Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8814

Search results for: glycemic control

8814 The Effect of a Computer-Assisted Glycemic Surveillance Protocol on Nursing Workload

Authors: Özlem Canbolat, Sevgisun Kapucu


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol on nursing workload in intensive care unit. The study is completed in an Education and Research Hospital in Ankara with the attendance of volunteered 19 nurse who had been worked in reanimation unit. Nurses used the written protocol and computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol for glycemic follow-up approach of the intensive care patients. Nurses used the written protocol first in the glycemic follow-up of the patient, then used the computer-assisted protocol. (Nurses used the written protocol first, then the computer-assisted protocol in the glycemic follow-up of the patient). Less time was spent in glycemic control with computerized protocol than written protocol and this difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was determined that the computerized protocol application was completed in about 10 seconds (25% shorter) than the written protocol implementation. The computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol was found to be more easy and appropriate by nurses and the satisfaction level of the users was higher than with written protocol. While 79% of the nurses find it confusing to implement the written protocol, 79% were satisfied with the use of computerized protocol.

Keywords: computer-assisted protocol, glycemic control, insulin infusion protocol, intensive care, nursing workload

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8813 The Effect of Nutrition Education on Glycemic and Lipidemic Control in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Samira Rabiei, Faezeh Askari, Reza Rastmanesh


Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education and adherence to a healthy diet on glycemic and lipidemic control in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 494 patients with T2DM, aged 14-87 years from both sexes who were selected by convenience sampling from referees to Aliebneabitaleb hospital in Ghom. The participants were divided into two 247 person groups by stratified randomization. Both groups received a diet adjusted based on ideal body weight, and the intervention group was additionally educated about healthy food choices regarding diabetes. Information on medications, psychological factors, diet and physical activity was obtained from questionnaires. Blood samples were collected to measure FBS, 2 hPG, HbA1c, cholesterol, and triglyceride. After 2 months, weight and biochemical parameters were measured again. Independent T-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon were used as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio of abnormal glycemic and lipidemic control according to the intervention. Results: The mean weight, FBS, 2 hPG, cholesterol and triglyceride after intervention were significantly lower than before that (p < 0.05). Discussion: Nutrition education plus a weigh reducer diet is more effective on glycemic and lipidemic control than a weight reducer diet, alone.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, nutrition education, glycemic control, lipid profile

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8812 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran


Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, self-care management, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes, nurse

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8811 Erectile Dysfunction among Bangladeshi Men with Diabetes

Authors: Shahjada Selim


Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important impediment to quality of life of men. ED is approximate, three times more common in diabetic than non-diabetic men, and diabetic men develop ED earlier than age-matched non-diabetic subjects. Glycemic control and other factors may contribute in developing and or deteriorating ED. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of ED and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) men in Bangladesh. Methods: During 2013-2014, 3980 diabetic men aged 30-69 years were interviewed at the out-patient departments of seven diabetic centers in Dhaka by using the validated Bengali version of the questionnaire of the International index of erectile function (IIEF) for evaluation of baseline erectile function (EF). The indexes indicate a very high correlation between the items and the questionnaire is consistently reliable. Data were analyzed with Chi-squared (χ²) test using SPSS software. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 3790, ED was found in 2046 (53.98%) of T2DM men. The prevalence of ED was increased with age from 10.5% in men aged 30-39 years to 33.6% in those aged over 60 years (P < 0.001). In comparison with patients with reported diabetes lasting ≤ 5 years (26.4%), the prevalence of ED was less than in those with diabetes of 6-11 years (35.3%) and of 12-30 years (42.5%, P <0.001). ED increased significantly in those who had poor glycemic control. The prevalence of ED in patients with good, fair and poor glycemic control was 22.8%, 42.5% and 47.9% respectively (P = 0.004). Treatment modalities (medical nutrition therapy, oral agents, insulin, and insulin plus oral agents) had significant association with ED and its severity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of ED is very high among T2DM men in Bangladesh and can be reduced the burden by improving glycemic status. Glycemic control, duration of diabetes, treatment modalities, increasing age are associated with ED.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, diabetes, men, Bangladesh

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8810 Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems and the Improvement in Hypoglycemic Awareness Post-Islet Transplantation: A Single-Centre Cohort Study

