Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 568

Search results for: petroleum hydrocarbons

568 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen


Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, biodegradation, lagoon marchika, emulsification index

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567 System Engineering Design of Offshore Oil Drilling Production Platform from Marine Environment

Authors: C. Njoku Paul


This paper deals with systems engineering applications design for offshore oil drilling production platform in the Nigerian Marine Environment. Engineering Design model of the distribution and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons discharged into marine environment production platform and sources of impact of an offshore is treated.

Keywords: design of offshore oil drilling production platform, marine, environment, petroleum hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
566 Measure Determination and Zoning of Oil Pollution (TPH) on ‎Costal Sediments of Bandar Abbas (Hormoz Strait) ‎

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎


This study investigated the presence of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found in west coast of Bandar Abass (northern part of Hormoz strait). Therefore, six transects from west of the city were selected. Each transect consists of three stations intervals 100, 600 and 1100 meter from the low tide were sampled in both the summer and winter season (July and January 2009). Physical and chemical parameters of water, concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and soil tissue deposition were evaluated according to standard procedures of MOOPAM. Average results of dissolved oxygen were 6.42 mg/l, temperature 26.31°C, pH 8.55, EC 54.47 ms/cm and salinity 35.98 g/l respectively. Results indicate that minimum, maximum and average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in sediments were, 60.18, 751.83, and 229.21 µg/kg respectively which are less than comparable studies in other parts of Persian Gulf.

Keywords: oil pollution, Bandar Abbas, costal sediments, TPH ‎

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565 Permeable Bio-Reactive Barriers to Tackle Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in the Sub-Antarctic

Authors: Benjamin L. Freidman, Sally L. Gras, Ian Snape, Geoff W. Stevens, Kathryn A. Mumford


Increasing transportation and storage of petroleum hydrocarbons in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions have resulted in frequent accidental spills. Migrating petroleum hydrocarbon spills can have a significant impact on terrestrial and marine ecosystems in cold regions, as harsh environmental conditions result in heightened sensitivity to pollution. This migration of contaminants has led to the development of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) for application in cold regions. PRB’s are one of the most practical technologies for on-site or in-situ groundwater remediation in cold regions due to their minimal energy, monitoring and maintenance requirements. The Main Power House site has been used as a fuel storage and power generation area for the Macquarie Island research station since at least 1960. Soil analysis at the site has revealed Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) (C9-C28) concentrations as high as 19,000 mg/kg soil. Groundwater TPH concentrations at this site can exceed 350 mg/L TPH. Ongoing migration of petroleum hydrocarbons into the neighbouring marine ecosystem resulted in the installation of a ‘funnel and gate’ PRB in November 2014. The ‘funnel and gate’ design successfully intercepted contaminated groundwater and analysis of TPH retention and biodegradation on PRB media are currently underway. Installation of the PRB facilitates research aimed at better understanding the contribution of particle attached biofilms to the remediation of groundwater systems. Bench-scale PRB system analysis at The University of Melbourne is currently examining the role biofilms play in petroleum hydrocarbon degradation, and how controlled release nutrient media can heighten the metabolic activity of biofilms in cold regions in the presence of low temperatures and low nutrient groundwater.

Keywords: groundwater, petroleum, Macquarie island, funnel and gate

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564 Environmental Potential of Biochar from Wood Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

Authors: Cora Bulmău


Soil polluted with hydrocarbons spills is a major global concern today. As a response to this issue, our experimental study tries to put in evidence the option to choose for one environmentally friendly method: use of the biochar, despite to a classical procedure; incineration of contaminated soil. Biochar represents the solid product obtained through the pyrolysis of biomass, its additional use being as an additive intended to improve the quality of the soil. The positive effect of biochar addition to soil is represented by its capacity to adsorb and contain petroleum products within its pores. Taking into consideration the capacity of the biochar to interact with organic contaminants, the purpose of the present study was to experimentally establish the effects of the addition of wooden biomass-derived biochar on a soil contaminated with oil. So, the contaminated soil was amended with biochar (10%) produced by pyrolysis in different operational conditions of the thermochemical process. After 25 days, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil treated with biochar was measured. An analytical method as Soxhlet extraction was adopted to estimate the concentrations of total petroleum products (TPH) in the soil samples: This technique was applied to contaminated soil, also to soils remediated by incineration/adding biochar. The treatment of soil using biochar obtained from pyrolysis of the Birchwood led to a considerable decrease in the concentrations of petroleum products. The incineration treatments conducted under experimental stage to clean up the same soil, contaminated with petroleum products, involved specific parameters: temperature of about 600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and treatment time 30 and 60 minutes. The experimental results revealed that the method using biochar has registered values of efficiency up to those of all incineration processes applied for the shortest time.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, remediaton, soil, TPH

