Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 160

Search results for: medications

160 Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Population

Authors: Ajit Kumar Sah, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Phoolgen Sah, Dev Kumar Shah


Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM) prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department. Beers’ criteria are the most widely used tools to assess PIM to elderly patients. Prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD) of a hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2011 to October 2012 to 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) in elderly patients was analyzed using Beers Criteria updated to 2013. In the 869 patients included the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%), amlodipine (23.16%), paracetamol (17.6%), salbutamol (15.72%) and vitamin B complex (13.26%). The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with a number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health-related outcomes in these elderly.

Keywords: Beers criteria, elderly, polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medicines

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159 Prevalence of Polypharmacy in Elderly Cardiac Patients at King Fahad Cardiac Center (KFCC) in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed N. Al-Arifi, Hessa Othman Al-Husein, Mostafa Q. Al Shamiri, Ragab Said, Syed Wajid, Salmeen D. Babelghaith


Polypharmacy was defined as a taking more than 4 medications per single patients (minor polypharmacy), patients who are taking more than 10 medications we considered as a major polypharmacy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy in elderly Saudi cardiac patient. A retrospective observational study was carried out at the department of CCU and cardiology unit of the King Fahad cardiac centre (KFCC) in King Khalid university hospital from May 2012 to October 2012. All Parameters was analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) to conclude the result; tests of association were performed using the chi-square statistic. The mean age of patients was 70.1 ± 7.75 years, more than half 83 (51.6%) were males. The highest frequency of chronic diseases found were hypertension (91.0%) followed by, dyslipidemia (74.9%), and diabetes mellitus. Results showed that 82% had polypharmacy (>4 drugs) during the study period, and 47.9% had major polypharmacy. The incidence of inappropriate drug use was found to be higher with men than female (p = 0.984). In conclusion, this study revealed that high prevalence of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications in elderly Saudi cardiac inpatients.

Keywords: cardiac inpatients, medications, polypharmacy, prevalence

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158 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto


Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

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157 A Retrospective Study - Demographical, Clinical and Pharmacological Correlate of Seclusion, Self-Discharge, Physical Aggression and Use of PRN Psychotropics Within The First 72 Hours Of Admission in The Acute Psychiatric Unit in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Asma AlAmri, Ahmed Hassab Errasoul


Background & Objectives: Psychiatric disorders are common, affecting approximately one of five adults (17.6%) of the population. While most patients can be successfully treated as outpatients, admission to psychiatric wards is required during relapses or as part of crisis intervention. The first 72h of admission could be particularly critical due to increased risk of physical violence, non-medical discharge and absconding. Many patients requiring interventions such as seclusion, physical restrain, PRN psychotropic medications. This study aims to investigate the relationship between demographical, clinical and pharmacological factors in one hand and certain outcomes (physical aggression, use of PRN medications, need for seclusions and non-medical discharges) within the first 72hours of admission to acute psychiatric wards in KKUH/Riyadh Methods: All admissions to psychiatric wards over a 20 month period, between (May 2015- January 2017) were included. Data was collected on demographics, diagnosis, psychotropic medications prescription, documented physical aggression, and seclusion, self-discharge and absconding. Results: 134 males and 171 females were admitted over the study period. Mean age was 34.2 years (SD 11.96).48.9% (n=149) were single and most patients (n=198) were either unemployed or in educations. Bipolar disorder was the most frequent diagnosis recorded on admission (39.3%, n=120); followed by Schizophrenia and related disorders (34.8%; n=106). Most patients (77.4%, n= 236) received regular psychotropic medications on admission. Vis a vis, 223 patients (73%) received PRN medications. Nominal regression model revealed positive relationship between “no psychotropics prescribed on admission” and self-discharge in women but not in men. No statistically significant relationship was found between age, gender, admission diagnosis and use of regular psychotropic medications on admission and need for seclusion, time spent in seclusion, documented physical aggression and use of PRN medications. Conclusion: Contrary to what is expected, our study does not show association between gender, physical aggression and need for seclusion. This could be due to poor documentation practices by nursing staff in male ward comparing with those in the female ward. Use of PRN psychotropics in the first 72 hours of admission was quite high possibly leading to a “ceiling effect”. A limitation of this study is the retrospective data collection.

Keywords: discharge against medical advice, physical aggression, psychotropics, seclusion

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156 Efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the Reduction of HbA1c in Overweight Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rohit Sane, Pravin Ghadigaonkar, Purvi Ahuja, Suvarna Tirmare, Archana Kelhe, Kranti Shinde, Rahul Mandole


To evaluate the efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the reduction of HbA1c in overweight Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients retrospectively. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out on 34 overweight type II diabetic patients (Mean Age = 54.58 ±11.38 yrs). A total of 34 patients were enrolled after screening of 68 patients (HbA1c 7-10%). The patients were on concomitant drugs namely insulin (11.76%), DPP-4 inhibitor (17.64%), Biguanide (55.88%), Sulfonylurea (52.94%), thiazolidinedione (11.76%), other medications (20.58%) and no allopathic medications (14.70%). The patients were given Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program consisting of panchkarma procedures namely snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy) and basti (enema), which was completed in 15 sittings. During the therapy and next 90 days, the patients followed low carbohydrate and moderate protein & fat diet. The primary endpoint of this study was the evaluation of reduction in HbA1c at the end of the follow-up after 90 days. Results: Thirty-four overweight type II diabetic patients (mean age: 54.58[±11.38], HbA1c[7-10%], 67.64% male and 32.35% female) were enrolled in the study. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels (14.30%, p<0.05) at the end of the 90 days follow-up as compared to baseline. Also, BMI was reduced by 5.87%. There was reduction in the usage of the concomitant drugs namely insulin (2.94%), DPP-4 inhibitor (2.94%), Biguanide (32.35%), Sulfonylurea (35.29%), thiazolidinedione (5.88%), other medications(17.64%) and no allopathic medications (32.35%). Conclusion: The results of the study highlight not only in the reduction of HbA1c, but also in BMI and drug tapering of the CDC program in the overweight type II diabetic patients with HbA1c (7-10%).