Authors: Clare Flood, Shareen Forbes


Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder affecting >400,000 people in the UK alone, with the global prevalence expected to double in the next decade. Islet transplant offers a minimally-invasive procedure with very low morbidity and almost no mortality, and is now as effective as whole pancreas transplant. The procedure was introduced to the UK in 2011 for patients with the most severe type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) – those with unstable blood glucose, frequently occurring episodes of severe hypoglycemia and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH). Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of islet transplantation in improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and improving awareness of hypoglycemia through a single-centre cohort study at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Glycemic control and degree of hypoglycemic awareness will be determined and monitored pre- and post-transplantation to determine effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected over three years from the 16 patients who have undergone islet transplantation in Scotland. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) were utilised to assess glycemic control, while Gold and Clarke score questionnaires tested IAH. Results: All patients had improved glycemic control following transplant, with optimal control seen visually at 3 months post-transplant. Glycemic control significantly improved, as illustrated by percentage time in hypoglycemia in the months following transplant (p=0.0211) and HbA1c (p=0.0426). Improved Clarke (p=0.0034) and Gold (p=0.0001) scores indicate improved glycemic awareness following transplant. Conclusion: While the small sample of islet transplant recipients at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh prevents definitive conclusions being drawn, it is indicated that through our retrospective, single-centre cohort study of 16 patients, islet transplant is capable of improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and IAH post-transplant. Data can be combined with similar trials at other centres to increase statistical power but from research in Edinburgh, it can be suggested that the minimally invasive procedure of islet transplantation offers selected patients with extremely unstable T1DM the incredible opportunity to regain control of their condition and improve their quality of life.

Keywords: diabetes, islet, transplant, CGMS

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8809 Predictors of Glycaemic Variability and Its Association with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with or without Diabetes

Authors: Haoming Ma, Guo Yu, Peiru Zhou


Background: Previous studies show that dysglycemia, mostly hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability(GV), are associated with excess mortality in critically ill patients, especially those without diabetes. Glycemic variability is an increasingly important measure of glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to this association. However, there is limited data pertaining to the relationship between different clinical factors and glycemic variability and clinical outcomes categorized by their DM status. This retrospective study of 958 intensive care unit(ICU) patients was conducted to investigate the relationship between GV and outcome in critically ill patients and further to determine the significant factors that contribute to the glycemic variability. Aim: We hypothesize that the factors contributing to mortality and the glycemic variability are different from critically ill patients with or without diabetes. And the primary aim of this study was to determine which dysglycemia (hyperglycemia\hypoglycemia\glycemic variability) is independently associated with an increase in mortality among critically ill patients in different groups (DM/Non-DM). Secondary objectives were to further investigate any factors affecting the glycemic variability in two groups. Method: A total of 958 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with severe diseases in the ICU were selected for this retrospective analysis. The glycemic variability was defined as the coefficient of variation (CV) of blood glucose. The main outcome was death during hospitalization. The secondary outcome was GV. The logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with mortality. The relationships between GV and other variables were investigated using linear regression analysis. Results: Information on age, APACHE II score, GV, gender, in-ICU treatment and nutrition was available for 958 subjects. Predictors remaining in the final logistic regression model for mortality were significantly different in DM/Non-DM groups. Glycemic variability was associated with an increase in mortality in both DM(odds ratio 1.05; 95%CI:1.03-1.08,p<0.001) or Non-DM group(odds ratio 1.07; 95%CI:1.03-1.11,p=0.002). For critically ill patients without diabetes, factors associated with glycemic variability included APACHE II score(regression coefficient, 95%CI:0.29,0.22-0.36,p<0.001), Mean BG(0.73,0.46-1.01,p<0.001), total parenteral nutrition(2.87,1.57-4.17,p<0.001), serum albumin(-0.18,-0.271 to -0.082,p<0.001), insulin treatment(2.18,0.81-3.55,p=0.002) and duration of ventilation(0.006,0.002-1.010,p=0.003).However, for diabetes patients, APACHE II score(0.203,0.096-0.310,p<0.001), mean BG(0.503,0.138-0.869,p=0.007) and duration of diabetes(0.167,0.033-0.301,p=0.015) remained as independent risk factors of GV. Conclusion: We found that the relation between dysglycemia and mortality is different in the diabetes and non-diabetes groups. And we confirm that GV was associated with excess mortality in DM or Non-DM patients. Furthermore, APACHE II score, Mean BG, total parenteral nutrition, serum albumin, insulin treatment and duration of ventilation were significantly associated with an increase in GV in Non-DM patients. While APACHE II score, mean BG and duration of diabetes (years) remained as independent risk factors of increased GV in DM patients. These findings provide important context for further prospective trials investigating the effect of different clinical factors in critically ill patients with or without diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes, glycemic variability, predictors, severe disease

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8808 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Chun-Chin Huang


Individuals with prediabetes increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Exercise is a potent stimulator of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus good for maintaining glucose homeostasis. That could be a conducive method to improve blood glucose regulation and prevent type 2 diabetes without medication intake. The aim of this study was to summarize mechanisms of insulin resistance and investigate the beneficial effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Aerobic exercise regulates glucose homeostasis and reduces blood glucose, insulin concentrations. Therefore, the type of aerobic exercise brings positive effects to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: insulin resistance, glucose sensitivity, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance

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8807 Dietary Practices of Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Kitui Out Patient Clinic at Kitui County, Kenya