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563 Removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Electrochemical Method

Authors: D. M. Cocârță, I. A. Istrate, C. Streche, D. M. Dumitru


Soil contamination phenomena are a wide world issue that has received the important attention in the last decades. The main pollutants that have affected soils are especially those resulted from the oil extraction, transport and processing. This paper presents results obtained in the framework of a research project focused on the management of contaminated sites with petroleum products/ REMPET. One of the specific objectives of the REMPET project was to assess the electrochemical treatment (improved with polarity change respect to the typical approach) as a treatment option for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbon compounds attach to soil components and are difficult to remove and degrade. Electrochemical treatment is a physicochemical treatment that has gained acceptance as an alternative method, for the remediation of organic contaminated soils comparing with the traditional methods as bioremediation and chemical oxidation. This type of treatment need short time and have high removal efficiency, being usually applied in heterogeneous soils with low permeability. During the experimental tests, the following parameters were monitored: pH, redox potential, humidity, current intensity, energy consumption. The electrochemical method was applied in an experimental setup with the next dimensions: 450 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm (L x l x h). The setup length was devised in three electrochemical cells that were connected at two power supplies. The power supplies configuration was provided in such manner that each cell has a cathode and an anode without overlapping. The initial value of TPH concentration in soil was of 1420.28 mg/kgdw. The remediation method has been applied for only 21 days, when it was already noticed an average removal efficiency of 31 %, with better results in the anode area respect to the cathode one (33% respect to 27%). The energy consumption registered after the development of the experiment was 10.6 kWh for exterior power supply and 16.1 kWh for the interior one. Taking into account that at national level, the most used methods for soil remediation are bioremediation (which needs too much time to be implemented and depends on many factors) and thermal desorption (which involves high costs in order to be implemented), the study of electrochemical treatment will give an alternative to these two methods (and their limitations).

Keywords: electrochemical remediation, pollution, total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil contamination

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562 Evaluation of Biosurfactant Production by a New Strain Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen


Pollution caused by petroleum hydrocarbons in terrestrial and aquatic environment is a common phenomenon that causes significant ecological and social problems. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactant, biodegradability, critical micelle concentration, lagoon Marchika

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
561 Geochemical Studies of Mud Volcanoes Fluids According to Petroleum Potential of the Lower Kura Depression (Azerbaijan)

Authors: Ayten Bakhtiyar Khasayeva


Lower Kura depression is a part of the South Caspian Basin (SCB), located between the folded regions of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. The region is characterized by thick sedimentary cover 22 km (SCB up to 30 km), high sedimentation rate, low geothermal gradient (average value corresponds to 2 °C / 100m). There is Quaternary, Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene deposits take part in geological structure. Miocene and Oligocene deposits are opened by prospecting and exploratory wells in the areas of Kalamaddin and Garabagli. There are 25 mud volcanoes within the territory of the Lower Kura depression, which are the unique source of information about hydrocarbons contenting great depths. During the wells data research, solid erupted products and mud volcano fluids, and according to the geological and thermal characteristics of the region, it was determined that the main phase of the hydrocarbon generation (MK1-AK2) corresponds to a wide range of depths from 10 to 14 km, which corresponds to the Pliocene-Miocene sediments, and to the "oil and gas windows" according to the intended meaning of R0 ≈ 0,65-0,85%. Fluids of mud volcanoes comprise by the following phases - gas, water. Gas phase consists mainly of methane (99%) of heavy hydrocarbons (С2+ hydrocarbons), CO2, N2, inert components He, Ar. The content of the С2+ hydrocarbons in the gases of mud volcanoes associated with oil deposits is increased. Carbon isotopic composition of methane for the Lower Kura depression varies from -40 ‰ to -60 ‰. Water of mud volcanoes are represented by all four genetic types. However the most typical types of water are HCN type. According to the Mg-Li geothermometer formation of mud waters corresponds to the temperature range from 20 °C to 140 °C (PC2). The solid product emissions of mud volcanoes identified 90 minerals and 30 trace elements. As a result geochemical investigation, thermobaric and geological conditions, zone oil and gas generation - the prospect of the Lower Kura depression is projected to depths greater than 10 km.

