Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: seabed

51 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng

Abstract:

Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
50 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

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In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
49 Sediment Trapping by Seagrass Blades under Oscillatory Flow

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Teresa Serra

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Seagrass meadows increase the sedimentation within the canopy. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how seagrasses impact the vertical distribution of sediment coming from external sources and reaches the meadow. This study aims to determine the number of particles retained by a seagrass meadow. Based on the hydrodynamics in the vertical direction, a meadow can be separated into different compartments: the blades, the seabed, within the canopy layer, and the above canopy layer. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions and canopy densities with the purpose to mimic the real field conditions. This study demonstrates and quantifies that seagrass meadows decrease the volume of the suspended sediment by two mechanisms: capturing the suspended sediment by the seagrass blades and promoting the particle sedimentation to the seabed. This study also demonstrates that the number of sediment particles trapped by single seagrass blades decreases with canopy density. However, when considering the trapping by the total number of blades, the sediment captured by all the blades of the meadow increases with canopy density. Furthermore, comparing with the bare seabed, this study demonstrated that there is a reduction in the suspended particles within the canopy, which implies an improvement in the water clarity. In addition, the particle sedimentation on the seabed increases with the canopy density compared with the bare seabed, making evident the contribution of the vegetation in enhancing sedimentation.

Keywords: seagrass, sediment capture, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

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48 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

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The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

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47 A World Map of Seabed Sediment Based on 50 Years of Knowledge

Authors: T. Garlan, I. Gabelotaud, S. Lucas, E. Marchès

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Production of a global sedimentological seabed map has been initiated in 1995 to provide the necessary tool for searches of aircraft and boats lost at sea, to give sedimentary information for nautical charts, and to provide input data for acoustic propagation modelling. This original approach had already been initiated one century ago when the French hydrographic service and the University of Nancy had produced maps of the distribution of marine sediments of the French coasts and then sediment maps of the continental shelves of Europe and North America. The current map of the sediment of oceans presented was initiated with a UNESCO's general map of the deep ocean floor. This map was adapted using a unique sediment classification to present all types of sediments: from beaches to the deep seabed and from glacial deposits to tropical sediments. In order to allow good visualization and to be adapted to the different applications, only the granularity of sediments is represented. The published seabed maps are studied, if they present an interest, the nature of the seabed is extracted from them, the sediment classification is transcribed and the resulted map is integrated in the world map. Data come also from interpretations of Multibeam Echo Sounder (MES) imagery of large hydrographic surveys of deep-ocean. These allow a very high-quality mapping of areas that until then were represented as homogeneous. The third and principal source of data comes from the integration of regional maps produced specifically for this project. These regional maps are carried out using all the bathymetric and sedimentary data of a region. This step makes it possible to produce a regional synthesis map, with the realization of generalizations in the case of over-precise data. 86 regional maps of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean have been produced and integrated into the world sedimentary map. This work is permanent and permits a digital version every two years, with the integration of some new maps. This article describes the choices made in terms of sediment classification, the scale of source data and the zonation of the variability of the quality. This map is the final step in a system comprising the Shom Sedimentary Database, enriched by more than one million punctual and surface items of data, and four series of coastal seabed maps at 1:10,000, 1:50,000, 1:200,000 and 1:1,000,000. This step by step approach makes it possible to take into account the progresses in knowledge made in the field of seabed characterization during the last decades. Thus, the arrival of new classification systems for seafloor has improved the recent seabed maps, and the compilation of these new maps with those previously published allows a gradual enrichment of the world sedimentary map. But there is still a lot of work to enhance some regions, which are still based on data acquired more than half a century ago.