Keywords: HbA1c, low carb diet, Panchakarma therapy, Type II Diabetes

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155 Depressive Symptoms in Children with Epilepsy Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

Authors: Hamood Al Kiyumi, Salim Al Huseini, Khalid Al Risi, Hassan Mirza, Amira Al Hosni, Sanjay Jaju, Asaad Al Habsi


Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the proportion of depressive symptoms along with demographic data in children diagnosed with epilepsy in a tertiary care institution in Oman. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2016 and August 2018. We have included 75 children with age group from five to 12 years old, attending epilepsy clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital who were diagnosed with epilepsy and already on treatment. Patients were excluded if they have mental retardation. Validated Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) questionnaire was utilized to assess the level of depressive symptoms among children. In addition, we have looked at associated factors including seizure status in the last three months, compliance with antiepileptic medications, type of epilepsy, and number of antiepileptic medications. Results: In this study, we found that depressive symptoms were present in 39 (52%) of patients. We also found that 96% of the patients were compliant to medications. In addition, seizure was present in the last three months in 48% of the sample studies. There was no statistically significant association between any of the studied variables and depression. Conclusions: Although depression is highly prevalent in children with epilepsy, this study did not find any significant association between the CES-DC scores and the studied factors.

Keywords: depression, children, epilepsy, Oman

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154 Combination of Diuretics and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Leading Severe Hyponatremia: A Case Report

Authors: Esra Bora, Alper Omeroglu, Zeynep Pelin Polat, Oguzhan Kara, Fatih Akdogan, Sema Ucak Basat


Hyponatremia is one of the most encountered electrolyte imbalance among all medical fields. It has a wide range of symptoms as well as complications from fatigue to loss of consciousness. Although a lot of factors can cause low sodium levels in serum, combining specific medications can lead to severe hyponatremia in a rapid onset which can cause high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this case report was to underline that prescribing specific medications disregarding their side effects can cause this common electrolyte imbalance but in a more severe manner. In this case report, we present a 46-year-old male patient with a serum sodium level of 104 mEq/L who consumed hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension and was under treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depression. The patient had tonic-clonic seizures at the second hour of the treatment and intubation was needed due to loss of consciousness and hypoxia. After proper replacement of sodium with hypertonic solutions in intensive care unit for nine days, extubation indicated. Even in healthy young males, hyponatremia due to two separately prescribed medications can lead life-threatening hyponatremia. Physicians should be aware of the side effects of diuretics, especially hydrochlorothiazides and SSRIs and their combinations.

Keywords: diuretics, hydrochlorothiazide, hyponatremia, SSRI

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153 Can Antipsychotics Use for Schizophrenia on Long Term Lower Serum Cortisol Level?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Eltawel M.


Introduction and Aim of work: Literature suggest that antipsychotic medications may decrease cortisol level, an effect that seems to be more present with second generation antipsychotic. Our study aims at assessing effect of long term use of antipsychotics on cortisol level Subjects and Methods: 30 chronic schizophrenic patients on antipsychotics compared to 20 drug naive schizophrenic patients as regards serum cortisol level Results: Cortisol level was significantly lower in chronic schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotics compared to drug naive patients (P=0.002 <0.05) Conclusion: Antipsychotic medications seem to have the potential to decrease cortisol level in blood. Among hypothesis proposed in literature is the good control of pseudo stress due to psychotic features.

Keywords: schizophrenia, antipsychotic, cortisol, HPA

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152 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh


Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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151 Evaluation of Gingival Hyperplasia Caused by Medications

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Greta Plaka, Vera Ostreni


Purpose: Drug gingival hyperplasia is an uncommon pathology encountered during routine work in dental units. The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical appearance of gingival hyperplasia caused by medications. There are already three classes of medications that cause hyperplasia and based on data from the literature, the clinical cases encountered and included in this study have been compared. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a total of 311 patients, out of which 182 patients were included in our study, meeting the inclusion criteria. After each patient's history was recorded and it was found that patients were in their knowledge of chronic illness, undergoing treatment of gingivitis hypertrophic drugs was performed with a clinical examination of oral cavity and assessment by vertical and horizontal evaluation according to the periodontal indexes. Results: Of the data collected during the study, it was observed that 97% of patients with gingival hyperplasia are treated with nifedipine. 84% of patients treated with selected medicines and gingival hyperplasia in the oral cavity has been exposed at time period for more than 1 year and 1 month. According to the GOI, in the first rank of this index are about 21% of patients, in the second rank are 52%, in the third rank are 24% and in the fourth grade are 3%. According to the horizontal growth index of gingival hyperplasia, grade 1 included about 61% of patients and grade 2 included about 39% of patients with gingival hyperplasia. Bacterial index divides patients by degrees: grading 0 - 8.2%, grading 1 - 32.4%, grading 2 - 14% and grading 3 - 45.1%. Conclusions: The highest percentage of gingival hyperplasia caused by drugs is due to dosing of nifedipine for a duration of dosing and application for systemic healing for more than 1 year.