Keywords: geology, geochemistry, mud volcanoes, petroleum potential

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560 Potential of Ozonation and Phytoremediation to Reduce Hydrocarbon Levels Remaining after the Pilot Scale Microbial Based Bioremediation (Land-Farming) of a Heavily Polluted Soil

Authors: Hakima Althalb


Petroleum contamination of sandy soils is a severe environmental problem in Libya, but relatively little work has been carried out to optimize the bioremediation of such heavily contaminated soil, particularly at a pilot scale. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential for the microbial-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil obtained from an oil refinery in Libya and to assess the potential of both ozonation and phytoremediation (both applied after initial bioremediation) to reduce residual hydrocarbon levels. Plots containing 500 kg soil (triplicates) (contaminated soil diluted with clean soil 50% volume) were set up, (designated as Land Treatment Units; LTUs) containing five different nutrient levels and mixtures (Urea + NPK (nitrogen; phosphor; potassium) mixtures) to obtain C:N:P ratios 100:10:1, and monitored for 90 days. Hydrocarbon levels, microbial numbers, and toxicity (EC50 using luminescent microbial based tests) were assessed. Hydrocarbon levels in non-diluted and diluted soil ranged from 20 733-22 366 mg/kg and from 16 000-17 000 mg/kg respectively. Although all the land treatment units revealed a significant hydrocarbon reduction over time, the highest reduction in hydrocarbon levels obtained was around 60%. For example, 63% hydrocarbon removal was observed using a mixture of urea and NPK with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1). Soil toxicity (as assessed using luminescence based toxicity assays) reduced in line with the reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons observed. However, as relatively high residual TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) levels (ranging from 6033-14166mg/kg) were still present after initial bioremediation two ‘post-treatments’ (phytoremediation and ozonation) were attempted to remove residual hydrocarbons remaining. Five locally grown (agriculturally important) plant species were tested. The germination of all plants examined was strongly inhibited (80-100%) and seedlings failed to grow well in the contaminated soil, indicating that the previously bioremediated soils were still toxic to the plants. Subsequent ozonation followed by another bioremediation of soil was more successful than phytoremediation. But even the most promising successful treatment in this study (ozonation for 6 hours at 25ppm followed by bioremediation) still only removed approximately 31% of the residual hydrocarbons. Overall, this work showed that the bioremediation of such highly contaminated soils is difficult and that a combination of treatments would be required to achieve successful remediation. Even after initial dilution and bioremediation the soils remained toxic to plant growth and were therefore not suitable for phytoremediation.

Keywords: bioremediation, petroleum hydrocarbons, ozone, phytoremediation

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559 Efficient of Technology Remediation Soil That Contaminated by Petroleum Based on Heat without Combustion

Authors: Gavin Hutama Farandiarta, Hegi Adi Prabowo, Istiara Rizqillah Hanifah, Millati Hanifah Saprudin, Raden Iqrafia Ashna


The increase of the petroleum’s consumption rate encourages industries to optimize and increase the activity in processing crude oil into petroleum. However, although the result gives a lot of benefits to humans worldwide, it also gives negative impact to the environment. One of the negative impacts of processing crude oil is the soil will be contaminated by petroleum sewage sludge. This petroleum sewage sludge, contains hydrocarbon compound and it can be calculated by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH).Petroleum sludge waste is accounted as hazardous and toxic. The soil contamination caused by the petroleum sludge is very hard to get rid of. However, there is a way to manage the soil that is contaminated by petroleum sludge, which is by using heat (thermal desorption) in the process of remediation. There are several factors that affect the success rate of the remediation with the help of heat which are temperature, time, and air pressure in the desorption column. The remediation process using the help of heat is an alternative in soil recovery from the petroleum pollution which highly effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly that produces uncontaminated soil and the petroleum that can be used again.