Keywords: marine sedimentology, seabed map, sediment classification, world ocean

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46 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor under Liquefaction and Scour

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam, Nils Goseberg, Christian Windt

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When a structure is installed on a seabed, the presence of the structure will influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scour On fixed structures (bridges and Monopiles) in rivers and oceans has been carried out, and very limited research work on scour and liquefaction for gravity anchors, particularly for floating Tension Leg Platform (TLP) substructures. Due to its importance and need for enhancement of knowledge in scour and liquefaction around marine structures, the MarTERA funded a three-year (2020-2023) research program called NuLIMAS (Numerical Modeling of Liquefaction Around Marine Structures). It’s a group consists of European institutions (Universities, laboratories, and consulting companies). The objective of this study is to build a numerical model that replicates the reality, which indeed helps to simulate (predict) underwater flow conditions and to study different marine scour and Liquefication situations. It helps to design a heavyweight anchor for the TLP substructure and to minimize the time and expenditure on experiments. And also, the achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other design and concepts For marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM. A conceptual design of heavyweight anchor for TLP substructure is designed through taking considerations of available state-of-the-art knowledge on scour and Liquefication concepts and references to Previous existing designs. These conceptual designs are validated with the available similar experimental benchmark data and also with the CFD numerical benchmark standards (CFD quality assurance study). CFD optimization model/tool is designed as to minimize the effect of fluid flow, scour, and Liquefication. A parameterized model is also developed to automate the calculation process to reduce user interactions. The parameters such as anchor Lowering Process, flow optimized outer contours, seabed interaction study, and FSSI (Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interactions) are investigated and used to carve the model as to build an optimized anchor.

Keywords: gravity anchor, liquefaction, scour, computational fluid dynamics

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45 Assessment of the Impact of Trawling Activities on Marine Bottoms of Moroccan Atlantic

Authors: Rachida Houssa, Hassan Rhinane, Fadoumo Ali Malouw, Amina Oulmaalem

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Since the early 70s, the Moroccan Atlantic sea was subjected to the pressure of the bottom trawling, one of the most destructive techniques seabed that cause havoc on fishing catch, nonselective, and responsible for more than half of all releases of fish around the world. The present paper aims to map and assess the impact of the activity of the bottom trawling of the Moroccan Atlantic coast. For this purpose, a dataset of thirty years, between 1962 and 1999, from foreign fishing vessels using bottom trawling, has been used and integrated in a GIS. To estimate the extent and the importance of the geographical distribution of the trawling effort, the Moroccan Atlantic area was divided into a grid of cells of 25 km2 (5x5 km). This grid was joined to the effort trawling data, creating a new entity with a table containing spatial overlay grid with the polygon of swept surfaces. This mapping model allowed to quantify the used fishing effort versus time and to generate the trace indicative of trawling efforts on the seabed. Indeed, for a given year, a grid cell may have a swept area equal to 0 (never been touched by the trawl) or 25 km2 (the trawled area is similar to the cell size) or may be 100 km2 indicating that for this year, the scanned surface is four times the cell area. The results show that the total cumulative sum of trawled area is approximately 28,738,326 km2, scattered throughout the Atlantic coast. 95% of the overall trawling effort is located in the southern zone, between 29°N and 20°30'N. Nearly 5% of the trawling effort is located in the northern coastal region, north of 33°N. The center area between 33°N and 29°N is the least swept by Russian commercial vessels because in this region the majority of the area is rocky, and non trawlable.

Keywords: GIS, Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, seabed, trawling

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44 Physical Tests on Localized Fluidization in Offshore Suction Bucket Foundations

Authors: Li-Hua Luu, Alexis Doghmane, Abbas Farhat, Mohammad Sanayei, Pierre Philippe, Pablo Cuellar

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Suction buckets are promising innovative foundations for offshore wind turbines. They generally feature the shape of an inverted bucket and rely on a suction system as a driving agent for their installation into the seabed. Water is pumped out of the buckets that are initially placed to rest on the seabed, creating a net pressure difference across the lid that generates a seepage flow, lowers the soil resistance below the foundation skirt, and drives them effectively into the seabed. The stability of the suction mechanism as well as the possibility of a piping failure (i.e., localized fluidization within the internal soil plug) during their installation are some of the key questions that remain open. The present work deals with an experimental study of localized fluidization by suction within a fixed bucket partially embedded into a submerged artificial soil made of spherical beads. The transient process, from the onset of granular motion until reaching a stationary regime for the fluidization at the embedded bucket wall, is recorded using the combined optical techniques of planar laser-induced fluorescence and refractive index matching. To conduct a systematic study of the piping threshold for the seepage flow, we vary the beads size, the suction pressure, and the initial depth for the bucket. This experimental modelling, by dealing with erosion-related phenomena from a micromechanical perspective, shall provide qualitative scenarios for the local processes at work which are missing in the offshore practice so far.

