Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1112

Search results for: intensive care

1112 Patient Safety of Eating Ready-Made Meals at Government Hospitals

Authors: Hala Kama Ahmed Rashwan

Abstract:

Ensuring the patient safety especially at intensive care units and those exposed to hospital tools and equipment is one of the most important challenges facing healthcare today. Outbreak of food poisoning as a result of food-borne pathogens has been reported in many hospitals and care homes all over the world due to hospital meals. Patient safety of eating hospital meals is a fundamental principle of healthcare; it is new healthcare disciplines that assure the food raw materials, food storage, meals processing, and control of kitchen errors that often lead to adverse healthcare events. The aim of this article is to promote any hospital in attaining the hygienic practices and better quality system during processing of the ready-to- eat meals for intensive care units patients according to the WHO safety guidelines.

Keywords: hospitals, meals, safety, intensive care

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1111 Energy Efficient Shading Strategies for Windows of Hospital ICUs in the Desert

Authors: A. Sherif, A. El Zafarany, R. Arafa

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Hospitals, everywhere, are considered heavy energy consumers. Hospital Intensive Care Unit spaces pose a special challenge, where design guidelines requires the provision of external windows for day-lighting and external view. Window protection strategies could be employed to reduce energy loads without detriment effect on comfort or health care. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using various window strategies on the annual cooling, heating and lighting energy use of a typical Hospital Intensive Unit space. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) space in Cairo, located in the Egyptian desert. This study concluded that the use of shading systems is more effective in conserving energy in comparison with glazing of different types, in the Cairo ICUs. The highest energy savings in the West and South orientations were accomplished by external perforated solar screens, followed by overhangs positioned at a protection angle of 45°.

Keywords: energy, hospital, intensive care units, shading

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1110 Perceived Structural Empowerment and Work Commitment among Intensive Care nurses in SMC

Authors: Ridha Abdulla Al Hammam

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Purpose: to measure the extent of perceived structural empowerment and work commitment the intensive care unit in SMC have in their work place. Background: nurses’ access to power structures (information, recourses, opportunity, and support) directly influences their productivity, retention, and job satisfaction. Exploring nurses’ level and sources of work commitment (affective, normative, and continuance) is very essential to guide nursing leaders making decisions to improve work environment to facilitate effective nursing care. Both concepts (Structural Empowerment and Work Commitment) were never investigated in our critical care unit. Methods: a sample of 50 nurses attained from the Intensive Care Unit (Adult). Conditions for Workplace Effectiveness Questionnaire and Three-Component Model Employee Commitment Survey were used to measure the two concepts respectively. The study is quantitative, descriptive, and correlational in design. Results: the participants reported moderate structural empowerment provided by their work place (M=15 out of 20). The sample perceived high access to opportunity mainly through gaining more skills (M=4.45 out of 5) where the rest power structures were perceived with moderate accessibility. The participants’ affective commitment (M=5.6 out of 7) to work in the ICU overweighed their normative and continuance commitment (M=5.1, M=4.9 out of 7) implying a stronger emotional connection with their unit. Strong positive and significant correlations were observed between the participants’ structural empowerment scores and all work commitment sources. Conclusion: these results provided an insight on aspects of work environment that need to be fostered and improved in our intensive care unit which have a direct linkage to nurses’ work commitment and potentially to their quality of care they provide.

Keywords: structural empowerment, commitment, intensive care, nurses

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1109 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

Abstract:

The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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1108 Activity-Based Costing of Medical Intensive Care Unit 240

Authors: Suppawan Lertpongpakpoom, Anongnat Boonrat, Kunya BoontummoSuppawan

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This descriptive cost analysis aimed to analyze the unit cost of patients in medical intensive care unit. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 nurses, 6 practical nurses, 5 nurses aid and select samples 30 patients. Data were collected from both primary source (activity and average time of nursing care) and secondary source Z bill of payment and patient record). Instruments were cost recording form, activity observation form, and service recording form. Content validity of all instruments were evaluated by three experts (CVI = 0.87). Descriptive statistics was employed for data analysis. The results of the Activity-Based Costing Analysis showed that total activity cost of 4 service types for the patients was 14,776.92 Bath. The highest cost was nursing record was 5,674.78 Bath, followed direct nursing activity was 5,176.18 Bath, medical treatment was 1,976.6 Bath. The lowest cost was management activity was 1,003.64 Bath per visit. The result suggested that Activity-Base Costing Analysis could be applied to give better understanding of cost structure, enabling better consideration wasted expense and non-value-added activity, and improvement of effective utilization.