Keywords: petroleum sewage sludge, remediation soil, thermal desorption, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

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558 The Role of the General Budget in the Agricultural and Rural Development as an Alternative Economic outside the Hydrocarbons Sector

Authors: Kherbache Radhwane


This study is concerned with the nature of the strategy of agricultural and rural development, through the fiscal policy adopted by the government throughout programs included in the general budget of the state represented in the national program of agricultural and rural development. This study concluded that the general balance play an important role in the design of the strategy of agricultural and rural development despite the numerous problems clear in the result of the precedent plans of agricultural and rural development. Based on that we suggest that more importance should be accorded to the agricultural and rural field and that it should be one among economic alternatives to the collection of petroleum, as the countryside is the future.

Keywords: general balance, political economy, strategy of agricultural and rural development, economic alternatives, collection of petroleum

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557 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: removal, metal, heavy oil, nickel, vanadium

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556 Comparision of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidthiobacillus Thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee


The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.

Keywords: At. ferrooxidans, bioleaching, metal recovery, spent catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
555 Bioremediation of PAHs-Contaminated Soil Using Land Treatment Processes

Authors: Somaye Eskandary


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in crude oil and its derivatives contaminate soil and also increase carcinogen and mutagen contamination, which is a concern for researchers. Land farming is one of the methods that remove pollutants from the soil by native microorganisms. It seems that this technology is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and causes less debris problem to be disposed. This study aimed to refine the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil-contaminated soil using the land farming method. In addition to examine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-FID, some characteristics such as soil microbial respiration and dehydrogenase, peroxidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme concentration were also measured. The results showed that after land farming process the concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dropped to 50 percent. The results showed that the enzyme concentration is reduced by reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons and microbial respiration. These results emphasize the process of land farming for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil by indigenous microorganisms.

Keywords: soil contamination, gas chromatography, native microorganisms, soil enzymes, microbial respiration, carcinogen

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554 The Potential of Edaphic Algae for Bioremediation of the Diesel-Contaminated Soil

Authors: C. J. Tien, C. S. Chen, S. F. Huang, Z. X. Wang


Algae in soil ecosystems can produce organic matters and oxygen by photosynthesis. Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen to increase soil nitrogen contents. Secretion of mucilage by some algae increases the soil water content and soil aggregation. These actions will improve soil quality and fertility, and further increase abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. In addition, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic algae are able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of algal addition on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), diversity and activity of bacteria and algae in the diesel-contaminated soil under different nutrient contents and frequency of plowing and irrigation in order to assess the potential bioremediation technique using edaphic algae. The known amount of diesel was added into the farmland soil. This diesel-contaminated soil was subject to five settings, experiment-1 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-2 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, experiment-3 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-4 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, and the control without algal addition. Soil samples were taken every two weeks to analyze TPH concentrations, diversity of bacteria and algae, and catabolic genes encoding functional degrading enzymes. The results show that the TPH removal rates of five settings after the two-month experimental period were in the order: experiment-2 > expermient-4 > experiment-3 > experiment-1 > control. It indicated that algal addition enhanced the degradation of TPH in the diesel-contaminated soil, but not for nutrient addition. Plowing and irrigation every four weeks resulted in more TPH removal than that every two weeks. The banding patterns of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed an increase in diversity of bacteria and algae after algal addition. Three petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading algae (Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nostoc sp.) and two added algal strains (Leptolyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp.) were sequenced from DGGE prominent bands. The four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria Gordonia sp., Mycobacterium sp., Rodococcus sp. and Alcanivorax sp. were abundant in the treated soils. These results suggested that growth of indigenous bacteria and algae were improved after adding edaphic algae. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that relative amounts of four catabolic genes encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, toluene monooxygenase, xylene monooxygenase and phenol monooxygenase were appeared and expressed in the treated soil. The addition of algae increased the expression of these genes at the end of experiments to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. This study demonstrated that edaphic algae were suitable biomaterials for bioremediating diesel-contaminated soils with plowing and irrigation every four weeks.