Keywords: fluidization, micromechanical approach, offshore foundations, suction bucket

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
43 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor Under Scour, and Anchor Transportation and Installation (T&I)

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam

Abstract:

The generation of electricity through wind power is one of the leading renewable energy generation methods. Due to abundant higher wind speeds far away from shore, the construction of offshore wind turbines began in the last decades. However, the installation of offshore foundation-based (monopiles) wind turbines in deep waters are often associated with technical and financial challenges. To overcome such challenges, the concept of floating wind turbines is expanded as the basis of the oil and gas industry. For such a floating system, stabilization in harsh conditions is a challenging task. For that, a robust heavy-weight gravity anchor is needed. Transportation of such anchor requires a heavy vessel that increases the cost. To lower the cost, the gravity anchor is designed with ballast chambers that allow the anchor to float while towing and filled with water when lowering to the planned seabed location. The presence of such a large structure may influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes influence the installation process. Also, after installation and under operating conditions, the flow around the anchor may allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scouring on fixed structures (bridges and monopiles) in rivers and oceans have been carried out, and very limited research work on scouring around a bluff-shaped gravity anchor. The objective of this study involves the application of different numerical models to simulate the anchor towing under waves and calm water conditions. Anchor lowering involves the investigation of anchor movements at certain water depths under wave/current. The motions of anchor drift, heave, and pitch is of special focus. The further study involves anchor scour, where the anchor is installed in the seabed; the flow of underwater current around the anchor induces vortices mainly at the front and corners that develop soil erosion. The study of scouring on a submerged gravity anchor is an interesting research question since the flow not only passes around the anchor but also over the structure that forms different flow vortices. The achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other designs and concepts for marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM and other similar software.

Keywords: anchor lowering, anchor towing, gravity anchor, computational fluid dynamics, scour

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42 Use of Bamboo Piles in Ground Improvement Design: Case Study

Authors: Thayalan Nall, Andreas Putra

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A major offshore reclamation work is currently underway in Southeast Asia for a container terminal. The total extent of the reclamation extent is 2600m x 800m and the seabed level is around -5mRL below mean sea level. Subsoil profile below seabed comprises soft marine clays of thickness varying from 8m to 15m. To contain the dredging spoil within the reclamation area, perimeter bunds have been constructed to +2.5mRL. They include breakwaters of trapezoidal geometry, made of boulder size rock along the northern, eastern and western perimeters, with a sand bund along the southern perimeter. Breakwaters were constructed on a composite bamboo pile and raft foundation system. Bamboo clusters 8m long, with 7 individual Bamboos bundled together as one, have been installed within the footprint of the breakwater below seabed in soft marine clay. To facilitate drainage two prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) have been attached to each cluster. Once the cluster piles were installed, a bamboo raft was placed as a load transfer platform. Rafts were made up of 5 layers of bamboo mattress, and in each layer bamboos were spaced at 200mm centres. The rafts wouldn’t sink under their own weight, and hence, they were sunk by loading quarry run rock onto them. Bamboo is a building material available in abundance in Indonesia and obtained at a relatively low cost. They are commonly used as semi-rigid inclusions to improve compressibility and stability of soft soils. Although bamboo is widely used in soft soil engineering design, no local design guides are available and the designs are carried out based on local experience. In June 2015, when the 1st load of sand was pumped by a dredging vessel next to the breakwater, a 150m long section of the breakwater underwent failure and displaced the breakwater between 1.2m to 4.0m. The cause of the failure was investigated to implement remedial measures to reduce the risk of further failures. Analyses using both limit equilibrium approach and finite element modelling revealed two plausible modes of breakwater failure. This paper outlines: 1) Developed Geology and the ground model, 2) The techniques used for the installation of bamboo piles, 3) Details of the analyses including modes and mechanism of failure and 4) Design changes incorporated to reduce the risk of failure.