Keywords: activity-based costing, medical intensive care, nursing care, cost analysis

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1107 Effects of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Central Venous Catheter to Infection Rate and Nurse’s Satisfaction in Medicine Intensive Care Unit 240 Hat Yai Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Jiranun Sreecharit, Anongnat Boonrut, Kunvadee Munvaradee, Phechnoy Singchungchai

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Hatyai Hospital as center of hospital with a capacity of 670 beds. Medicine intensive care units (MICU240) provide care for critically ill patients who are at high risk need to be monitored closely. Intravenous catheter is vital to help assess the level of water in the body fluids and medications. Potential complications such as infection. We need to have guidelines for the care of patients who received intravenous catheter used to achieve good results. The operations research in this study was intended 1) To study the effects of practice for nurses in caring for patients with central venous catheter to infection rate and 2) To assess the satisfaction of nurses and patient care practices in central venous catheterization patients in the MICU 240. The sample of the patient's central venous catheter crisis that everyone who admitted in MICU 240 during the period from October 2013 to May 2014. Samples prior to practice and 148 samples with 249 case of practice. A systematic review of the research NSWHealth Statewide Guideline for Intensive Care. Data were analyzed by statistics, percentages and frequency NON-PARAMETRICS with Mann-Whitney U. The finding revealed that: 1. Results of the practice patient care central venous catheter infection rates were found to be reduced from 35.14 percent to 25.3 percent. 2. The results of the evaluation of nurses and patients in the patient care practices central venous catheter found to be satisfied and happy to work 85 percent.

Keywords: clinical practice guidelines, central venous catheter, infection satisfaction

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1106 Magnitude and Outcome of Resuscitation Activities at Rwanda Military Hospital for the Period of April 2013-September 2013

Authors: Auni Idi Muhire

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Background: Prior to April 2012, resuscitations were often ineffective resulting in poor patient outcomes. An initiative was implemented at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) to review root causes and plan strategies to improve patient outcomes. An interdisciplinary committee was developed to review this problem. Purpose: Analyze the frequency, obstacles, and outcome of patient resuscitation following cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Methods: A form was developed to allow recording of all actions taken during resuscitation including response times, staff present, and equipment and medications used. Results:-The patient population requiring the most resuscitation effort are the intensive care patients, most frequently the neonatal the intensive care patients (42.8%) -Despite having trained staff representatives, not all resuscitations follow protocol -Lack of compliance with drug administration guidelines was noted, particularly in initiating use of drugs despite the drug being available (59%). Lesson Learned: Basic Life Support training for interdisciplinary staff resulted in more effective response to cardiac and/or respiratory arrest at RMH. Obstacles to effective resuscitation included number of staff, knowledge and skill level of staff, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, staff communication, and patient Do not Attempt Resuscitation (DNR) status.

Keywords: resuscitation, case analysis of knowledge versus practice, intensive care, critical care

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1105 Perception of Nursing Care of Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Merve Aydin, Mağfiret Kara Kaşikçi

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Aim: To determine the perceptions of inpatients about care at Farabi Hospital in KTU. Material and Method: This research was conducted by using the universe known examples of formulas and probability selected by sampling method with 277 chosen patients in the hospital at least 14 days in other internal and surgical clinics except for pediatric, psychiatry, and intensive care unit services between January-March 2014 in KTU Farabi Hospital. The data was collected through the forms of nursing care perception scale of patients and defining characteristics of patients. In the evaluation of data, percentage, mean, Mann Whitney U, Student t and Kurskall Wallis tests were applied. Results: The average point the patients got in nursing care perception scale is 62.64±10.08’dir. 48.7 % of patients regard nursing care well and 36.8 % of them regard it very well. 19 % of the patients regard nursing care badly. When the age, sex, occupation, marital status, educational background, residential place, income level, hospitalization period, hospitalization clinic and having a hospital attendant were compared with nursing care perception average point, the difference among point averages was not found meaningful statistically (p > 0.05). The average point of nursing care perception was found greater in those having chronic disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The perception point of patients about nursing care is above the average according to the average of the lowest and highest points. The great majority of patients regard nursing care well or very well.

Keywords: hospital, patient, perception of nursing care, nursing care

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1104 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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1103 The Prevalence and Profile of Extended Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae Species in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Setting of a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India

Authors: Harmeet Pal Singh Dhooria, Deepinder Chinna, UPS Sidhu, Alok Jain

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Serious infections caused by gram-negative bacteria are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the hospital setting. In acute care facilities like in intensive care units (ICUs), the intensity of antimicrobial use together with a population highly susceptible to infection, creates an environment, which facilitates both emergence and transmission of Extended Spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae species. The study was conducted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and the Pulmonary Critical Care Unit (PCCU) of the Department of Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Out of a total of 1108 samples of urine, blood and respiratory tract secretions received for culture and sensitivity analysis from Medical Intensive Care Unit and Pulmonary Critical Care Unit, a total of 170 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae species were obtained which were then included in our study. Out of these 170 isolates, confirmed ESBL production was seen in 116 (68.24%) cases. E.coli was the most common species isolated (56.47%) followed by Klebsiella (32.94%), Enterobacter (5.88%), Citrobacter (3.53%), Enterobacter (0.59%) and Morganella (0.59%) among the total isolates. The rate of ESBL production was more in Klebsiella (78.57%) as compared to E.coli (60.42%). ESBL producers were found to be significantly more common in patients with prior history of hospitalization, antibiotic use, and prolonged ICU stay. Also significantly increased the prevalence of ESBL related infections was observed in patients with a history of catheterization or central line insertion but not in patients with the history of intubation. Patients who had an underlying malignancy had significantly higher prevalence of ESBL related infections as compared to other co-morbid illnesses. A slightly significant difference in the rate of mortality/LAMA was observed in the ESBL producer versus the non-ESBL producer group. The rate of mortality/LAMA was significantly higher in the ESBL related UTI but not in the ESBL related respiratory tract and bloodstream infections. ESBL producing isolates had significantly higher rates of resistance to Cefepime and Piperacillin/Tazobactum, and to non β-lactum antibiotics like Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin. The level of resistance to Imipenem was lower as compared to other antibiotics. However, it was noted that ESBL producing isolates had higher levels of resistance to Imipenem as compared to non-ESBL producing isolates. Conclusion- The prevalence of ESBL producing organisms was found to be very high (68.24%) among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in our ICU setting as among other ICU care settings around the world.