Authors: Alice W. Theuri, Anselimo O. Makokha, Florence M. Kyallo


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious metabolic disorder whose prevalence among adults has been increasing in the last decade. It is estimated that by 2030, the number of cases in Africa will almost double. Diet and lifestyle modifications are considered the cornerstone for the treatment and management of T2DM. Despite this, there is minimum literature assessing the dietary practices and glycemic control in a semi arid region context in Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary practices of adult T2DM patients attending Kitui out patient clinic in Kitui County. This was a cross sectional study design where every consenting second patient attending diabetic clinic was interviewed. A total of 138 T2DM patients were interviewed using a structured interview guide on socio-economic and dietary practices administered. The study was carried out in April and May 2017. There were more female (64%) than male (36%) in this study with majority being unemployed (38.4%). Forty seven percent (47.6%) had elevated HbA1c. Majority took three meals per day while DDS was 4.3 ± 1.09. The mean energy intake for men and women was 2823.8 ± 82.45 and 2766.3.30 ± 76.74 respectively. There was a non significant positive relationship (r= 131; P value = 0.124) between amount energy consumed and glycemic control. There were suboptimal dietary practices leading to poor glycemic control among T2DM patients attending diabetic clinic at Kitui District Hospital.

Keywords: adults, dietary practices, semi arid region, T2DM

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8806 Association of the Time in Targeted Blood Glucose Range of 3.9–10 Mmol/L with the Mortality of Critically Ill Patients with or without Diabetes

Authors: Guo Yu, Haoming Ma, Peiru Zhou


BACKGROUND: In addition to hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability, a decrease in the time in the targeted blood glucose range (TIR) may be associated with an increased risk of death for critically ill patients. However, the relationship between the TIR and mortality may be influenced by the presence of diabetes and glycemic variability. METHODS: A total of 998 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with severe diseases in the ICU were selected for this retrospective analysis. The TIR is defined as the percentage of time spent in the target blood glucose range of 3.9–10.0 mmol/L within 24 hours. The relationship between TIR and in-hospital in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was analyzed. The effect of glycemic variability was also analyzed. RESULTS: The binary logistic regression model showed that there was a significant association between the TIR as a continuous variable and the in-hospital death of severely ill non-diabetic patients (OR=0.991, P=0.015). As a classification variable, TIR≥70% was significantly associated with in-hospital death (OR=0.581, P=0.003). Specifically, TIR≥70% was a protective factor for the in-hospital death of severely ill non-diabetic patients. The TIR of severely ill diabetic patients was not significantly associated with in-hospital death; however, glycemic variability was significantly and independently associated with in-hospital death (OR=1.042, P=0.027). Binary logistic regression analysis of comprehensive indices showed that for non-diabetic patients, the C3 index (low TIR & high CV) was a risk factor for increased mortality (OR=1.642, P<0.001). In addition, for diabetic patients, the C3 index was an independent risk factor for death (OR=1.994, P=0.008), and the C4 index (low TIR & low CV) was independently associated with increased survival. CONCLUSIONS: The TIR of non-diabetic patients during ICU hospitalization was associated with in-hospital death even after adjusting for disease severity and glycemic variability. There was no significant association between the TIR and mortality of diabetic patients. However, for both diabetic and non-diabetic critically ill patients, the combined effect of high TIR and low CV was significantly associated with ICU mortality. Diabetic patients seem to have higher blood glucose fluctuations and can tolerate a large TIR range. Both diabetic and non-diabetic critically ill patients should maintain blood glucose levels within the target range to reduce mortality.

Keywords: severe disease, diabetes, blood glucose control, time in targeted blood glucose range, glycemic variability, mortality

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8805 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Nurse-Led Smartphone-Based Self-Management Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Poor Glycemic Control

Authors: Wenru Wang


Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the ‘diabetes epicentre’ in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanization and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective and cost-effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic. This study aims to develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control in Singapore. We proposed a randomized controlled trial with pre- and repeated post-tests control group design. A total of 128 type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control will be recruited from the diabetes clinic of an acute public hospital in Singapore through convenience sampling. Study participants will be either randomly allocated to the experimental group or control group. Outcome measures used will include the 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale, 11-item Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities, and 19-item Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Data will be collected at 3-time points: baseline, three months and six months from the baseline, respectively. It is expected that this programme will be an alternative offered to diabetes patients to master their self-care management skills, in addition to the existing diabetes service provided in diabetes clinics in Singapore hospitals. Also, the self-supporting and less resource-intensive nature of this programme, through the use of smartphone app as a mode of intervention delivery, will greatly reduce nurses’ direct contact time with patients and allow more time to be allocated to those who require more attention. The study has been registered with The trial registration number is NCT03088475.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, poor glycaemic control, nurse-led, smartphone-based, self-management, health-relevant outcomes

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8804 Beneficial Effect of Biotin in Combination with Canagliflozin on High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes in Rats