Keywords: bamboo piles, ground improvement, reclamation, breakwater failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
41 Blue Economy and Marine Mining

Authors: Fani Sakellariadou

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The Blue Economy includes all marine-based and marine-related activities. They correspond to established, emerging as well as unborn ocean-based industries. Seabed mining is an emerging marine-based activity; its operations depend particularly on cutting-edge science and technology. The 21st century will face a crisis in resources as a consequence of the world’s population growth and the rising standard of living. The natural capital stored in the global ocean is decisive for it to provide a wide range of sustainable ecosystem services. Seabed mineral deposits were identified as having a high potential for critical elements and base metals. They have a crucial role in the fast evolution of green technologies. The major categories of marine mineral deposits are deep-sea deposits, including cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, polymetallic nodules, phosphorites, and deep-sea muds, as well as shallow-water deposits including marine placers. Seabed mining operations may take place within continental shelf areas of nation-states. In international waters, the International Seabed Authority (ISA) has entered into 15-year contracts for deep-seabed exploration with 21 contractors. These contracts are for polymetallic nodules (18 contracts), polymetallic sulfides (7 contracts), and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts (5 contracts). Exploration areas are located in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, the Indian Ocean, the Mid Atlantic Ridge, the South Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. Potential environmental impacts of deep-sea mining include habitat alteration, sediment disturbance, plume discharge, toxic compounds release, light and noise generation, and air emissions. They could cause burial and smothering of benthic species, health problems for marine species, biodiversity loss, reduced photosynthetic mechanism, behavior change and masking acoustic communication for mammals and fish, heavy metals bioaccumulation up the food web, decrease of the content of dissolved oxygen, and climate change. An important concern related to deep-sea mining is our knowledge gap regarding deep-sea bio-communities. The ecological consequences that will be caused in the remote, unique, fragile, and little-understood deep-sea ecosystems and inhabitants are still largely unknown. The blue economy conceptualizes oceans as developing spaces supplying socio-economic benefits for current and future generations but also protecting, supporting, and restoring biodiversity and ecological productivity. In that sense, people should apply holistic management and make an assessment of marine mining impacts on ecosystem services, including the categories of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services. The variety in environmental parameters, the range in sea depth, the diversity in the characteristics of marine species, and the possible proximity to other existing maritime industries cause a span of marine mining impact the ability of ecosystems to support people and nature. In conclusion, the use of the untapped potential of the global ocean demands a liable and sustainable attitude. Moreover, there is a need to change our lifestyle and move beyond the philosophy of single-use. Living in a throw-away society based on a linear approach to resource consumption, humans are putting too much pressure on the natural environment. Applying modern, sustainable and eco-friendly approaches according to the principle of circular economy, a substantial amount of natural resource savings will be achieved. Acknowledgement: This work is part of the MAREE project, financially supported by the Division VI of IUPAC. This work has been partly supported by the University of Piraeus Research Center.

Keywords: blue economy, deep-sea mining, ecosystem services, environmental impacts

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40 Microfacies and Sedimentary Environment of Potentially Hydrocarbon-Bearing Ordovician and Silurian Deposits of Selected Boreholes in the Baltic Syneclise (NE Poland)

Authors: Katarzyna Sobczak

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Over the last few years extensive research on the Lower Palaeozic of the Baltic region has been carried out, associated with growing interest in the unconventional hydrocarbon resources of the area. The present study contributes to this investigation by providing relevant microfacies analysis of Ordovician and Silurian carbonate and clastic deposits of the Polish part of the Baltic Syneclise, using data from the Kętrzyn IG-1, Henrykowo 1 and Babiak 1 boreholes. The analytical data, encompassing sedimentological, palaeontological, and petrographic indicators enables the interpretation of the sedimentary environments and their control factors. The main microfacies types distinguished within the studied interval are: bioclastic wackestone, bioclastic packstone, carbonate-rich mudstone, marlstone, nodular limestone and bituminous claystone. The Ordovician is represented by redeposited carbonate rocks formed in a relatively high-energy environment (middle shelf setting). The Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian rocks of the studied basin represent sedimentary succession formed during a distinctive marine transgression. Considering the sedimentological and petrological data from the Silurian, a low-energy sedimentary environment (offshore setting) with intermittent high-energy events (tempestites) can be inferred for the sedimentary basin of NE Poland. Slow sedimentation of carbonate ooze and fine-grained siliciclastic rocks, formed under oxygen-deficient conditions of the seabed, favoured organic matter preservation. The presence of the storm beds suggests an episodic nature of seabed oxygenation. A significant part of the analysed depositional successions shows characteristics indicative of deposition from gravity flows, but lacks evidence of its turbidity origins. There is, however, evidence for storms acting as a mechanism of flow activation. The discussed Ordovician-Silurian transition of depositional environments in the Baltic area fits well to the global environmental changes encompassing the Upper Ordovician and the Lower Silurian.