Keywords: enterobacteriaceae, extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL), ICU, antibiotic resistance

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1102 The Experience of Applying Multi-Sensory Stimulation ICU for Arousing a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury in Intensive Care

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Tsai

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Motor vehicle accident is the first cause of head injury in the world; severe head injury cases may cause conscious disturbance and death. This is a report about a case of a young adult patient suffering from motor vehicle accident leading to severe head injury who passed through three time surgical procedures, and his mother (who is the informal caregiver). This case was followed from 28th January to 15th February 2011 by using Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns. Patient’s cognitive-perceptual and self-perception-self-concept patterns were altered. Anxiety was also noted on his informal caregiver due to patients’ condition. During the intensive care period, maintaining patient’s vital signs and cerebral perfusion pressure were essential to avoid secondary neuronal injury. Multi-sensory stimulation, caring accompanying, supporting, listening and encouraging patient’s family involved in patient care were very important to reduce informal caregiver anxiety. Finally, the patient consciousness improved from GCS 4 to GCS 11 before discharging from ICU. Patient’s primary informal caregiver, his mother, also showed anxiety improvement. This is was successful case with traumatic brain injury recovered from coma.

Keywords: anxiety, multi-sensory stimulation, reduce intracranial adaptive capacity, traumatic brain injury

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1101 The Effect of Post-Acute Stroke Inpatient Rehabilitation under per Diem Payment: A Pilot Study

Authors: Chung-Yuan Wang, Kai-Chun Lee, Min-Hung Wang, Yu-Ren Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Sen-Shan Fan

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Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) was launched in 1995. It is an important social welfare policy in Taiwan. Regardless of the diversified social and economic status, universal coverage of NHI was assured. In order to regain better self-care performance, stroke people received in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation. Though NHI limited the rehabilitation frequency to one per day, the cost of rehabilitation still increased rapidly. Through the intensive rehabilitation during the post-stroke rehabilitation golden period, stroke patients might decrease their disability and shorten the rehabilitation period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. This study was started from 2014/03/01. The stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital or medical center were indicated to the study. The neurologists would check his modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Only patients with their mRS score between 2 and 4 were included to the study. Patients with unclear consciousness, unstable medical condition, unclear stroke onset date and no willing for 3 weeks in-patient intensive rehabilitation were excluded. After the physiatrist’s systemic evaluation, the subjects received intensive rehabilitation programs. The frequency of rehabilitation was thrice per day. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech/swallowing therapy were included in the programs for the needs of the stroke patients. Activity daily life performance (Barthel Index) and functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale) were used to measure the training effect. During 3/1 to 5/31, thirteen subjects (five male and eight female) were included. Seven subjects were aged below 60. Three subjects were aged over 70. Most of the subjects (seven subjects) received intensive post-stroke rehabilitation for three weeks. Three subjects drop out from the programs and went back home respectively after receiving only 7, 10, and 13 days rehabilitation. Among these 13 subjects, nine of them got improvement in activity daily life performance (Barthel Index score). Ten of them got improvement in functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale). The intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation did help stroke patients promote their health in our study. Not only their functional performance improved, but also their self-confidence improved. Furthermore, their family also got better health status. Stroke rehabilitation under per diem payment was noted in long-term care institution in developed countries. Over 95% populations in Taiwan were supported under the Taiwan's National Health Insurance system, but there was no national long-term care insurance system. Most of the stroke patients in Taiwan live with his family and continue their rehabilitation programs from out-patient department. This pilot study revealed the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. The number of the subjects and the study period were limited. Thus, further study will be needed.