Keywords: drug gingival hyperplasia, horizontal growth index, vertical growth index

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150 Access of Refugees in Rural Areas to Regular Medication during COVID-19 Era: International Organization for Migration, Jordan Experience

Authors: Rasha Shoumar


Background: Since the onset of the Syria crisis in 2011, Jordan has hosted many Syrian refugees, many of which are residing in urban and rural areas. Vulnerability of refugees has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, adding to their already existing challenge in access to medical services, rendering them vulnerable to the complications of untreated medical conditions and amplifying their risk for severe COVID-19 disease. To improve health outcomes and access to health care services in a COVID-19 context, IOM (The International Organization for Migration) provided health services including awareness raising, direct primary health care through mobile teams and referrals to secondary services were extended to the vulnerable populations of refugees. Method: 6 community health volunteers were trained and deployed to different governorates to provide COVID-19 and non-communicable disease awareness and collect data rated to non-communicable disease and access to medical health services. Primary health care services were extended to 7 governorates through a mobile medical team, providing medical management. The collected Data was reviewed and analyzed. Results: 2150 refugees in rural areas were reached out by community health volunteers, out of which 78 received their medications through the Ministry of Health, 121 received their medications through different non-governmental organizations, 665 patients couldn’t afford buying any medications, 1286 patients were occasionally buying their medications when they were able to afford it. 853 patients received medications and follow up through IOM mobile clinics, the most common conditions were hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anemia, heart disease, thyroid disease, asthma, seizures, and psychiatric conditions. 709 of these patients had more than 3 of the comorbidities. Multiple cases were referred for secondary and tertiary lifesaving interventions. Conclusion: Non communicable diseases are highly prevalent among refugee population in Jordan, access to medical services have proven to be a challenge in rural areas especially during the COVID-19 era, many of the patients have multiple uncontrolled medical conditions placing them at risk for complications and risk for severe COVID-19 disease. Deployment of mobile clinics to rural areas plays an essential role in managing such medical conditions, thus improving the continuum of health care approach, physical and mental wellbeing of refugees and reducing the risk for severe COVID-19 disease among this group, taking us one step forward toward universal health access.

Keywords: COVID-19, refugees, mobile clinics, primary health care

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149 Naltrexone and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Brief Review

Authors: Azadeh Moghaddas, Mehrnoush Dianatkhah, Padideh Ghaeli


The main characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are instable regulation of affect and self-image, impulsive behavior, and lack of interpersonal relationships. Clinically, emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression, repeated self-injury, and suicidal thought are noted with this disorder. Proper management of patients with BPD is a difficult challenge due to the complex features of this disorder. Pharmacotherapy of BPD in order to control impulsive behavior and to stabilize affect in patients with BPD has been receiving a lot of attention. Anticonvulsant agents such as topiramate, valproate, or lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole and olanzapine and antidepressants such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluvoxamine have been implicated in the treatment of BPD. Unfortunately, none of these medications can be used alone or even in combination as sole treatment of BPD. Medications may be used mostly to resolve or reduce impulsivity and aggression in these patients. Naltrexone (NTX), a nonspecific competitive opiate antagonist has been suggested, in the literature, to control self-injurious behavior (SIB) and dissociative symptoms in patients with BPD. This brief review has been intended to look at all documented evidence on the use of NTX in the management of BPD and to reach a comprehensive conclusion.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, naltrexone, self-injurious behavior, dissociative symptoms

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148 A Greedy Alignment Algorithm Supporting Medication Reconciliation

Authors: David Tresner-Kirsch


Reconciling patient medication lists from multiple sources is a critical task supporting the safe delivery of patient care. Manual reconciliation is a time-consuming and error-prone process, and recently attempts have been made to develop efficiency- and safety-oriented automated support for professionals performing the task. An important capability of any such support system is automated alignment – finding which medications from a list correspond to which medications from a different source, regardless of misspellings, naming differences (e.g. brand name vs. generic), or changes in treatment (e.g. switching a patient from one antidepressant class to another). This work describes a new algorithmic solution to this alignment task, using a greedy matching approach based on string similarity, edit distances, concept extraction and normalization, and synonym search derived from the RxNorm nomenclature. The accuracy of this algorithm was evaluated against a gold-standard corpus of 681 medication records; this evaluation found that the algorithm predicted alignments with 99% precision and 91% recall. This performance is sufficient to support decision support applications for medication reconciliation.

Keywords: clinical decision support, medication reconciliation, natural language processing, RxNorm

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147 Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste

Authors: Merita Dauti, Edita Alili-Idrizi, Sihana Ahmeti –Lika, Ledjan Malaj


The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.

Keywords: pharmaceutical waste, legal regulation, proper disposal, environment pollution

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146 Social Media as a Tool for Medication Adherence and Personal Health Management

Authors: Huang Wei-Chi, Li Wei, Yu Tien-Chieh


Medication adherence is crucial for treatment success. Adherence problem is common in patients with polypharmacy, especially in the geriatric population who are vulnerable to multiple chronic conditions but averagely less knowledgeable about diseases and medications. In order to help patients take medications appropriately and enhance the understanding of diseases or medications, a Line official account named e-Pharmacist was designed. The line is a popular freeware app with the highest penetration rate (95.7%) in Taiwan. The interface of e-Pharmacist is user-friendly for easy-to-read and convenient operating. Differ from other medication adherence apps, users just added e-Pharmacist as a LINE friend without installing any more apps and the drug lists were automatically downloaded from the personal electronic medical records with security permission. Over and above medication reminder, several additional capabilities were set up and engaged in the platform of e-Pharmacist including prescription refill reservation, laboratory examination consultation, medical appointment registration, and “Daily Health Log” where patients can record and track data of blood pressure/blood sugar and daily meals for self-health management as well as can share the important information to clinical professionals when seeking medical help. Additionally, a Line chatbot was utilized to provide tailored medicine information for the individual user. From July 2020 to March 2022, around 3000 patients added e-pharmacist as Line friends. Every day more than 1500 patients receive messages from e-pharmacist to notify them to take medicine. Thanks to the e-pharmacist alert system and Chatbot, the low-compliance patients (defined by Program on Adherence to Medication, PAM) significantly dropped from 36% to 6%, whereas the high-compliance patients dramatically increased from 13% to 77%. The user satisfaction is 98%. In brief, an e-pharmacist is not only a medication reminder but also a tailored personal assistant with value-added service for health management.