Keywords: Baltic Syneclise, microfacies analysis, Ordovician, Silurian, unconventional hydrocarbons

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39 Scaling Analysis for the Liquefaction Phenomena Generated by Water Waves

Authors: E. Arcos, E. Bautista, F. Méndez

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In this work, a scaling analysis of the liquefaction phenomena is presented. The characteristic scales are obtained by balancing term by term of the well-known partial dynamics governing equations, (U − P). From the above, the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacement is very smaller compared with the vertical displacement and therefore the governing equation is only a function of the dependent vertical variables. The U − P approximation is reduced and presented in its dimensionless version. This scaling analysis can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the liquefaction phenomena under the action of the water waves.

Keywords: approximation U-P, porous seabed, scaling analysis, water waves

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38 Marine Ecosystem Mapping of Taman Laut Labuan: The First Habitat Mapping Effort to Support Marine Parks Management in Malaysia

Authors: K. Ismail, A. Ali, R. C. Hasan, I. Khalil, Z. Bachok, N. M. Said, A. M. Muslim, M. S. Che Din, W. S. Chong

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The marine ecosystem in Malaysia holds invaluable potential in terms of economics, food security, pharmaceuticals components and protection from natural hazards. Although exploration of oil and gas industry and fisheries are active within Malaysian waters, knowledge of the seascape and ecological functioning of benthic habitats is still extremely poor in the marine parks around Malaysia due to the lack of detailed seafloor information. Consequently, it is difficult to manage marine resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas and set legislation to safeguard the marine parks. The limited baseline data hinders scientific linkage to support effective marine spatial management in Malaysia. This became the main driver behind the first seabed mapping effort at the national level. Taman Laut Labuan (TLL) is located to the west coast of Sabah and to the east of South China Sea. The total area of TLL is approximately 158.15 km2, comprises of three islands namely Pulau Kuraman, Rusukan Besar and Rusukan Kecil and is characterised by shallow fringing reef with few submerged shallow reef. The unfamiliar rocky shorelines limit the survey of multibeam echosounder to area with depth more than 10 m. Whereas, singlebeam and side scan sonar systems were used to acquire the data for area with depth less than 10 m. By integrating data from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter with singlebeam bathymetry and side sonar images, we produce a substrate map and coral coverage map for the TLL using i) marine landscape mapping technique and ii) RSOBIA ArcGIS toolbar (developed by T. Le Bas). We take the initiative to explore the ability of aerial drone and satellite image (WorldView-3) to derive the depths and substrate type within the intertidal and subtidal zone where it is not accessible via acoustic mapping. Although the coverage was limited, the outcome showed a promising technique to be incorporated towards establishing a guideline to facilitate a standard practice for efficient marine spatial management in Malaysia.

Keywords: habitat mapping, marine spatial management, South China Sea, National seabed mapping

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37 Argos-Linked Fastloc GPS Reveals the Resting Activity of Migrating Sea Turtles

Authors: Gail Schofield, Antoine M. Dujon, Nicole Esteban, Rebecca M. Lester, Graeme C. Hays