Keywords: rehabilitation, post-acute stroke, per diem payment, NHI

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1100 Role of Physiotherapist: How Their Job and Working Area Could Be Known

Authors: Juan Pablo Hervas-Perez, Jesus Guodemar-Perez, Montserrat Ruiz-Lopez, Elena Sonsoles Rodriguez-Lopez, Noemi Mayoral-Gonzalo, Eduardo Cimadevilla Fernandez-Pola, Mario Caballero-Corella

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Physiotherapy is a healthcare discipline that covers many fields of action within the recovery and prevention of health. Some are well known, but others, such as working with newborns and premature children are not so. Physical therapist functions are well defined, but the impression of the population is that there are other professionals who can develop them, and a large part are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge of the sample on the role of the physiotherapist in general, and more specifically in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) units, and estimate your level of notions on the development centered care (DCC). Method: A descriptive, transversal, observational and prospective study developed on a 125 participants' sample. Results: From the sample studied, 87.2% had already had contact with physiotherapy previously. An 80.9% believed that the physiotherapist intervention was decisive for the cure, and 84.0% would recommend physiotherapy treatment to others. Of the total surveyed, 98.0% felt that the physiotherapist is who should run the physiotherapeutic treatments, but shares with other professions 71.0% of votes. The field's best-known work is rehabilitation (94.0%); Neonatology is on the 4th place (66.0% of votes). Conclusions: Many areas of work of physical therapy are unknown to a big part of the population, including the own health workers. Less than half of the sample meets the DCC, and only 58% of the interviewed physiotherapists know them.

Keywords: functions of physiotherapist, neonatal intensive care, physiotherapy, prematurity

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1099 Outcome of Obstetric Admission to General Intensive Care over a Period of 3 Years

Authors: Kamel Abdelaziz Mohamed

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Intoduction:Inadequate knowledge about obstetric admission and infrequent dealing with the obstetric patients in ICU results in high mortality and morbidity. Aim of the work:To evaluate the indications, course, severity of illness, and outcome of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods: We collected baseline data and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. ICU mortality was the primary outcome. Results: Seventy obstetric patients were admitted to the ICU over 3 years, 36 of these patients (51.4 %) were admitted during the antepartum period. The primary obstetric indication for ICU admission was pregnancy-induced hypertension (22 patients, 31.4%), followed by sepsis (8 patients, 11.4%) as the leading non-obstetric admission. The mean APACHE II score was 19.6. The predicted mortality rate based on the APACHE II score was 22%, however, only 4 maternal deaths (5.7%) were among the obstetric patients admitted to the ICU. Conclusion: Evaluation of obstetric patients by (APACHE II) scores showed higher predicted mortality rate, however the overall mortality was lower. Regular follow up, together with early detection of complications and prompt ICU admission necessitating proper management by specialized team can improve mortality.

Keywords: obstetric, complication, postpartum, sepsis

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1098 Nurses Care Practices at End of Life in Intensive Care Units in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: M. Yaqoob, C. S. O’Neill, S. Faraj, C. L. O’Neill

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This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study exploring nurse’s contributions to end of life decisions and to the care of dying patients in ICU units in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The process of dying is complex as medical clinicians are frequently unable to say with certainty when death will occur. It is generally accepted that end of life care begins when it is possible to know that death is imminent. Nurses do not make medical treatment decisions when caring for a dying patient. There are, however, many other types of decisions made when a patient is approaching the end of life and nurses are either formally or informally part of these decision making processes. This study explored nurses care practices at the end of life, in two ICU units in large hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The research design was a grounded theory approach. Ten nurses participated, six of whom were Bahraini nationals and four were Indian. A core category death avoidance talk was supported by three major subcategories, degrees of involvement in decision making; signalling and creating an awareness of death; care shifting from dying patients to family. Despite nurses asserting that they carried out the orders of doctors and had no role in decision making processes at end of life this study showed that there were degrees of nurse involvement. Doctors frequently discussed the patient’s clinical condition with nurses and also sought information regarding the family. Information about the family was of particular relevance if the doctor was considering a DNR order, which the nurses equated with dying. Families were not always informed when a DNR decision was made. When families were not informed the nurses engaged in sophisticated rituals signalling and creating awareness to family members that the death of their loved one was near. This process also involved a subtle shifting of care from the dying patient to the family. This seminar paper will focus particularly on how nurses signal and create an awareness of death in an ICU setting. The findings suggest that despite the avoidance of death talk in the ICU nurses indirectly convey and create an awareness that death is near to family members.

Keywords: decision making, dying patients, end of life, intensive care unit

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1097 A Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Intention of Selecting the Charged Nursing Care

Authors: Hyunsik Park

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Objective: To provide information of charged nursing care facility for helping to establish geriatric health care policy, and to figure out which factors would be the main determinants for the choice of it. Method: 46 males and 53 females, and the same number of their caregivers admitted into the charged nursing care facility were recruited for intensive interview including personal information, disease information, and economic, familial, marital and emotional statuses. This is a cross-sectional study and we analyzed the data qualitatively. Results: Patients had 3.2 diseases and a hospitalization for 2.3 years on average. They were consists of 46 singles (46.9%), 8 unmarried (8.2%), 5 divorced (5.1%) and 32 married (32.7%). More than two third (70.1%) were supported by their eldest son or daughter. Mostly, the family caregivers decided to admit into the facilities by the doctor’s recommendation (68.4%). When they made a choice for a facility, most of them (42.9%) considered environmental and sanitary conditions. According to their expectation for management in nursing care facility, most caregivers (59.2%) wanted simple-staying for the duration, but most patients (61.3%) expected to be home after taking comprehensive rehabilitation. Three-quarter of the caregivers would agree to use nursing care facilities in the future, if they would be the same situation. Conclusion: Life style and environment are rapidly changing. In the near future, we need lots of the charged nursing care facilities for the old, thus this study can be the good reference for the preparing upcoming aged and super-aged society.