Keywords: e-pharmacist, self-health management, medication reminder, value-added service

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145 Apollo Quality Program: The Essential Framework for Implementing Patient Safety

Authors: Anupam Sibal


Apollo Quality Program(AQP) was launched across the Apollo Group of Hospitals to address the four patient safety areas; Safety during Clinical Handovers, Medication Safety, Surgical Safety and the six International Patient Safety Goals(IPSGs) of JCI. A measurable, online, quality dashboard covering 20 process and outcome parameters was devised for monthly monitoring. The expected outcomes were also defined and categorized into green, yellow and red ranges. An audit methodology was also devised to check the processes for the measurable dashboard. Documented clinical handovers were introduced for the first time at many locations for in-house patient transfer, nursing-handover, and physician-handover. Prototype forms using the SBAR format were made. Patient-identifiers, read-back for verbal orders, safety of high-alert medications, site marking and time-outs and falls risk-assessment were introduced for all hospitals irrespective of accreditation status. Measurement of Surgical-Site-Infection (SSI) for 30 days postoperatively, was done. All hospitals now tracked the time of administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis before surgery. Situations with high risk of retention of foreign body were delineated and precautionary measures instituted. Audit of medications prescribed in the discharge summaries was made uniform. Formularies, prescription-audits and other means for reduction of medication errors were implemented. There is a marked increase in the compliance to processes and patient safety outcomes. Compliance to read-back for verbal orders rose from 86.83% in April’11 to 96.95% in June’15, to policy for high alert medications from 87.83% to 98.82%, to use of measures to prevent wrong-site, wrong-patient, wrong procedure surgery from 85.75% to 97.66%, to hand-washing from 69.18% to 92.54%, to antimicrobial prophylaxis within one hour before incision from 79.43% to 93.46%. Percentage of patients excluded from SSI calculation due to lack of follow-up for the requisite time frame decreased from 21.25% to 10.25%. The average AQP scores for all Apollo Hospitals improved from 62 in April’11 to 87.7 in Jun’15.

Keywords: clinical handovers, international patient safety goals, medication safety, surgical safety

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144 Inappropriate Prescribing Defined by START and STOPP Criteria and Its Association with Adverse Drug Events among Older Hospitalized Patients

Authors: Mohd Taufiq bin Azmy, Yahaya Hassan, Shubashini Gnanasan, Loganathan Fahrni


Inappropriate prescribing in older patients has been associated with resource utilization and adverse drug events (ADE) such as hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Globally, there is a lack of published data on ADE induced by inappropriate prescribing. Our study is specific to an older population and is aimed at identifying risk factors for ADE and to develop a model that will link ADE to inappropriate prescribing. The design of the study was prospective whereby computerized medical records of 302 hospitalized elderly aged 65 years and above in 3 public hospitals in Malaysia (Hospital Serdang, Hospital Selayang and Hospital Sungai Buloh) were studied over a 7 month period from September 2013 until March 2014. Potentially inappropriate medications and potential prescribing omissions were determined using the published and validated START-STOPP criteria. Patients who had at least one inappropriate medication were included in Phase II of the study where ADE were identified by local expert consensus panel based on the published and validated Naranjo ADR probability scale. The panel also assessed whether ADE were causal or contributory to current hospitalization. The association between inappropriate prescribing and ADE (hospitalization, mortality and adverse drug reactions) was determined by identifying whether or not the former was causal or contributory to the latter. Rate of ADE avoidability was also determined. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of potential inappropriate prescribing was 58.6%. A total of ADEs were detected in 31 of 105 patients (29.5%) when STOPP criteria were used to identify potentially inappropriate medication; All of the 31 ADE (100%) were considered causal or contributory to admission. Of the 31 ADEs, 28 (90.3%) were considered avoidable or potentially avoidable. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, dementia, baseline activities of daily living function, and number of medications, the likelihood of a serious avoidable ADE increased significantly when a potentially inappropriate medication was prescribed (odds ratio, 11.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.014 - 24.93; p < .001). The medications identified by STOPP criteria, are significantly associated with avoidable ADE in older people that cause or contribute to urgent hospitalization but contributed less towards morbidity and mortality. Findings of the study underscore the importance of preventing inappropriate prescribing.

Keywords: adverse drug events, appropriate prescribing, health services research

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143 Magnitude and Outcome of Resuscitation Activities at Rwanda Military Hospital for the Period of April 2013-September 2013

Authors: Auni Idi Muhire


Background: Prior to April 2012, resuscitations were often ineffective resulting in poor patient outcomes. An initiative was implemented at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) to review root causes and plan strategies to improve patient outcomes. An interdisciplinary committee was developed to review this problem. Purpose: Analyze the frequency, obstacles, and outcome of patient resuscitation following cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Methods: A form was developed to allow recording of all actions taken during resuscitation including response times, staff present, and equipment and medications used. Results:-The patient population requiring the most resuscitation effort are the intensive care patients, most frequently the neonatal the intensive care patients (42.8%) -Despite having trained staff representatives, not all resuscitations follow protocol -Lack of compliance with drug administration guidelines was noted, particularly in initiating use of drugs despite the drug being available (59%). Lesson Learned: Basic Life Support training for interdisciplinary staff resulted in more effective response to cardiac and/or respiratory arrest at RMH. Obstacles to effective resuscitation included number of staff, knowledge and skill level of staff, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, staff communication, and patient Do not Attempt Resuscitation (DNR) status.