Keywords: catabolic gene, diesel, diversity, edaphic algae

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553 A 3D Numerical Environmental Modeling Approach For Assessing Transport of Spilled Oil in Porous Beach Conditions under a Meso-Scale Tank Design

Authors: J. X. Dong, C. J. An, Z. Chen, E. H. Owens, M. C. Boufadel, E. Taylor, K. Lee


Shorelines are vulnerable to significant environmental impacts from oil spills. Stranded oil can cause potential short- to long-term detrimental effects along beaches that include injuries to the ecosystem, socio-economic and cultural resources. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling approach is developed to evaluate the fate and transport of spilled oil for hypothetical oiled shoreline cases under various combinations of beach geomorphology and environmental conditions. The developed model estimates the spatial and temporal distribution of spilled oil for the various test conditions, using the finite volume method and considering the physical transport (dispersion and advection), sinks, and sorption processes. The model includes a user-friendly interface for data input on variables such as beach properties, environmental conditions, and physical-chemical properties of spilled oil. An experimental mesoscale tank design was used to test the developed model for dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon within shorelines. The simulated results for effects of different sediment substrates, oil types, and shoreline features for the transport of spilled oil are comparable to those obtained with a commercially available model. Results show that the properties of substrates and the oil removal by shoreline effects have significant impacts on oil transport in the beach area. Sensitivity analysis, through the application of the one-step-at-a-time method (OAT), for the 3D model identified hydraulic conductivity as the most sensitive parameter. The 3D numerical model allows users to examine the behavior of oil on and within beaches, assess potential environmental impacts, and provide technical support for decisions related to shoreline clean-up operations.

Keywords: dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, environmental multimedia model, finite volume method, sensitivity analysis, total petroleum hydrocarbons

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552 Removal of Diesel by Soil Washing Technologies Using a Non-Ionic Surfactant

Authors: Carolina Guatemala, Josefina Barrera


A large number of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons and the limitation of the current bioremediation methods continue being the drawback for an efficient recuperation of these under safe conditions. In this regard, soil washing by degradable surfactants is an alternative option knowing the capacity of surfactants to desorb oily organic compounds. The aim of this study was the establishment of the washing conditions of a soil polluted with diesel, using a nonionic surfactant. A soil polluted with diesel was used. This was collected near to a polluted railway station zone. The soil was dried at room temperature and sieved to a mesh size 10 for its physicochemical and biological characterization. Washing of the polluted soil was performed with surfactant solutions in a 1:5 ratio (5g of soil per 25 mL of the surfactant solution). This was carried out at 28±1 °C and 150 rpm for 72 hours. The factors tested were the Tween 80 surfactant concentration (1, 2, 5 and 10%) and the treatment time. Residual diesel concentration was determined every 24 h. The soil was of a sandy loam texture with a low concentration of organic matter (3.68%) and conductivity (0.016 dS.m- 1). The soil had a pH of 7.63 which was slightly alkaline and a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon content (TPH) of 11,600 ± 1058.38 mg/kg. The high TPH content could explain the low microbial count of 1.1105 determined as UFC per gram of dried soil. Within the range of the surfactant concentration tested for washing the polluted soil under study, TPH removal increased proportionally with the surfactant concentration. 5080.8 ± 422.2 ppm (43.8 ± 3.64 %) was the maximal concentration of TPH removed after 72 h of contact with surfactant pollution at 10%. Despite the high percentage of hydrocarbons removed, it is assumed that a higher concentration of these could be removed if the washing process is extended or is carried out by stages. Soil washing through the use of surfactants as a desorbing agent was found to be a viable and effective technology for the rapid recovery of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons.