Keywords: nursing care facility, aged society, qualitative analysis, health

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1096 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Proteus Mirabilis Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz

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Objective: Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens in human and it causes urinary tract and nosocomial infections. P. mirabilis is susceptible to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. It was aimed to investigate the resistance status to antimicrobial agents of Proteus mirabilis strains produced from samples sent to Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory from different clinics and polyclinics during the period of 24 months. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 30 Proteus were isolated from clinical samples of patients were hospitalized in intensive care units and in various departments of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hempshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Of the total 30 Proteus strains isolated from clinical samples, 19 from urine, 7 from wound, 4 from tracheal aspiration materials were isolated. Antimicrobial resistant for these strains were determined to 24,3% for meropenem, 26.2% for imipenem, 20.2% for amikacin 10.5% for cefepim, 33.3% for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% for ceftazidime, 20% for ceftriaxone, 15.2% for gentamicin and 26.6% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Conclusion: In the present study, the highest number of clinical isolates of P. mirabilis were isolated from urine (63,3%), followed by the others (36,6%). The distribution of samples P. mirabilis strains to the clinics were as fallows; 16,8% intensive care unit (ICU), 29,9% polyclinics, 53,3% hospital service units The most effective antibiotic on the total of strains were found to be cefepim, the least effective antibiotics on the total of strains were found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale.

Keywords: proteus mirabilis, antibiotic resistance, intensive care unit, Proteus spp.

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1095 Nurses' Knowledge and Practice Regarding Care of Patients Connected to Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump at Cairo University Hospitals

Authors: Tharwat Ibrahim Rushdy, Warda Youssef Mohammed Morsy, Hanaa Ali Ahmed Elfeky

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Background: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is the first and the most commonly used mechanical circulatory support for patients with acute coronary syndromes and cardiogenic shock. Therefore, critical care nurses not only have to know how to monitor and operate the IABP, but also to provide interventions for preventing possible complications. Aim of the study: To assess nurses' knowledge and practices regarding care of patients connected to IABP at the ICUs of Cairo University Hospitals. Research design: A descriptive exploratory design was utilized. Sample: Convenience samples of 40 nurses were included in the current study. Setting: This study was carried out at the Intensive Care Units of Cairo University Hospitals. Tools of data collection: Three tools were developed, tested for clarity, and feasibility: a- Nurses' personal background sheet, b- IABP nurses' knowledge self-administered questionnaire, and c- IABP Nurses' practice observational checklist. Results: The majority of the studied sample had unsatisfactory knowledge and practice level (88% & 95%) respectively with a mean of 9.45+2.94 and 30.5+8.7, respectively. Unsatisfactory knowledge was found regarding description and physiological effects, nursing care, indications, contraindications, complications, weaning, and removal of IABP in percentage of 95%, 90%, 72.5%, and 57.5%, respectively, with a mean total knowledge score of 9.45 +2.94. In addition, unsatisfactory practice was found regarding about preparation and initiation of IABP therapy, nursing practice during therapy, weaning, and removal of IABP in percentages of (97.5%, 97.5%, and 90%), respectively. Finally, knowledge level was found to differ significantly in relation to gender (t = 2.46 at P ≤ 0.018). However, gender didn't play a role in relation to practice (t = 0.086 at P≤ 0.932). Conclusion: In spite of having vital role in assessment and management of critically ill patients, critical care nurses in the current study had in general unsatisfactory knowledge and practice regarding care of patients connected to IABP. Recommendation: updating knowledge and practice of ICU nurses through carrying out continuing educational programs about IABP; strict observation of nurses' practice when caring for patients connected to IABP and provision of guidance to correct of poor practices and replication of this study on larger probability sample selected from different geographical locations.

Keywords: knowledge, practice, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), ICU nurses, intensive care unit (ICU), introduction

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1094 Activity of Commonly Used Intravenous Nutrient and Bisolvon in Neonatal Intensive Care Units against Biofilm Cells and Their Synergetic Effect with Antibiotics