Keywords: resuscitation, case analysis of knowledge versus practice, intensive care, critical care

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142 Community Health Commodities Distribution of integrated HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Services during COVID-19 Pandemic – Eswatini Case Study

Authors: N. Dlamini, Mpumelelo G. Ndlela, Philisiwe Dlamini, Nicholus Kisyeri, Bhekizitha Sithole


Accessing health services during the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated scarcity to routine medication. To ensure continuous accessibility to services, Eswatini launched Community Health Commodities Distribution (CHCD). Eligible Antiretroviral Therapy(ART) stable clients (VL<1,000) and patients on Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) medications were attended at community pick up points (PUP) based on distance between clients’ residence and the public health facility. Services provided includes ART and Pre-Exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refills and NCD drug refills). The number of community PUP was 14% higher than health facility visits. Among all medications and commodities distributed between April and October 2020 at the PUP, 64% were HIV-related (HIV rapid test, HIVST, VL test, PrEP meds), and 36% were NCD related. The rapid roll out of CHCD during COVID-19 pandemic reduced the risk of COVID-19 transmission to clients as travel to health facilities was eliminated. It Additionally increased access to commodities during COVID-19-driven lockdown, decongested health facilities, integrated model of care, and increase service coverage. It was also noted that CHCD added different curative and HIV related services based on client specific needs and availability of the commodities.

Keywords: community health commodities distribution, pick up points, antiretroviral therapy, pre-exposure prophylaxis

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141 Knowledge, Attitude and Beliefs Towards Polypharmacy Amongst Older People Attending Family Medicine Clinic at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya (AKUHN) Sub-Saharan Africa-Qualitative Study

Authors: Maureen Kamau, Gulnaz Mohamoud, Adelaide Lusambili, Njeri Nyanja


Life expectancy has increased over the last century amongst older individuals, and in particular, those 60 years and over. The World Health Organization estimates that the world's population of persons over 60 years will rise to 22 per cent by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with increasing disability, multiple chronic conditions, and an increase in the use of health services. These multiple chronic conditions are managed with polypharmacy. Polypharmacy has numerous adverse effects including non-adherence, poor compliance to the various medications, reduced appetite, and risk of fall. Studies on polypharmacy and ageing are few and poorly understood especially in low and middle - income countries. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of older people towards polypharmacy. A qualitative study of 15 patients aged 60 years and above, taking more than five medications per day were conducted at the Aga Khan University using Semi-structured in-depth interviews. Three interviews were pilot interviews, and data analysis was performed on 12 interviews. Data were analyzed using NVIVO 12 software. A thematic qualitative analysis was carried out guided by Braun and Clarke (2006) framework. Themes identified; - knowledge of their co-morbidities and of the medication that older persons take, sources of information about medicines, and storage of the medication, experiences and attitudes of older patients towards polypharmacy both positive and negative, older peoples beliefs and their coping mechanisms with polypharmacy. The study participants had good knowledge on their multiple co-morbidities, and on the medication they took. The patients had positive attitudes towards medication as it enhanced their health and well-being, and enabled them to perform their activities of daily living. There was a strong belief among older patients that the medications were necessary for their health. All these factors enhanced compliance to the multiple medication. However, some older patients had negative attitudes due to the pill burden, side effects of the medication, and stigma associated with being ill. Cost of healthcare was a concern, with most of the patients interviewed relying on insurance to cover the cost of their medication. Older patients had accepted that the medication they were prescribed were necessary for their health, as it enabled them to complete their activities of daily living. Some concerns about the side effects of the medication arose, and brought about the need for patient education that would ensure that the patients are aware of the medications they take, and potential side effects. The effect that the COVID 19 pandemic had in the healthcare of the older patients was evident by the number of the older patients avoided coming to the hospital during the period of the pandemic. The relationship with the primary care physician and the older patients is an important one, especially in LMICs such as Kenya, as many of the older patients trusted the doctors wholeheartedly to make the best decision about their health and about their medication. Prescription review is important to avoid the use of potentially inappropriate medication.

Keywords: polypharmacy, older patients, multiple chronic conditions, Kenya, Africa, qualitative study, indepth interviews, primary care

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140 Investigation of Chronic Drug Use Due to Chronic Diseases in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department

Authors: Behcet Al, Şener Cindoruk, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Mehmet Mustafa Sunar, Hatice Eroglu, Cuma Yildirim


Objective: In present study we aimed to investigate the chronic drug use due to chronic diseases in patients admitted to emergency department. Materials-Methods: 144 patients who applied to emergency department (ED) of medicine school of Gaziantep University between June 2013 and September 2013 with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs were included. Information about drugs used by patients were recorded. Results: Of patients, half were male, half were female, and the mean age was 58 years. The first three common diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. Of patients, %79.2 knew their illness. Fifty patients began to use drug within three months, 36 patient began to use within the last one year. While 42 patients brought all of their drugs with themselves, 17 patients brought along a portion of drugs. While three patients stopped their medication completely, 125 patients received medication on a regular basis. Fifty-two patient described the drugs with names, 13 patients described with their colors, 3 patients described by grammes, 45 patients described with the size of the tablet and 13 patients could not describe the drugs. Ninety-two patients explained which kind of drugs were used for each diseases, 17 patient explained partly, and 35 patients had no idea. Hundred patients received medication by themselves, 44 patients medications were giving by their relatives and med carers. Of medications, 140 were written by doctors directly, three medication were given by pharmacist; and one patient bought the drug by himself. For 11 patients the drugs were not harmonious to their diseases. Fifty-one patients admitted to the ED two times within last week, and 73 admitted two times within last month. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs know their diseases and use the drugs in order, but do not have enough information about their medication.

