. Sildenafil citrate treated women showed a statistically significant increase in endometrial thickness (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in the mean spiral artery resistance index (p < 0.001) giving a better conception rate. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate suppositories treatment enhance the endometrial blood flow through decreasing spiral artery resistance index 'RI' and consequently improve endometrial growth and receptivity in cases of unexplained infertility thus giving a better conception rate.

Keywords: Unexplained infertility, endometrial blood flow, endome¬trial receptivity, color-pulsed Doppler ultrasound; RI (resis¬tance index, Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)

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175 A Critical Knowledge of Brand Equity in Thai Academic Works

Authors: Pongsiri Kamkankaew

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This paper experiments to consider brand equity thought in Thai academic works. This essay employs that the first emerging of brand equity in Thai academic works and the components of brand equity which explore the extent to the convoluted approach with other Thai social condition. In Thailand, brand equity is supposed to provide branding and brand management replacement. However, the commitment of brand equity imposes in its proposal for seemly application in Thai context – to develop the brand equity framework by the Thai social – culture and Thai utilization style which it is questionable whether the brand equity in western conception is useful for characterizing the brand equity in Thailand context. In this position, brand equity also aspects several major questions: How can western conception lead to apply in Thai business? How can diversification be given within Thai SMEs business running? Can corporate brand valuation approach adopt in real business doing? So this paper argues that Thai brand equity notion should reduce disturb over improvement of its self-restraint and business area. Instead, Thai academic who are interested in brand equity can harmonize different mature bodies of discipline and other investigative a frame of references to complete and open the recognizing of brand equity.

Keywords: Thai brand equity, knowledge critical, brand management, branding

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174 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini

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In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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173 Dynamic Model Conception of Improving Services Quality in Railway Transport

Authors: Eva Nedeliakova, Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj

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This article describes the results of research focused on quality of railway freight transport services. Improvement of these services has a crucial importance in customer considering on the future use of railway transport. Processes filling the customer demands and output quality assessment were defined as a part of the research. In this, contribution is introduced the map of quality planning and the algorithm of applied methodology. It characterises a model which takes into account characters of transportation with linking a perception services quality in ordinary and extraordinary operation. Despite the fact that rail freight transport has its solid position in the transport market, lots of carriers worldwide have been experiencing a stagnation for a couple of years. Therefore, specific results of the research have a significant importance and belong to numerous initiatives aimed to develop and support railway transport not only by creating a single railway area or reducing noise but also by promoting railway services. This contribution is focused also on the application of dynamic quality models which represent an innovative method of evaluation quality services. Through this conception, time factor, expected and perceived quality in each moment of the transportation process can be taken into account.

Keywords: quality, railway, transport, service

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172 Teachers’ Conception of and Perception towards the New Curriculum of Ethiopian Higher Education: A Case of Debre Birhan University

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun Dessie

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The purpose of this study was to explore the awareness of teachers and the attitude they have to the curriculum they implement as well as to assess the actual and desired magnitude of teachers' participation in curriculum development process. It also aimed at investigating the factors that affect teachers' level of conception and perception towards the new higher education curriculum. The study was carried out in Debre Birhan University. Teachers, course coordinators, team leaders and presidents were included in the study as research subjects. Teachers were proportionally selected from each department (of the six faculties) based on available sampling technique. Accordingly, a total of 103 teachers were chosen as a subject of the study. In order to collect first hand data from the teachers, a questionnaire with four parts was developed by the researcher. To this end, scales were designed for measuring the extent of teachers' awareness and attitude. Each of the scales encompasses 11 and 17 items respectively. An open ended questionnaire was also attached for the purpose of obtaining elaborated data on the issue. Information was also obtained from interviews with presidents, team leaders and course coordinators. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistical tools. The overall results of the analysis revealed that the awareness of teachers on the curriculum was low. The meager participation of teachers in the process of curriculum development and the deficiency of trainings on the concern were major factors. Teachers' perception towards the existence and implementation of the new curriculum was also inclined to the negative, though difficult to generalize. Lack of awareness, administrators poor approach and lack of facilitating appropriate incentives as well as absence of room for evaluating the curriculum etc plays big role in endangering teachers attitude while the up to datedness of the new curriculum, involvement of teachers in the curriculum development process, the wide ranging quality of the new curriculum etc laid a better ground to boost teachers attitude towards the curriculum. This may have implication to the university in that there is a need to facilitate workshops or awareness creation trainings, to have positive and cooperative administrators, and embracing committed teachers to implement the curriculum efficiently.