Authors: Marwa Fady Abozed, Hemat Abd El Latif, Fathy Serry, Lotfi El Sayed

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravenous nutrient(soluvit, vitalipid, aminoven infant, lipovenos) and bisolvon commonly used in neonatal intensive care units against biofilm cells of staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aerguinosa and klebseilla pneumonia as they are the most commonly isolated organisms and are biofilm producers. Also, the synergetic acticity of soluvit, heparin, bisolvon with antibiotics and its effect on minimum biofilm eradication concentration(MBEC) was tested. Intravenous nutrient and bromohexine are widely used in newborns. Numbers of viable cell count released from biofilm after treatment with intravenous nutrient and bromohexine were counted to compare the efficacy. The percentage of reduction in biofilm regrowth in case of using soluvit was 43-51% and 36-42 % for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively, on adding the vitalipid the percentage was 45-50 %and 37-41% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, in case of using bisolvon the percentage was 46-52% and 47-48% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding lipovenos had a reduction percentage of 48-52% and 48-49% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, adding aminoven infant the percentage was 10-15% and 9-11% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding soluvit, heparin and bisolvon to antibiotics had synergic effect. soluvit with ciprofloxacin has 8-16 times decrease than minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for ciprofloxacin alone. While, by adding soluvit to vancomycin the MBEC reduced by 16 times than MBEC of vancomycin alone. In case of combination soluvit with cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamycin the reduction in MBEC was 16, 8 and 6-32 times respectively. The synergetic effect of adding heparin to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin was 2 times reduction with all except in case of gram negative the range of reduction was 0-2 with both gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Bisolvon exihited synergetic effect with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin by 16, 32, 32, 8, 32-64 and 32 times decrease in MBEC respectively.

Keywords: biofilm, neonatal intensive care units, antibiofilm agents, intravenous nutrient

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1093 A Study on the Microbilogical Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

The study was done to determine the microbiological profile and changing pattern of the pathogens causing UTI in the ICU patients. All the patients admitted to the ICU with urinary catheter insertion for more than 48hours were included in the study. Urine samples were collected in a sterile container with aseptic precaution using disposable syringe and was processed as per standards. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Disc Diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from ICU patients, out of which 30% showed significant bacterial growth and 7% showed growth of candida spp. Prevalence of UTI was more in female (73%) than male (27.%). Gram-negative bacilli 26(86.67%) were more common in our study followed by gram-positive cocci 4(13.33%). The most common uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 14 (46.67%), followed by Klebsiella spp 7(23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(13.33%), Acinetobacter spp 3(10%), Enterococcus faecalis 1(3.33%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1(3.33%). Most of the Gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to amikacin (80%) and nitrofurantoin (80%), where as all gram-positive organisms were sensitive to Vancomycin. A large number ESBL producers were also observed in this study. The study finding showed that E.coli is the predominant pathogen and has increasing resistance pattern to the commonly used antibiotics. The study proposes that the adherence to antibiotic policy is the key ingredients for successful outcome in ICU patients and also emphasizes that repeated evaluation of microbial characteristics and continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: antimicrobial sensitivity, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, urinary tract infection

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1092 Financial Benefits after the Implementation of Antimicrobial Copper in Intensive Care Units (ICUs)

Authors: P. Efstathiou, E. Kouskouni, S. Papanikolaou, K. Karageorgou, Z. Manolidou, Tseroni Maria, A. Efstathiou, V. Karyoti, I. Agrafa

Abstract:

Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) microbial flora after the antimicrobial copper alloy (Cu+) implementation as well as the effect on financial-epidemiological operation parameters. Methods: Medical, epidemiological and financial data in two time periods, before and after the implementation of copper (Cu 63% - Zn 37%, low lead) were recorded and analyzed in a general ICU. The evaluated parameters were: the importance of patients' admission (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation - APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SAPS), microbial flora's record in the ICU before and after the implementation of Cu+ as well as the impact on epidemiological and ICU's operation financial parameters. Results: During December 2010 and March 2011 and respectively during December 2011 and March 2012 comparative results showed statistically significant reduction on the microbial flora (CFU/ml) by 95% and the use of antimicrobial medicine (per day per patient) by 30% (p = 0,014) as well as patients hospitalization time and cost. Conclusions: The innovative implementation of antimicrobial copper in ICUs contributed to their microbial flora significant reduction and antimicrobial drugs use reduction with the apparent positive effect (decrease) in both patient’s hospitalization time and cost. Under the present circumstances of economic crisis, survey results are of highest importance and value.

Keywords: antimicrobial copper, financial benefits, ICU, cost reduction

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1091 Investigation of Carbapenem-Resistant Genes in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from Patients at Tertiary Health Care Center, Northeastern Thailand

Authors: S. J. Sirima, C. Thirawan, R.Puntharikorn, K. Ungsumalin, J. Kaemwich

Abstract:

Acinetobacter spp. is a gram negative bacterium causing the high incidence of multi-drug resistance in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. A hundred isolates of Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients admitted at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, were subjected to modified Hodge test and combined disc test in order to evaluate the production of carbapenemases. The results revealed that about 35% of isolates were found to be carbapenemases producers. In addition, multiplex polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect blaOXA-like genes. It showed that 92% of isolates possess blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like genes. However, blaOXA-58-like gene was detected in only 8 isolates. No detection of blaOXA-24-like gene was observed in all isolates. In conclusion, an ability to produce carbepenemases would be an important mechanism of multi-drug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. Furthermore, it was likely that the class D carbapenemases genes, blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like, might contribute to imipenem-resistance exhibiting among isolates.