Authors: Rayhana Begum, HongBin Wang, Nur Alam Siddiquee, Md.Yasin Ahmed


Biotin treatment has significant effects on blood glucose, and pharmacological doses of biotin improve hyperglycemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of biotin in combination with canagliflozin in improving glycemic control on High Fat Diet-induced diabetes in Rats. Thirty male rats were divided into five groups (six rats /group): control, high fat diet (HFD), canagliflozin (CAG), biotin (BIO), and CAG + BIO. The treatments with CAG and /or BIO significantly reduced the body weight gain, blood glucose and HbA1c levels, whereas CAG in combination with BIO revealed greater glycemic improvement than CAG monotherapy. The treatment with CAG and /or BIO causes significant change in lipid profile and CK level while the treatment with CAG in combination with BIO showed better results as compared with CAG monotherapy. Furthermore, combination of biotin with CAG improved the pancreatic and cardiac damage when compared with other treated groups.

Keywords: canagliflozin, biotin, HbA1c, lipid profile

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8803 Development of Low Glycemic Gluten Free Bread from Barnyard Millet and Lentil Flour

Authors: Hemalatha Ganapathyswamy, Thirukkumar Subramani


Celiac disease is an autoimmune response to dietary wheat gluten. Gluten is the main structure forming protein in bread and hence developing gluten-free bread is a technological challenge. The study aims at using nonwheat flours like barnyard millet and lentil flour to replace wheat in bread formulations. Other characteristics of these grains, such as high protein, soluble fiber, mineral content and bioactive components make them attractive alternatives to traditional gluten-free ingredients in the production of high protein, gluten-free bread. The composite flour formulations for the development of gluten-free bread were optimized using lentil flour (50 to 70 g), barnyard millet flour (0 to 30 g) and corn flour (0 to 30 g) by means of response surface methodology with various independent variables for physical, sensorial and nutritional characteristics. The optimized composite flour which had a desirability value of 0.517, included lentil flour –62.94 g, barnyard millet flour– 24.34 g and corn flour– 12.72 g with overall acceptability score 8.00/9.00. The optimized gluten-free bread formulation had high protein (14.99g/100g) and fiber (1.95g/100g) content. The glycemic index of the gluten-free bread was 54.58 rendering it as low glycemic which enhances the functional benefit of the gluten-free bread. Since the standardised gluten-free bread from barnyard millet and lentil flour are high protein, and gluten-free with low glycemic index, the product would serve as an ideal therapeutic food in the management of both celiac disease and diabetes mellitus with better nutritional value.

Keywords: gluten free bread, lentil, low glycemic index, response surface methodology

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8802 Effect of Scaling and Root Planing on Improvement of Glycemic Control in Periodontitis Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shivalal Sharma, Sanjib K. Sharma, Madhab Lamsal


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory changes three months after full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Forty-seven type 2 DM subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (TG), 25 subjects, received full-mouth scaling and root planning; control group (CG), 22 subjects, received no treatment. At baseline and at the end of three months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, fasting glucose, and clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded in all the patients. Following SRP, the patients were enrolled in a monthly interval maintenance program for 3 months. Results: A statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for PI, GI, PPD, and CAL for the treatment group. HbA1c levels in the treatment group decreased significantly whereas the control group showed a slight but insignificant increase for these parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients and could be undertaken along with the standard measures for the diabetic patient care.

Keywords: periodontitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-surgical periodontal therapy, SRP

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8801 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana


Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

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8800 Association Nephropathy and Hypertension in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Bahlous Afef, Bouzid Kahena, Bardkis Ahlem, Mrad Mehdi, Kalai Eya, Sonia Bahri, Abdelmoula Jaouida


Diabetic nephropathy is the first cause of chronic renal failure and hemodialysis use in several countries including Tunisia. The role of hypertension (HT) as major risk factor for nephropathy is undeniable. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between blood pressure and nephropathy in a population of diabetic type 2 recently discovered. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective study focused on 60 patients with type 2 diabetes recently discovered (<5 years). Each patient have benefited from: -a full clinical examination with measurement of blood pressure - exploring a blood-glucose control and renal function -urinary exploration with the determination of proteinuria microalbuminumie of 24 hours with a immunoturbidimetric method using Architect (ABBOTT CI 8200). Results and discussion: Hypertension was present in 46.7% of cases. Twenty patients, 35% of the study population showed nephropathy. Four of these patients (6.66% of cases) had proteinuria, while 16 (26.6% of patients) had microalbuminuria (> 30mg/24 hours). Systolic blood pressure was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of nephropathy (139 +19.44) vs. for the group with normal renal function (128.65 +15.12 mmHg). Conclusion: The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial. However, systolic blood pressure and glycemic control remains the major risk factors. Better glycemic control and treatment of hypertension allowed preventing and slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Keywords: hypertension, nephropathy, hemodialysis, diabetes

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8799 Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Ahmed A. Khamis, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz


The effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, it is limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of SDI on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. A prospective cohort study was conducted, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohorts with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.8%) cases were shown to have controlled glycemia, while there were 203 (70.2%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (6.2–10.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7±12.4 years is distributed among 11 (19.6%) patients with controlled diabetes, and 45 (80.4%) of them had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.1–11.9). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.15, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 15%. The absolute risk (AR) is 10.2%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 10. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients who had been treated with a moderate-SDI.