Keywords: conception, perception, curriculum, higher education, Ethiopia

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171 Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows at Different Parities: A Case Study in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf, Abdul Latief Toleng, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Ambo Ako, Sahiruddin Sahiruddin, Abdi Eriansyah

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The objective of this study was to know the reproductive performance of dairy cows at different parities. A total of 60 dairy Holstein-Friesian cows with parity one to three from five small farms raised by the farmers were used in the study. All cows were confined in tie stall barn with rubber on the concrete floor. The herds were visited twice for survey with the help of a questionnaire. Reproductive parameters used in the study were days open, calving interval, and service per conception (S/C). The results of this study showed that the mean (±SD) days open of the cows in parity 2 was slightly longer than those in parity 3 (228.2±121.5 vs. 205.5±144.5; P=0.061). None cows conceived within 85 days postpartum in parity 3 in comparison to 13.8% cows conceived in parity 2. However, total cows conceived within 150 days post partum in parity 2 and parity 3 were 30.1% and 36.4%, respectively. Likewise, after reaching 210 days after calving, number of cows conceived in parity 3 had higher than number of cows in parity 2 (72.8% vs. 44.8%; P<0.05). The mean (±SD) calving interval of the cows in parity 2 and parity 3 were 508.2±121.5 and 495.5±144.1, respectively. Number of cows with calving interval of 400 and 450 days in parity 3 was higher than those cows in parity 2 (23.1% vs. 17.2% and 53.9% vs. 31.0%). Cows in parity 1 had significantly (P<0.01) lower number of S/C in comparison to the cows with parity 2 and parity 3 (1.6±1.2 vs. 3.5±3.4 and 3.3±2.1). It can be concluded that reproductive performance of the cows is affected by different parities.

Keywords: dairy cows, parity, days open, calving interval, service per conception

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170 The Right Hand in Indigenous African Economic Thought: The Case of the Benin People of Southern Nigeria

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo

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The paper analyses the right hand in indigenous African economic thought using the Benin people of Southern Nigeria as a case study. The Benin people esteemed handiwork and industriousness and embodied it with the right hand, which was regarded as the ultimate bringer of material wellbeing and societal status. The paper aims to contribute to African economic thought by analysing the conception of the hand in pre-colonial Benin society as the source of material wherewithal and to reveal how the hand was epitomised as the ultimate purveyor of economic providence and class status. The study adopts the historical method, and the interpretive design was used. Primary and secondary sources were utilised, and the findings confirm that the conception of the hand as the giver of material wellbeing was calculatingly done to recompense an industrious and productive lifestyle worthy of accolades and emulations. Findings also show that the people of Benin thought that the right hand is the ultimate bringer of material prosperity and therefore placed tremendous value on it up to the point of veneration. The paper also reveals that the Benin people thought that the fruits of one’s labour outvalued other possessions like an inheritance. The paper also shows that the Benin economic thought, on the hand, as signifying productiveness, intensely encouraged productivity and disdained indolence in the society.

Keywords: Benin, economic thought, hand, industriousness

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169 Project Work with Design Thinking and Blended Learning: A Practical Report from Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: C. Vogeler

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Change processes such as individualization and digitalization have an impact on higher education. Graduates are expected to cooperate in creative work processes in their professional life. During their studies, they need to be prepared accordingly. This includes modern learning scenarios that integrate the benefits of digital media. Therefore, design thinking and blended learning have been combined in the project-based seminar conception introduced here. The presented seminar conception has been realized and evaluated with students of information sciences since September 2017. Within the seminar, the students learn to work on a project. They apply the methods in a problem-based learning scenario. Task of the case study is to arrange a conference on the topic gaming in libraries. In order to collaborative develop creative possibilities of realization within the group of students the design thinking method has been chosen. Design thinking is a method, used to create user-centric, problem-solving and need-driven innovation through creative collaboration in multidisciplinary teams. Central characteristics are the openness of this approach to work results and the visualization of ideas. This approach is now also accepted in the field of higher education. Especially in problem-based learning scenarios, the method offers clearly defined process steps for creative ideas and their realization. The creative process can be supported by digital media, such as search engines and tools for the documentation of brainstorming, creation of mind maps, project management etc. Because the students have to do two-thirds of the workload in their private study, design thinking has been combined with a blended learning approach. This supports students’ preparation and follow-up of the joint work in workshops (flipped classroom scenario) as well as the communication and collaboration during the entire project work phase. For this purpose, learning materials are provided on a Moodle-based learning platform as well as various tools that supported the design thinking process as described above. In this paper, the seminar conception with a combination of design thinking and blended learning is described and the potentials and limitations of the chosen strategy for the development of a course with a multimedia approach in higher education are reflected.

Keywords: blended learning, design thinking, digital media tools and methods, flipped classroom

Procedia PDF Downloads 131