Keywords: Acinetobacter spp., blaOXA-like genes, carbapenemases, tertiary health care center

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1090 Adoption of Lean Thinking and Service Improvement for Care Home Service

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

Ageing population is a global trend; therefore the need of care service has been increasing dramatically. There are three basic forms of service delivered to the elderly: institution, community, and home. Particularly, the institutional service can be seen as an extension of medical service. The nursing home or so-called care home which is equipped with professional staff and facilities can provide a variety of service including rehabilitation service, short-term care, and long term care. Similar to hospital and other health care service, care home service do need to provide quality and cost-effective service to satisfy the dwellers. The main purpose of this paper is to show how lean thinking and service innovation can be applied to care home operation. The issues and key factors of implementing lean practice are discussed.

Keywords: lean, service improvement, SERVQUAL, care home service

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1089 Creation of a Care Robot Impact Assessment

Authors: Eduard Fosch-Villaronga

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This paper pioneers Care Robot Impact Assessment (CRIA), a methodology used to identify, analyze, mitigate and eliminate the risks posed by the insertion of non-medical personal care robots (PCR) in medical care facilities. Its precedent instruments (Privacy and Surveillance Impact Assessment (PIA and SIA)) fall behind in coping with robots. Indeed, personal care robots change dramatically how care is delivered. The paper presents a specific risk-sector methodology, identifies which robots are under its scope and presents some of the challenges introduced by these robots.

Keywords: ethics, impact assessment, law, personal care robots

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1088 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital for Two Years, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes serious hospital infections and is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. P. aeruginosa can develop resistance during therapy and also it is very resistant to disinfectant chemicals. It may be found in respiratory support devices in hospitals. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from bronchial aspiration samples was evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 318 P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples obtained from various intensive care units and inpatient patients hospitalized at Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Isolated bacteria identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l’etoile France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby-Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates of identified 318 P. aeruginosa strains were found as follows for tested antibiotics; 32 % amikacin, 42% gentamicin, 43% imipenem, 43% meropenem, 50% ciprofloxacin, 57% levofloxacin, 38% cefepime, 63% ceftazidime, and 85% piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Resistance profiles change according to years and provinces for P. aeruginosa, so these findings should be considered empirical treatment choices. In this study, the highest and lowest resistance rates found against piperacillin/tazobactam % 85, and amikacin %32.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic resistance rates, intensive care unit, Pseudomonas spp.

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1087 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee

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Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: availability, distribution, health care, utilization

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1086 The Impact of Hospital Intensive Care Unit Window Design on Daylighting and Energy Performance in Desert Climate

Authors: A. Sherif, H. Sabry, A. Elzafarany, M. Gadelhak, R. Arafa, M. Aly

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This paper addresses the design of hospital Intensive Care Unit windows for the achievement of visual comfort and energy savings. The aim was to identify the window size and shading system configurations that could fulfill daylighting adequacy, avoid glare and reduce energy consumption. The study focused on addressing the effect of utilizing different shading systems in association with a range of Window-to-Wall Ratios (WWR) in different orientations under the desert clear-sky of Cairo, Egypt. The results of this study demonstrated that solar penetration is a critical concern affecting the design of ICU windows in desert locations, as in Cairo, Egypt. Use of shading systems was found to be essential in providing acceptable daylight performance and energy saving. Careful positioning of the ICU window towards a proper orientation can dramatically improve performance. It was observed that ICU windows facing the north direction enjoyed the widest range of successful window configuration possibilities at different WWRs. ICU windows facing south enjoyed a reasonable number of configuration options as well. By contrast, the ICU windows facing the east orientation had a very limited number of options that provide acceptable performance. These require additional local shading measures at certain times due to glare incidence. Moreover, use of horizontal sun breakers and solar screens to protect the ICU windows proved to be more successful than the other alternatives in a wide range of Window to Wall Ratios. By contrast, the use of light shelves and vertical shading devices seemed questionable.

Keywords: daylighting, desert, energy efficiency, shading

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1085 Property Rights and Trade Specialization

Authors: Sarma Binti Aralas

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The relationship between property rights and trade specialization is examined for developing and developed countries using panel data analysis. Property rights is measured using the international property rights index while trade specialization is measured using the comparative advantage index. Cross country differences in property rights are hypothesized to lead to differences in trade specialization. Based on the argument that a weak protection of natural resources implies greater trade in resource-intensive goods, developing countries with less defined property rights are hypothesized to have a comparative advantage in resource-based exports while countries with more defined property rights will not have an advantage in resource-intensive goods. Evidence suggests that developing countries with weaker environmental protection index but are rich in natural resources do specialize in the trade of resource-intensive goods. The finding suggests that institutional frameworks to increase the stringency of environmental protection of resources may be needed to diversify exports away from the trade of resource-intensive goods.