Keywords: chronic disease, drug use, emergency department, medication

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139 Handling Patient's Supply during Inpatient Stay: Using Lean Six Sigma Techniques to Implement a Comprehensive Medication Handling Program

Authors: Erika Duggan


A Major Hospital had identified that there was no standard process for handling a patient’s medication that they brought with them to the hospital. It was also identified that each floor was handling the patient’s medication differently and storing it in multiple locations. Based on this disconnect many patients were leaving the hospital without their medication. The project team was tasked with creating a cohesive process to send a patient’s unneeded medication home on admission, storing any of the patient’s medication that could not be sent home, storing any of the patient’s medication for inpatient administration, and sending all of the patient’s medication home on discharge. The project team consisted of pharmacists, RNs, LPNs, members from nursing informatics and a project engineer and followed a DMAIC framework. Working together observations were performed to identify what was working and not working on the different floors which resulted in process maps. Using the multidisciplinary team, brainstorming, including affinity diagramming and other lean six sigma techniques, the best process for receiving, storing, and returning the medication was created. It was highlighted that being able to track the medication throughout the patient’s stay would be beneficial and would help make sure the medication left with the patient on discharge. Using an automated medications dispensing system would help store, and track patient’s medications. Also, the use of a specific order that would show up on the discharge instructions would assist the front line staff in retrieving the medication from a set location and sending it home with the patient. This new process will effectively streamline the admission and discharge process for patients who brought their medication with them as well as effectively tracking the medication during the patient’s stay. As well as increasing patient safety as it relates to medication administration.

Keywords: lean six sigma, medication dispensing, process improvement, process mapping

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138 Challenges to Safe and Effective Prescription Writing in the Environment Where Digital Prescribing is Absent

Authors: Prashant Neupane, Asmi Pandey, Mumna Ehsan, Katie Davies, Richard Lowsby


Introduction/Background & aims: Safe and effective prescribing in hospitals, directly and indirectly, impacts the health of the patients. Even though digital prescribing in the National Health Service (NHS), UK has been used in lots of tertiary centers along with district general hospitals, a significant number of NHS trusts are still using paper prescribing. We came across lots of irregularities in our daily clinical practice when we are doing paper prescribing. The main aim of the study was to assess how safely and effectively are we prescribing at our hospital where there is no access to digital prescribing. Method/Summary of work: We conducted a prospective audit in the critical care department at Mid Cheshire Hopsitals NHS Foundation Trust in which 20 prescription charts from different patients were randomly selected over a period of 1 month. We assessed 16 multiple categories from each prescription chart and compared them to the standard trust guidelines on prescription. Results/Discussion: We collected data from 20 different prescription charts. 16 categories were evaluated within each prescription chart. The results showed there was an urgent need for improvement in 8 different sections. In 85% of the prescription chart, all the prescribers who prescribed the medications were not identified. Name, GMC number and signature were absent in the required prescriber identification section of the prescription chart. In 70% of prescription charts, either indication or review date of the antimicrobials was absent. Units of medication were not documented correctly in 65% and the allergic status of the patient was absent in 30% of the charts. The start date of medications was missing and alternations of the medications were not done properly in 35%of charts. The patient's name was not recorded in all desired sections of the chart in 50% of cases and cancellations of the medication were not done properly in 45% of the prescription charts. Conclusion(s): From the audit and data analysis, we assessed the areas in which we needed improvement in prescription writing in the Critical care department. However, during the meetings and conversations with the experts from the pharmacy department, we realized this audit is just a representation of the specialized department of the hospital where access to prescribing is limited to a certain number of prescribers. But if we consider bigger departments of the hospital where patient turnover is much more, the results could be much worse. The findings were discussed in the Critical care MDT meeting where suggestions regarding digital/electronic prescribing were discussed. A poster and presentation regarding safe and effective prescribing were done, awareness poster was prepared and attached alongside every bedside in critical care where it is visible to prescribers. We consider this as a temporary measure to improve the quality of prescribing, however, we strongly believe digital prescribing will help to a greater extent to control weak areas which are seen in paper prescribing.

Keywords: safe prescribing, NHS, digital prescribing, prescription chart

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137 Survey on Awareness, Knowledge and Practices: Managing Osteoporosis among Practitioners in a Tertiary Hospital, Malaysia

Authors: P. H. Tee, S. M. Zamri, K. M. Kasim, S. K. Tiew


This study evaluates the management of osteoporosis in a tertiary care government hospital in Malaysia. As the number of admitted patients having osteoporotic fractures is on the rise, osteoporotic medications are an increasing financial burden to government hospitals because they account for half of the orthopedic budget and expenditure. Comprehensive knowledge among practitioners is important to detect early and avoid this preventable disease and its serious complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and practices in managing osteoporosis among practitioners in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR), Klang. A questionnaire from an overseas study in managing osteoporosis among primary care physicians is adapted to Malaysia’s Clinical Practice Guideline of Osteoporosis 2012 (revised 2015) and international guidelines were distributed to all orthopedic practitioners in HTAR Klang (including surgeons, orthopedic medical officers), endocrinologists, rheumatologists and geriatricians. The participants were evaluated on their expertise in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment decision and medications for osteoporosis. Collected data were analyzed for all descriptive and statistical analyses as appropriate. All 45 participants responded to the questionnaire. Participants scored highest on expertise in prevention, followed by diagnosis, treatment decision and lastly, medication. Most practitioners stated that own-initiated continuing professional education from articles and books was the most effective way to update their knowledge, followed by attendance in conferences on osteoporosis. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive training and education regarding osteoporosis among tertiary care physicians and surgeons, predominantly in pharmacotherapy, to deliver wholesome care for osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: awareness, knowledge, osteoporosis, practices