Keywords: cohort study, diabetes control, dose intensity, HbA1c, Malaysia, statin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled glycemia

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8798 Factors Associated With Poor Glycaemic Control Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Gatundu Level 5 Hospital. Kiambu County, Kenya: Key Lessons and Way Forward

Authors: Carolyne Ndungu, Wesley Too, Diana Kassaman


Diabetes is a global public health problem with an increasing morbidity and mortality rate across the globe. It is reported that 422 million people worldwide have diabetes with type 2 diabetes more common in people of African descent. Whilst prevalence of diabetes is four times more than it was in the last three decades, making it the world's ninth greatest cause of mortality, treatment of complications resulting from poor glycemic control is still high, contributing to poverty level in sub-Saharan. Poor treatment adherence has also been identified as a major contributing factor poor glycemic control among diabetic patients and still remains a significant challenge especially among patients living in rural Kenya. This study therefore seeks to identify gaps, barriers and challenges towards medication non-adherence among diabetic patients on follow-up at Kiambu County Referral Hospital, Kenya. Methods: A cross- sectional descriptive study was carried out at Gatundu Level five Hospital in Kiambu County. The study population consisted of adult patients with type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on follow up, at the Diabetes clinic between the month of June to July 2022. Systematic sampling of 200 participants was carried out. Ethical approvals from relevant authorities were done and ethical aspects of the study were also observed. Data analysis is ongoing using logistic regression analysis. Results, recommendations -contribution of this study will be highlighted within the next one month.

Keywords: adherence, diabetes, medication, Kenya

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8797 Correlation of Depression and Anxiety with Glycemic Control in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Sujata Sethi, Pawan Kumar, Sameer Aggarwal


Depression and anxiety are of significant concern in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and these are correlated with glycemic control in multiple ways. The extent of depression and anxiety in children with T1DM remains poorly studied in India. The index study aimed to find the prevalence of depression and anxiety and their correlation with HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) levels in children with T1DM. Material and methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on a purposive sample of 45 children with T1DM. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of all the participants were recorded. Results: 43 out of 45 children were analyzed as HbA1c status for two was not known. 48.8% were females. Mean age was 12.95+2.04. The average duration of diabetes was 3.63+1.82. Mean CDRS-R score was 41.6+12.25 and mean SCAS score was 33.07+12.29. Mean recording of HbA1c level was 7.90+1.51. 27 (62.8%) out of 43 participants had abnormal scores on CDRS-R and 24 (55.8%) out of 43 had abnormal scores on SCAS. The correlation coefficient between HbA1c levels and the CDRS-R score came out to be 0.57 and between HbA1c and SCAS, it was 0.53. Both correlations were significant with the p-value of < 0.02. Conclusion: Children with T1DM have high co-morbidity of depression and anxiety which is significantly correlated with the HbA1c levels. Thus, it becomes important to screen the patients for depression and anxiety for better outcomes.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, HbA1c, T1DM

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8796 Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Postmenopausal Egyptian Female Patients: Correlation with Fetuin-A Level and Metabolic Parameters

Authors: Ahmed A. M. Shoaib, Heba A. Esaily, Mahmoud M. Emara, Eman A. E. Badr, Amany S. Khalifa, Mayada M. M., Abdel-Raizk


Background: DM is associated with metabolic bone diseases, osteoporosis, low-impact fractures and falls in geriatrics. Fetuin-A, which is a serum protein produced by the liver and promotes bone mineralization, is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Aim: Evaluation of fetuin-A level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Egyptian female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their correlation with each other & with other metabolic parameters. Patients and methods: Seventy postmenopausal female patients with type II diabetes and thirty postmenopausal female as control were included in this study. Measurement of Fetuin-A together with metabolic parameters and DXA in wrist, hip and spine, ALP, CBC, FBS, PP2H and HBA1c was done in all participants. Results: - Fetuin-A level was found to be highly significant (p< 0.001) between diabetic and nondiabetic groups and negatively correlated with BMD in spine. No difference in BMD was found between patients and control groups while significant negative correlation was found between FBS and hip BMD (<0.05) and between 2hpp and HBA1c with spine BMD in the diabetic group (<0.05). Osteoporosis represented 12.9% in spine area and 7.2% in hip and wrist areas in diabetic patients, while osteopenia were found in 58.5%, 57.1%, and 37.1% in diabetic patients in spine, wrist, and hip respectively. Conclusion: - type II diabetes cannot be considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis; while glycemic parameters (FBS, 2hpp & HBA1c) and serum Fetuin-A levels were correlated with BMD in diabetics. Good glycemic control can be protective against osteoporosis in diabetic elderly.