Keywords: environmental protection, panel data, renewable resources, trade specialization

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1084 An Integrated HCV Testing Model as a Method to Improve Identification and Linkage to Care in a Network of Community Health Centers in Philadelphia, PA

Authors: Catelyn Coyle, Helena Kwakwa

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Objective: As novel and better tolerated therapies become available, effective HCV testing and care models become increasingly necessary to not only identify individuals with active infection but also link them to HCV providers for medical evaluation and treatment. Our aim is to describe an effective HCV testing and linkage to care model piloted in a network of five community health centers located in Philadelphia, PA. Methods: In October 2012, National Nursing Centers Consortium piloted a routine opt-out HCV testing model in a network of community health centers, one of which treats HCV, HIV, and co-infected patients. Key aspects of the model were medical assistant initiated testing, the use of laboratory-based reflex test technology, and electronic medical record modifications to prompt, track, report and facilitate payment of test costs. Universal testing on all adult patients was implemented at health centers serving patients at high-risk for HCV. The other sites integrated high-risk based testing, where patients meeting one or more of the CDC testing recommendation risk factors or had a history of homelessness were eligible for HCV testing. Mid-course adjustments included the integration of dual HIV testing, development of a linkage to care coordinator position to facilitate the transition of HIV and/or HCV-positive patients from primary to specialist care, and the transition to universal HCV testing across all testing sites. Results: From October 2012 to June 2015, the health centers performed 7,730 HCV tests and identified 886 (11.5%) patients with a positive HCV-antibody test. Of those with positive HCV-antibody tests, 838 (94.6%) had an HCV-RNA confirmatory test and 590 (70.4%) progressed to current HCV infection (overall prevalence=7.6%); 524 (88.8%) received their RNA-positive test result; 429 (72.7%) were referred to an HCV care specialist and 271 (45.9%) were seen by the HCV care specialist. The best linkage to care results were seen at the test and treat the site, where of the 333 patients were current HCV infection, 175 (52.6%) were seen by an HCV care specialist. Of the patients with active HCV infection, 349 (59.2%) were unaware of their HCV-positive status at the time of diagnosis. Since the integration of dual HCV/HIV testing in September 2013, 9,506 HIV tests were performed, 85 (0.9%) patients had positive HIV tests, 81 (95.3%) received their confirmed HIV test result and 77 (90.6%) were linked to HIV care. Dual HCV/HIV testing increased the number of HCV tests performed by 362 between the 9 months preceding dual testing and first 9 months after dual testing integration, representing a 23.7% increment. Conclusion: Our HCV testing model shows that integrated routine testing and linkage to care is feasible and improved detection and linkage to care in a primary care setting. We found that prevalence of current HCV infection was higher than that seen in locally in Philadelphia and nationwide. Intensive linkage services can increase the number of patients who successfully navigate the HCV treatment cascade. The linkage to care coordinator position is an important position that acts as a trusted intermediary for patients being linked to care.

Keywords: HCV, routine testing, linkage to care, community health centers

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1083 Evaluation of Adequacy of Caspofungin Prescription in a Tunisian Hospital Cohort

Authors: Mariem Meddeb Sidhom, Souhayel Hedfi, Rjaibia Houda, Mehdi Dridi, Mohamed Ali Yousfi, Sâadia Gargouri

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Considering the important increase in costs of caspofungin treatments and ahead the evolution of its indication, pharmacy department was prompted to realize a review of the adequacy of prescriptions in the medical intensive care units (ICU). A retrospective observational study was conducted in Tunis military hospital concerning ICU prescriptions of caspofungin from 2008 until 2013. A pharmacist had returned to the patient’s medical records to collect data and to the microbiology department for parasitological results. The adequacy of prescriptions was evaluated by a pharmacist and an infectiologist parasitologist, referring to predefined scale of criteria resuming the indications of the marketing authorization (MA) and grade AI-AII of the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Sixty two ICU patients have been treated with caspofungin during the period of study; however, 8 files were lost. Thus, 54 patients were included in the study having received 55 prescriptions of caspofungin. Males were a majority with 64.8% of the population. Mean age was 51 years. Caspofungin was indicated in accordance with the IDSA recommendations in 43.6% of the cases. The most case of non respect to the guidelines was the indication of caspofungin as empirical treatment in non neutropenic patients. Caspofungin was utilized as a first line treatment in 9 cases where it was possible to give fluconazole first, as germs were fluconazole- sensitive. Caspofungin was indicated in 2 patients with good renal function and in which nor amphotericin B, liposomal ampho B neither itraconazole had been previously used, as indicates the MA. The posology of caspofungin was respected in all prescriptions with a loading dose of 70 mg in the first day and a maintenance dose of 50 mg daily. Seven patients had received a daily dose of 70 mg, the recommended dose for people weighing more than 80 Kg. Caspofungin prescriptions are far to be adequately done. There is a clear need of optimization in indicating this molecule and that must be done in collaboration between the pharmacy department, the ICUs and parasitology department.

Keywords: caspofungin, prescription, intensive care units, marketing authorization, Tunisian hospital cohort

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