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136 Predictors of Post-marketing Regulatory Actions Concerning Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Salwa M. Almomen, Mona A. Almaghrabi, Saja M. Alhabardi, Adel A. Alrwisan


Background: Hepatotoxicity is a major reason for medication withdrawal from the markets. Unfortunately, serious adverse hepatic effects can occur after marketing with limited indicators during clinical development. Therefore, finding possible predictors for hepatotoxicity might guide the monitoring program of various stakeholders. Methods: We examined the clinical review documents for drugs approved in the US from 2011 to 2016 to evaluate their hepatic safety profile. Predictors: we assessed whether these medications meet Hy’s Law with hepatotoxicity grade ≥ 3, labeled hepatic adverse effects at approval, or accelerated approval status. Outcome: post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, including product withdrawal or updates to warning, precaution, or adverse effects sections. Statistical analysis: drugs were included in the analysis from the time of approval until the end of 2019 or the first post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, whichever occurred first. The hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using Cox-regression analysis. Results: We included 192 medications in the study. We classified 48 drugs as having grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicities, 43 had accelerated approval status, and 74 had labeled information about hepatotoxicity prior to marketing. The adjusted HRs for post-marketing regulatory action for products with grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicity was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-2.23), 0.92 (95%CI, 0.29-2.93) for a drug approved via accelerated approval program, and was 0.91 (95%CI, 0.33-2.56) for drugs with labeled hepatotoxicity information at approval time. Conclusion: This study does not provide conclusive evidence on the association between post-marketing regulatory action and grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicity, accelerated approval status, or availability of labeled information at approval due to sampling size and channeling bias.

Keywords: accelerated approvals, hepatic adverse effects, drug-induced liver injury, hepatotoxicity predictors, post-marketing withdrawal

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135 A Case of Severe Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome Followed by Adrenal Crisis, Multifocal Pneumonia, Sepsis, Pulmonary Embolism and Prolonged Adrenal Insufficiency

Authors: Jelena Maletkovic


Background: Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is a rare disease, but iatrogenic or drug related Cushing syndrome from glucocorticoid products is commonly seen in clinical practice. With high dose and long term use of glucocorticoids, patients can develop isolated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) suppression, or HPA axis suppression can be accompanied by overt iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. This is a rare case where severe Cushing’s syndrome developed from an unknown medication and was followed by severe and prolonged adrenal insufficiency and multiple potentially fatal complications. Case: This is a 37-year-old woman who is presented to Emergency Room (ER) with shortness of breath and chest pain. Four months prior to this presentation the patient was a generally healthy woman who was looking for improvement in her appearance and visited local Rejuvenation Clinic. After initial consultation with a nurse, she was contacted by a physician over the phone and was advised to start taking multiple injectable medications that will arrive by mail. Medications without any labels on bottles were delivered and the patient started daily intramuscular injections. Over the next two months, she noticed rounding of her face and swelling around her eyes. She gained 20 pounds, mostly abdominal fat and became extremely fatigued. Her muscles on legs were visibly decreasing in size and she felt significant muscle weakness. Unexplained bruising occurred. She started growing hair on face and developed secondary amenorrhea. New severe back pain started. She developed depression and headaches. Finally, over a few days, a number of red-purple stretch marks that were sensitive and painful appeared over her abdomen, upper part of arms and legs. She then became suspicious that these dramatic symptoms are caused by injectable medication and she discontinued injections. Over the next few days she presented to ER with low blood pressure and oxygen saturation of 75%. Studies revealed extensive pneumonia as well as multiple pulmonary emboli. Her white blood count was elevated with 32 000 and she also had acute kidney failure on admission. She was treated for sepsis and was also given stress dose steroids. Steroids were tapered over 48 hours and discontinued. After being discharged to home, on her first visit to endocrinology clinic she had undetectable ACTH of < 2pg/mL and undetectable 8am cortisol of < 0.2mcg/dL. She did not respond to an intramuscular injection of cosyntropin 250mcg and her repeated cortisol after 60 minutes was only 1mcg/dL. The patient was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency and was started on hydrocortisone 20mg+10mg. It took close to 2 years of slow tapering for recovery of this patient’s HPA axis and resolve all the sequelae from Cushing’s syndrome. Conclusion: Misuse and abuse of glucocorticoids have been present almost since these medications were discovered. This is a rare case where not only severe Cushing’s syndrome in full clinical picture developed but also the patient suffered multiple potentially fatal complications and prolonged adrenal insufficiency. Visits to herbal, rejuvenation, esthetic, and similar clinics are becoming more and more popular and physicians need to be aware of possible non-benign nature of medications that their patients may be using.