Keywords: diesel, hydrocarbons, soil washing, tween 80

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551 Monitoring the Pollution Status of the Goan Coast Using Genotoxicity Biomarkers in the Bivalve, Meretrix ovum

Authors: Avelyno D'Costa, S. K. Shyama, M. K. Praveen Kumar


The coast of Goa, India receives constant anthropogenic stress through its major rivers which carry mining rejects of iron and manganese ores from upstream mining sites and petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping and harbor-related activities which put the aquatic fauna such as bivalves at risk. The present study reports the pollution status of the Goan coast by the above xenobiotics employing genotoxicity studies. This is further supplemented by the quantification of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and various trace metals (iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, and lead) in gills of the estuarine clam, Meretrix ovum as well as from the surrounding water and sediment, over a two-year sampling period, from January 2013 to December 2014. Bivalves were collected from a probable unpolluted site at Palolem and a probable polluted site at Vasco, based upon the anthropogenic activities at these sites. Genotoxicity was assessed in the gill cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The quantity of TPHs and trace metals present in gill tissue, water and sediments were analyzed using spectrofluorometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. The statistical significance of data was analyzed employing Student’s t-test. The relationship between DNA damage and pollutant concentrations was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Significant DNA damage was observed in the bivalves collected from Vasco which is a region of high industrial activity. Concentrations of TPHs and trace metals (iron, manganese, and cadmium) were also found to be significantly high in gills of the bivalves collected from Vasco compared to those collected from Palolem. Further, the concentrations of these pollutants were also found to be significantly high in the water and sediments at Vasco compared to that of Palolem. This may be due to the lack of industrial activity at Palolem. A high positive correlation was observed between the pollutant levels and DNA damage in the bivalves collected from Vasco suggesting the genotoxic nature of these pollutants. Further, M. ovum can be used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the level of pollution of the estuarine/coastal regions by TPHs and trace metals.

Keywords: comet assay, metals, micronucleus test, total petroleum Hydrocarbons

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550 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan


The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

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549 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova


Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: pollution, root system, micromycetes, identification

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548 Application of Waterflooding to the Kashkari Oil Field in Northern Afghanistan

Authors: Zabihullah Mahdi, Mahdi Nayab, Sadaf Jalal, Navid Seddiqi


Hydrocarbons represent an important natural resource for the rehabilitation and sustainable development of Afghanistan. In this paper, the use of waterflooding is demonstrated for the petroleum reservoirs of the Kashkari oil field in northern Afghanistan. The technique is based on the Buckley–Leverett frontal-displacement theory, which enables computation of the progress of the waterfront in the reservoir. The relative permeabilities of oil and water, the residual oil saturation, and the irreducible water saturation are obtained from a laboratory experiment. The technique is applied to the laboratory plane-reservoir model to investigate the displacement mechanism and is then compared with the theoretical calculation. Lastly, the technique is applied to the Kashkari oil field to predict the feasible amount of oil that could be produced from this reservoir.

Keywords: Buckley–Leverett, waterflooding, petroleum reservoir engineering, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous media, relative permeability

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547 Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes

Authors: Sewon Kim, Minjun Kwon, Changyeop Lee


This study is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air are optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.

Keywords: petroleum cokes, low NOx, combustion, equivalence ratio

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546 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz


The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

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545 Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Isolated from Contaminated Soils

Authors: Z. Abdessemed, N. Messaâdia, M. Houhamdi


The PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) represent a persistent source of pollution for oil field soils. Their degradation, essentially dominated by the aerobic bacterial and fungal flora, exhibits certain aspects for remediation of these soils microbial oxygenases have, as their substrates, a large range of PAH. The variety and the performance of these enzymes allow the initiation of the biodegradation of any PAH through many different metabolic pathways. These pathways are very important for the recycling of the PAH in the biosphere, where substances supposed indigestible by living organisms are rapidly transformed into simples compounds, directly assimilated by the intermediate metabolism of other microorganisms.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial oxygenases, biodegradation, metabolic pathways

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544 Co-Gasification of Petroleum Waste and Waste Tires: A Numerical and CFD Study