Keywords: fetuin-A, BMD, postmenopausal, DM type II

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8795 Back Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Blood Glucose for Type I Diabetes

Authors: N. Tadrisi Parsa, A. R. Vali, R. Ghasemi


Diabetes is a growing health problem in worldwide. Especially, the patients with Type 1 diabetes need strict glycemic control because they have deficiency of insulin production. This paper attempts to control blood glucose based on body mathematical body model. The Bergman minimal mathematical model is used to develop the nonlinear controller. A novel back-stepping based sliding mode control (B-SMC) strategy is proposed as a solution that guarantees practical tracking of a desired glucose concentration. In order to show the performance of the proposed design, it is compared with conventional linear and fuzzy controllers which have been done in previous researches. The numerical simulation result shows the advantages of sliding mode back stepping controller design to linear and fuzzy controllers.

Keywords: bergman model, nonlinear control, back stepping, sliding mode control

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8794 Management of Diabetics on Hemodialysis

Authors: Souheila Zemmouchi


Introduction: Diabetes is currently the leading cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease and dialysis, so it adds additional complexity to the management of chronic hemodialysis patients. These patients are extremely fragile because of their multiple cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Clear and complete description of the experience: the management of a diabetic on hemodialysis is particularly difficult due to frequent hypoglycaemia and significant inter and perdialyticglycemic variability that is difficult to predict. The aim of our study is to describe the clinical-biological profile and to assess the cardiovascular risk of diabetics undergoing chronic hemodialysis, and compare them with non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out between January 01 and December 31, 2018, involving 309 hemodialysis patients spread over 4 centersThe data were collected prospectively then compiled and analyzed by the SPSS Version 10 software The FRAMINGHAM RISK SCORE has been used to assess cardiovascular risk in all hemodialysis patients Results: The survey involved 309 hemodialysis patients, including 83 diabetics, for a prevalence of 27% The average age 53 ± 10.2 years. The sex ratio is 1.5. 50% of diabetic hemodialysis patients retained residual diuresis against 32% in non-diabetics. In the group of diabetics, we noted more hypertension (70% versus 38% non-diabetics P 0.004), more intradialytichypoglycemia (15% versus 3% non-diabetics P 0.007), initially, vascular exhaustion was found in 4 diabetics versus 2 non-diabetics. 70% of diabetics with anuria had postdialytichyperglycemia. The study found a statistically significant difference between the different levels of cardiovascular risk according to the diabetic status. Conclusion: There are many challenges in the management of diabetics on hemodialysis, both to optimize glycemic control according to an individualized target and to coordinate comprehensive and effective care.

Keywords: hemodialysis, diabetes, chronic renal failure, glycemic control

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8793 The Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Metabolic Control in Children

Authors: Areej Al-Khabbaz, Swapna Goerge, Majedah Abdul-Rasoul


Introduction: The most prevalent periodontal disease among children is gingivitis, and it usually becomes more severe in adolescence. A number of intervention studies suggested that resolution of periodontal inflammation can improve metabolic control in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Aim: to assess the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control of children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Method: Twenty-eight children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were recruited with established diagnosis diabetes for at least 1 year. Informed consent and child assent form were obtained from children and parents prior to enrolment. The dental examination for the participants was performed on the same week directly following their annual medical assessment. All patients had their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) test one week prior to their annual medical and dental visit and 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy. All patients received a comprehensive periodontal examination The periodontal assessment included clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, plaque score, plaque index and gingival index. All patients were referred for non-surgical periodontal therapy, which included oral hygiene instruction and motivation followed by supra-gingival and subg-ingival scaling using ultrasonic and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software (SPSS, Chicago, USA), version 18. Statistical analysis of clinical findings was performed to detect differences between the two groups in term of periodontal findings and HbA1c%. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine which factors were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for confounding between effects. The regression model used the dependent variable ‘Improved glycemic control’, and the independent variables entered in the model were plaque index, gingival index, bleeding %, plaque Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: A total of 28 children. The mean age of the participants was 13.3±1.92 years. The study participants were divided into two groups; Compliant group (received dental scaling) and non-complaints group (received oral hygiene instructions only). No statistical difference was found between compliant and non-compliant group in age, gender distribution, oral hygiene practice and the level of diabetes control. There was a significant difference between compliant and non-compliant group in term of improvement of HBa1c before and after periodontal therapy. Mean gingival index was the only significant variable associated with improved glycemic control level. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy can improve HbA1c% control. The result of this study confirmed that children with diabetes mellitus who are compliant to dental care and have routine professional scaling may have better metabolic control compared to diabetic children who are erratic with dental care.