Keywords: iatrogenic, Cushing's syndrome, adrenal crisis, steroid abuse

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134 Effect of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders on Adherence to Routine Prenatal Iron/Folic Acid Supplement among Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study

Authors: Nneka U. Igboeli, Maxwell O. Adibe


Iron and folate supplementation in pregnancy are important interventions that prevent maternal anaemia and fetal anomaly. Thus, daily oral doses of iron and folic acid are recommended throughout pregnancy as part of antenatal care. However, low adherence has been a major drawback leading to low effectiveness of these programs. The effect of mobile text message reminders to pregnant women to take their routine medications on adherence was evaluated in this study. The first 100 women who consented to the study were recruited and randomized to either receive a text message reminder on adherence to routine medications or not. Adherence was assessed using the 8-item Modified Morisky Adherence Scale (8-MMAS). The folders of successfully recruited women were tagged with the a study number assigned to each of them. The womens’ phone numbers were collected and these were used to send text messages reminders on adhering to routine drugs only to women in the intervention group. The text messages were sent three times per week for a period of four weeks with an adherence reassessment at the one month follow-up antenatal visit for recruited women. At one month follow-up, the lost to follow-up were 6 (16%) women for the intervention group and 17 (34%) for the control group. The across group mean difference in adherence score was 0.07 (-0.96 – 1.10) at baseline and 0.3 (-0.31 – 0.92) after intervention, both insignificant at p > 0.05. The within group change were increases of 0.58 (0.00 – 1.16) (p = 0.05) from baseline for the intervention group and a 0.35 (-0.51 – 1.20) (p = 0.395) for the control group. Non-significant increase in adherence scores were recorded for both groups. However, the increase in adherence scores of women in the intervention group was greater and may be potentially transformed into more positive results if the study period is increased with possibly reduced study drop-outs shows great promise for more positive results.

Keywords: adherence, mobile phone, pregnant women, reminders

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133 Outcomes of Using Guidelines for Caring and Referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Thanom Kaeniam


ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a state of sudden death of the heart muscle due to sudden blockage of the artery. STEMI patients are usually in critical condition and with a potential opportunity for sudden death. Therefore, management guidelines for safety in caring and referring STEMI patients are needed. The objective of this developmental research was to assess the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects of the study were 22 nurses in the emergency room, and doctors on duty in the accident and emergency room selected using purposive sampling with inclusion criteria. The research instruments were the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients, and record forms for the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients (a general record form for STEMI patients, a record form for SK administering, a referring record form for PCI, and a record form for dead patient in the accident and emergency room and during referring). The instruments were tested for content validity by three experts, and the reliability was tested using Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20). The descriptive statistic employed was the percentage. The outcomes of using the guidelines for caring and referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department revealed that before using the guidelines in 2009, 2010, and 2011, there were 84, 73, and 138 STEMI patients receiving services at the accident and emergency room, of which, only 9, 32, and 48 patients were referred for PCI/SK medications, or 10.74; 43.84; and 34.78 percent, and the death rates were 10.71; 10.95; and 11.59 percent, respectively. However, after the use of the guidelines in 2012, 2013, and 2014, there were 97, 77, and 57 patients, of which, the increases to 77, 72, and 55 patients were referred for PCI /SK medications or 79.37; 93.51; and 96.49 percent, and the death rates were reduced to 10.30; 6.49; and 1.76 percent, respectively. The results of the study revealed that the use of the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department increased the effectiveness and quality of nursing, especially in terms of SK medication, caring and referring patients for PCI to reduce the death rate.

Keywords: outcomes, guidelines for caring, referring, myocardial infarction, STEMI

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132 Prominence of Biopsychosocial Formulation in Health Care Delivery for Aging Population: Empowering Caregiving through Natural Socio-Environmental Approaches

Authors: Kristine Demilou D. Santiago


An access to a high-quality health care system is what sets apart industrialized nations, such as the United States from other developing countries, which in this case is specifically pertaining to their older population. But what was the underrated factor in the sphere of quality healthcare rendered to elderly people in the Western context? Will this salient factor could push conviction to prorogue the existing gaps between self-denial patient-client and cheek by jowl medications? Are the natural socio-environmental approaches of caregiving the protracted remedy to healthcare disparities for aging population considering their day to day living? The conceptual framework of this model is primarily associated with addressing health and illness of human beings considering the biological, psychological and socio-environmental factors around them. The relevance of biopsychosocial formulation advancing each of the characteristics in the Biopsychosocial (BPS) model in a balance contemplation is the tumult of this study in an attempt to respond to prevailing disparities in caregiving services for old-aged patients on a day to day living. Caregiving services have been the medium path connecting between the patient and its prescribed medications. Moreover, caregivers serve as positive reinforcers in a patient’s environment. Therefore, caregivers play an important role in healthcare delivery to patients. They are considered significant people whom their acts will give an impact to a patient’s view in life. This research study intends to present the supreme importance of biopsychosocial assessment to old-aged patients with mental health illness and conditions. Biopsychosocial assessment will secure the quality of full medication to an old-aged adult suffering from a mental illness. This is because it offers a recognizably wholesome approach to medical healing of old-aged adult patients. The principle of biopsychosocial supersedes the biomedicine being offered to old-aged adults having mental illness, but it does not take away the high relevance of scientific biomedicine in healing patients. The framework presented an overlapping participation of each of its factors in its BPS model that affects in general a person’s health. The correlation between the biological (physiological), psychological (mental) and social (environment) in a person’s health condition requires equal attention according to BPS, and it always coexist with each other. Indisputably said, bio-medicine has been and is being in its unceasing endeavor to provide scientifically proven health care medications for every individual seeking medical treatments. As we grow older and eventually reach the other side of the median population, not only our physiological aspects change, our psychological and socio-environmental changes happen too. Caregiving is a salient responsibility taking place on these inevitable changes.

Keywords: biopsychosocial formulation, caregiving through natural approaches, US health care, BPS in caregiving, caregiving for aging population

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131 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan


Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

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