Authors: Thomas Arink, Isam Janajreh


The petroleum industry generates significant amounts of waste in the form of drill cuttings, contaminated soil and oily sludge. Drill cuttings are a product of the off-shore drilling rigs, containing wet soil and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Contaminated soil comes from different on-shore sites and also contains TPH. The oily sludge is mainly residue or tank bottom sludge from storage tanks. The two main treatment methods currently used are incineration and thermal desorption (TD). Thermal desorption is a method where the waste material is heated to 450ºC in an anaerobic environment to release volatiles, the condensed volatiles can be used as a liquid fuel. For the thermal desorption unit dry contaminated soil is mixed with moist drill cuttings to generate a suitable mixture. By thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of the TD feedstock it was found that less than 50% of the TPH are released, the discharged material is stored in landfill. This study proposes co-gasification of petroleum waste with waste tires as an alternative to thermal desorption. Co-gasification with a high-calorific material is necessary since the petroleum waste consists of more than 60 wt% ash (soil/sand), causing its calorific value to be too low for gasification. Since the gasification process occurs at 900ºC and higher, close to 100% of the TPH can be released, according to the TGA. This work consists of three parts: 1. a mathematical gasification model, 2. a reactive flow CFD model and 3. experimental work on a drop tube reactor. Extensive material characterization was done by means of proximate analysis (TGA), ultimate analysis (CHNOS flash analysis) and calorific value measurements (Bomb calorimeter) for the input parameters of the mathematical and CFD model. The mathematical model is a zero dimensional model based on Gibbs energy minimization together with Lagrange multiplier; it is used to find the product species composition (molar fractions of CO, H2, CH4 etc.) for different tire/petroleum feedstock mixtures and equivalence ratios. The results of the mathematical model act as a reference for the CFD model of the drop-tube reactor. With the CFD model the efficiency and product species composition can be predicted for different mixtures and particle sizes. Finally both models are verified by experiments on a drop tube reactor (1540 mm long, 66 mm inner diameter, 1400 K maximum temperature).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), drop tube reactor, gasification, Gibbs energy minimization, petroleum waste, waste tires

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543 Mixed Natural Adsorbents and Oxides for Oil Remediation

Authors: Cesar Maximo Oliva González, Javier Acevedo Cortez, Boris Kharisov, Thelma Serrano Quezada


The importance of the crude oil refining process is due to the demand for petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, etc., which are used in daily activities and have a high impact on the global economy. In the processes of oil obtaining and refining, it is common to find problems such as spills on seabed and high energy consumption in processing. In order to quickly and efficiently attack these problems, the use of adsorbents has taken on great importance due to its ease of implementation, as well as the possibility of their regeneration to be reused. In this work, the use of two types of adsorbents is proposed: the first is a natural adsorbent such as aloe vera or nopal, which were lyophilized and hydrophobized to achieve a selectivity in oil adsorption in oil / water mixtures. The second is a mixed iron/nickel oxide, which is specially designed to adsorb the asphaltenes in the heavy fractions of the oil; in addition, this type of adsorbents presents catalytic properties that manage to decompose the heavier fractions of the petroleum in light hydrocarbons, descending thus the energy required for the oil refining process.

Keywords: nanomaterials, oil spills, remediation, natural adsorbents, mixed oxides

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542 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li


This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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541 Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta and the Right to a Healthy Environment

Authors: Olufunke Ayilara Aje-Famuyide


The centrality of the Petroleum Industry in the world energy is undoubted. The world economy almost runs and depends on petroleum. Petroleum industry is a multi-trillion industry; it turns otherwise poor and underdeveloped countries into wealthy nations and thrusts them at the center of international diplomacy. Although these developing nations lack the necessary technology to explore and exploit petroleum resources they are not without help as developed nations, represented by their multinational corporations are ready and willing to provide both the technical and managerial expertise necessary for the development of this natural resource. However, the exploration of these petroleum resources comes with, sometimes, grave, concomitant consequences. These consequences are especially pronounced with respect to the environment. From the British Petroleum Oil rig explosion and the resultant oil spillage and pollution in New Mexico, United States to the Mobil Oil spillage along Nigerian coast, the story and consequence is virtually the same. Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region produces Nigeria’s petroleum which accounts for more than ninety-five percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Between 1999 and 2007, Nigeria earned more than $400 billion from petroleum exports. Nevertheless, petroleum exploration and exploitation has devastated the Niger Delta environment. From oil spillage which pollutes the rivers, farms and wetlands to gas flaring by the multi-national corporations; the consequences is similar-a region that has been devastated by petroleum exploitation. This paper thus seeks to examine the consequences and impact of petroleum pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria with particular reference on the right of the people of Niger Delta to a healthy environment. The paper further seeks to examine the relevant international, regional instrument and Nigeria’s municipal laws that are meant to protect the result of the people of the Niger Delta and their enforcement by the Nigerian State. It is quite worrisome that the Niger Delta Region and its people have suffered and are still suffering grave violations of their right to a healthy environment as a result of petroleum exploitation in their region. The Nigerian effort at best is half-hearted in its protection of the people’s right.