Keywords: children, diabetes, metabolic control, periodontal therapy

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8792 Postprandial Glycemic and Appetite Responses of Muffins Supplemented with Different Vegetables in Young Males

Authors: Muhammad Umair Arshad


Background and Objectives: Different vegetables have been reported to possess diabetic potential in in-vitro studies; however, the same role of these vegetables has not been much explored through human intervention. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the comparative effects of muffins supplemented with bitter gourd (BGM), and other vegetables like spinach (SPM) and eggplant (EPM) on subjective appetite, blood glucose (BG), gut hormones and food intake in healthy young males through a randomized, cross over experiment. Methods and Study Design: After 12 hours fasting, twenty-four healthy young males (18-30 Y) were fed 250ml of plain muffins (control) or supplemented with bitter gourd powder, BGM (10g/100g flour), or spinach powder, SPM (10g/100g flour), or eggplant powder, EPM (10g/100g flour). An ad libitum pizza meal was served at 120min to measure the food intake. Subjective appetite, blood glucose, and gut hormones (insulin, GLP-1, active ghrelin) were measured at intervals from baseline to 120min. Results: Post-treatment (0-120min) glucose, but not insulin, decreased following all the vegetables supplemented muffins compared to the control (p < 0.0001) with a more pronounced effect of BGM. However, post-treatment avg. subjective appetite (p=0.0017) and food intake (p=0.0021) were reduced following BGM but not SPM and EPM. BGM further improved GLP-1 concentration (p < 0.0001), and reduced active ghrelin (p=0.0022), compared with control. Conclusions: The bitter gourd supplemented baked foods possess potential more than other vegetables to regulate postprandial appetite and glycemic responses, without a disproportionate increase in insulin concentration.

Keywords: vegetables, muffins, glucose homeostasis, subjective appetite, food intake

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8791 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana


Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

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8790 Effects of Food Habits on Road Accidents Due to Micro-Sleepiness and Analysis of Attitudes to Develop a Food Product as a Preventive Measure

Authors: Rumesh Liyanage, S. B. Nawaratne, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Indira Wickramasinghe, K. G. S. C. Katukurunda


Study it was attempted to identify an effect of food habits and publics’ attitudes on micro-sleepiness and preventive measures to develop a food product to combat. Statistical data pertaining to road accidents were collected from, Sri Lanka Police Traffic Division and a pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from 250 respondents. They were selected representing drivers (especially highway drivers), private and public sector workers (shift based) and cramming students (university and school). Questionnaires were directed to fill independently and personally and collected data were analyzed statistically. Results revealed that 76.84, 96.39 and 80.93% out of total respondents consumed rice for all three meals which lead to ingesting higher glycemic meals. Taking two hyper glycemic meals before 14.00h was identified as a cause of micro-sleepiness within these respondents. Peak level of road accidents were observed at 14.00 - 20.00h (38.2%)and intensity of micro-sleepiness falls at the same time period (37.36%) while 14.00 to 16.00h was the peak time, 16.00 to 18.00h was the least; again 18.00 to 20.00h it reappears slightly. Even though respondents of the survey expressed that peak hours of micro- sleepiness is 14.00-16.00h, according to police reports, peak hours fall in between 18.00-20.00h. Out of the interviewees, 69.27% strongly wanted to avoid micro-sleepiness and intend to spend LKR 10-20 on a commercial product to combat micro sleepiness. As age-old practices to suppress micro-sleepiness are time taken, modern day respondents (51.64%) like to have a quick solution through a drink. Therefore, food habits of morning and noon may cause for micro- sleepiness while dinner may cause for both, natural and micro-sleepiness due to the heavy glycemic load of food. According to the study micro-sleepiness, can be categorized into three zones such as low-risk zone (08.00-10.00h and 18.00-20.00h), manageable zone (10.00-12.00h), and high- risk zone (14.00-16.00h).

Keywords: food habits, glycemic load, micro-sleepiness, road accidents

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8789 [Keynote Talk]: Treatment Satisfaction and Safety of Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Monotherapy

Authors: Shahnaz Haque, Anand Shukla, Sunita Singh, Anil Kem


Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions worldwide. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first line oral hypoglycemic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but due to progressive worsening of blood glucose control during the natural history of type 2 diabetes, combination therapy usually becomes necessary. Objective: This study was designed to assess the treatment satisfaction between Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone added to Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study in SIMS, Hapur, U.P. Eligible patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups having 25 patients in each group using tab Sitagliptin 100mg, tab Pioglitazone 30mg added to ongoing tab Metformin (500mg) therapy for 16 weeks. The follow-up visits were on weeks 4,12 and 16. Result: 16 weeks later, addition of Sitagliptin 100mg compared to that of Pioglitazone 30 mg to ongoing Metformin therapy provided similar glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering efficacy in patients with T2DM with inadequate glycemic control on metformin monotherapy. Change in HbA1c in group1 was -0.656±0.21%(p<0.0001) whereas in group2 was -0.748±0.35%(p<0.0001). Hence decrease in HbA1c from baseline was more in group2. Both treatments were well tolerated with negligible risk of hypoglycaemia. Weight loss was observed with Sitagliptin in contrast to weight gain seen in Pioglitazone. Conclusion: In this study, Sitagliptin 100 mg along with metformin therapy in comparison to pioglitazone 30 mg plus metformin therapy was both effective, well-tolerated and improved glycemic control in both the groups. Addition of pioglitazone had cause oedema and weight gain to the patients whereas sitagliptin caused weight loss in its patients.

Keywords: sitagliptin, pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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8788 Glycemic Control in Rice Consumption among Households with Diabetes Patients: The Role of Food Security

Authors: Chandanee Wasana Kalansooriya


Dietary behaviour is a crucial factor affecting diabetes control. With increasing rates of diabetes prevalence in Asian countries, examining their dietary patterns, which are largely based on rice, is timely required. It has been identified that higher consumption of some rice varieties is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Although diabetes patients are advised to consume healthier rice varieties, which contains low glycemic, several conditions, one of which food insecurity, make them difficult to preserve those healthy dietary guidelines. Hence this study tries to investigate how food security affects on making right decisions of rice consumption within diabetes affected households using a sample from Sri Lanka, a country which rice considered as the staple food and records the highest diabetes prevalence rate in South Asia. The study uses data from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2016, a nationally representative sample conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. The survey used a two-stage stratified sampling method to cover different sectors and districts of the country and collected micro-data on demographics, health, income and expenditures of different categories. The study uses data from 2547 households which consist of one or more diabetes patients, based on the self-recorded health status. The Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS), which constructed based on twelve food groups, is used to measure the level of food security. Rice is categorized into three groups according to their Glycemic Index (GI), high GI, medium GI and low GI, and the likelihood and impact made by food security on each rice consumption categories are estimated using a Two-part Model. The shares of each rice categories out of total rice consumption is considered as the dependent variable to exclude the endogeneity issue between rice consumption and the HDDS. The results indicate that the consumption of medium GI rice is likely to increase with the increasing household food security, but low GI varieties are not. Households in rural and estate sectors are less likely and Tamil ethnic group is more likely to consume low GI rice varieties. Further, an increase in food security significantly decreases the consumption share of low GI rice, while it increases the share of medium GI varieties. The consumption share of low GI rice is largely affected by the ethnic variability. The effects of food security on the likelihood of consuming high GI rice varieties and changing its shares are statistically insignificant. Accordingly, the study concludes that a higher level of food security does not ensure diabetes patients are consuming healthy rice varieties or reducing consumption of unhealthy varieties. Hence policy attention must be directed towards educating people for making healthy dietary choices. Further, the study provides a room for further studies as it reveals considerable ethnic and sectorial differences in making healthy dietary decisions.

Keywords: diabetes, food security, glycemic index, rice consumption

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8787 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto


Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

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8786 Effect of Engineered Low Glycemic Foods on Cancer Progression and Healthy State

Authors: C. Panebianco, K. Adamberg, S. Adamberg, C. Saracino, M. Jaagura, K. Kolk, A. Di Chio, P. Graziano, R. Vilu, V. Pazienza


Background/Aims: Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the pancreatic cancer (PC) is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. However, diseased people may refuse to follow the fasting regimen and fasting may worsen the weight loss often occurring in cancer patients. Therefore, alternative approaches are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Engineered Low glycemic food ELGIF mimicking diet on growth of cancer cell lines in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in control and ELGIF mimicking diet culturing condition to evaluate the tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to ELGIF to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with control diet. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in ELGIF mimicking medium showed decreased levels of proliferation as compared to those cultured in the standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to ELGIF diet displayed a significant decrease in tumor growth. Conclusion: A positive effect of ELGIF diet on proliferation in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as synergistic approach to enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients.

Keywords: functional food, microbiota, mouse model, pancreatic cancer

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8785 Whey Protein in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Zyrah Lou R. Samar, Genecarlo Liwanag


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the more prevalent type, caused by a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin response to hyperglycemia1. Aside from pharmacologic interventions, medical nutrition therapy is an integral part of the management of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Whey protein, which is one of the best protein sources, has been investigated for its applicability in improving glycemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to measure the magnitude of the effect of whey protein on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of whey protein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A systematic electronic search for studies in the PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration database was done. Included in this review were randomized controlled trials of whey protein enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Three reviewers independently searched, assessed, and extracted data from the individual studies. Results: A systematic literature search on online databases such as Cochrane Central Registry, PubMed, and Herdin Plus was conducted in April to September 2021 to identify eligible studies. The search yielded 21 randomized controlled trials after removing duplicates. Only 5 articles were included after reviewing the full text, which met the criteria for selection. Conclusion: Whey protein supplementation significantly reduced fasting blood glucose. However, it did not reduce post-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c level, and weight when compared with the placebo. There has been a considerate heterogeneity across all studies, which may have contributed/confounded its effects. A larger sample size and better inclusion, and a more specific study may be included in the future reviews.

Keywords: whey protein, diabetes, nutrition, fasting blood sugar, postprandial glucose, HbA1c, weight reduction

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