Keywords: environment, exploration, petroleum, pollution

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540 Human Health Risk Assessment from Metals Present in a Soil Contaminated by Crude Oil

Authors: M. A. Stoian, D. M. Cocarta, A. Badea


The main sources of soil pollution due to petroleum contaminants are industrial processes involve crude oil. Soil polluted with crude oil is toxic for plants, animals, and humans. Human exposure to the contaminated soil occurs through different exposure pathways: Soil ingestion, diet, inhalation, and dermal contact. The present study research is focused on soil contamination with heavy metals as a consequence of soil pollution with petroleum products. Human exposure pathways considered are: Accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil and dermal contact. The purpose of the paper is to identify the human health risk (carcinogenic risk) from soil contaminated with heavy metals. The human exposure and risk were evaluated for five contaminants of concern of the eleven which were identified in soil. Two soil samples were collected from a bioremediation platform from Muntenia Region of Romania. The soil deposited on the bioremediation platform was contaminated through extraction and oil processing. For the research work, two average soil samples from two different plots were analyzed: The first one was slightly contaminated with petroleum products (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil was 1420 mg/kgd.w.), while the second one was highly contaminated (TPH in soil was 24306 mg/kgd.w.). In order to evaluate risks posed by heavy metals due soil pollution with petroleum products, five metals known as carcinogenic were investigated: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), ChromiumVI (CrVI), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb). Results of the chemical analysis performed on samples collected from the contaminated soil evidence soil contamination with heavy metals as following: As in Site 1 = 6.96 mg/kgd.w; As in Site 2 = 11.62 mg/kgd.w, Cd in Site 1 = 0.9 mg/kgd.w; Cd in Site 2 = 1 mg/kgd.w; CrVI was 0.1 mg/kgd.w for both sites; Ni in Site 1 = 37.00 mg/kgd.w; Ni in Site 2 = 42.46 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 1 = 34.67 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 2 = 120.44 mg/kgd.w. The concentrations for these metals exceed the normal values established in the Romanian regulation, but are smaller than the alert level for a less sensitive use of soil (industrial). Although, the concentrations do not exceed the thresholds, the next step was to assess the human health risk posed by soil contamination with these heavy metals. Results for risk were compared with the acceptable one (10-6, according to World Human Organization). As, expected, the highest risk was identified for the soil with a higher degree of contamination: Individual Risk (IR) was 1.11×10-5 compared with 8.61×10-6

Keywords: carcinogenic risk, heavy metals, human health risk assessment, soil pollution

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539 Re-Os Application to Petroleum System: Implications from the Geochronology and Oil-Source Correlation of Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Authors: Junjie Liu, David Selby, Mark Obermajer, Andy Mort


The inaugural application of Re-Os dating, which is based on the beta decay of 187Re to 187Os with a long half-life of 41.577 ± 0.12 Byr and initially used for sulphide minerals and organic rich rocks, to petroleum systems was performed on bitumen of the Polaris Mississippi Valley Type Pb-Zn deposit, Canada. To further our understanding of the Re-Os system and its application to petroleum systems, here we present a study on Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The Late Devonian Duvernay Formation organic-rich shales are the only source of the petroleum system. The Duvernay shales reached maturation only during the Laramide Orogeny (80 – 35 Ma) and the generated oil migrated short distances into the interfingering Leduc reefs and overlying Nisku carbonates with no or little secondary alteration post oil-generation. Although very low in Re and Os, the asphaltenes of Duvernay-sourced Leduc and Nisku oils define a Laramide Re-Os age. In addition, the initial Os isotope compositions of the oil samples are similar to that of the Os isotope composition of the Duvernay Formation at the time of oil generation, but are very different to other oil-prone intervals of the basin, showing the ability of the Os isotope composition as an inorganic oil-source correlation tool. In summary, the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to record the timing of oil generation and trace the source of an oil is confirmed in the Re-Os study of Duvernay Petroleum System.

Keywords: Duvernay petroleum system, oil generation, oil-source correlation, Re-Os

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