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Variation in diel movement patterns during migration provides information on the strategies used by animals to maximize energy efficiency and ensure the successful completion of migration. For instance, many flying and land-based terrestrial species stop to rest and refuel at regular intervals along the migratory route, or at transitory ‘stopover’ sites, depending on resource availability. However, in cases where stopping is not possible (such as over–or through deep–open oceans, or over deserts and mountains), non-stop travel is required, with animals needing to develop strategies to rest while actively traveling. Recent advances in biologging technologies have identified mid-flight micro sleeps by swifts in Africa during the 10-month non-breeding period, and the use of lateralized sleep behavior in orca and bottlenose dolphins during migration. Here, highly accurate locations obtained by Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS transmitters of adult green (n=8 turtles, 9487 locations) and loggerhead (n=46 turtles, 47,588 locations) sea turtles migrating around thousand kilometers (over several weeks) from breeding to foraging grounds across the Indian and Mediterranean oceans were used to identify potential resting strategies. Stopovers were only documented for seven turtles, lasting up to 6 days; thus, this strategy was not commonly used, possibly due to the lack of potential ‘shallow’ ( < 100 m seabed depth) sites along routes. However, observations of the day versus night speed of travel indicated that turtles might use other mechanisms to rest. For instance, turtles traveled an average 31% slower at night compared to day during oceanic crossings. Slower travel speeds at night might be explained by turtles swimming in a less direct line at night and/or deeper dives reducing their forward motion, as indicated through studies using Argos-linked transmitters and accelerometers. Furthermore, within the first 24 h of entering waters shallower than 100 m towards the end of migration (the depth at which sea turtles can swim and rest on the seabed), some individuals travelled 72% slower at night, repeating this behavior intermittently (each time for a one-night duration at 3–6-day intervals) until reaching the foraging grounds. If the turtles were, in fact, resting on the seabed at this point, they could be inactive for up to 8-hours, facilitating protracted periods of rest after several weeks of constant swimming. Turtles might not rest every night once within these shallower depths, due to the time constraints of reaching foraging grounds and restoring depleted energetic reserves (as sea turtles are capital breeders, they tend not to feed for several months during migration to and from the breeding grounds and while breeding). In conclusion, access to data-rich, highly accurate Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS provided information about differences in the day versus night activity at different stages of migration, allowing us, for the first time, to compare the strategies used by a marine vertebrate with terrestrial land-based and flying species. However, the question of what resting strategies are used by individuals that remain in oceanic waters to forage, with combinations of highly accurate Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS transmitters and accelerometry or time-depth recorders being required for sufficient numbers of individuals.

Keywords: argos-linked fastloc GPS, data loggers, migration, resting strategy, telemetry

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36 Managing Shallow Gas for Offshore Platforms via Fit-For-Purpose Solutions: Case Study for Offshore Malaysia

Authors: Noorizal Huang, Christian Girsang, Mohamad Razi Mansoor

Abstract:

Shallow gas seepage was first spotted at a central processing platform offshore Malaysia in 2010, acknowledged as Platform T in this paper. Frequent monitoring of the gas seepage was performed through remotely operated vehicle (ROV) baseline survey and a comprehensive geophysical survey was conducted to understand the characteristics of the gas seepage and to ensure that the integrity of the foundation at Platform T was not compromised. The origin of the gas back then was unknown. A soil investigation campaign was performed in 2016 to study the origin of the gas seepage. Two boreholes were drilled; a composite borehole to 150m below seabed for the purpose of soil sampling and in-situ testing and a pilot hole to 155m below the seabed, which was later converted to a fit-for-purpose relief well as an alternate migration path for the gas. During the soil investigation campaign, dissipation tests were performed at several layers which were potentially the source or migration path for the gas. Five (5) soil samples were segregated for headspace test, to identify the gas type which subsequently can be used to identify the origin of the gas. Dissipation tests performed at four depth intervals indicates pore water pressure less than 20 % of the effective vertical stress and appear to continue decreasing if the test had not been stopped. It was concluded that a low to a negligible amount of excess pore pressure exist in clayey silt layers. Results from headspace test show presence of methane corresponding to the clayey silt layers as reported in the boring logs. The gas most likely comes from biogenic sources, feeding on organic matter in situ over a large depth range. It is unlikely that there are large pockets of gas in the soil due to its homogeneous clayey nature and the lack of excess pore pressure in other permeable clayey silt layers encountered. Instead, it is more likely that when pore water at certain depth encounters a more permeable path, such as a borehole, it rises up through this path due to the temperature gradient in the soil. As the water rises the pressure decreases, which could cause gases dissolved in the water to come out of solution and form bubbles. As a result, the gas will have no impact on the integrity of the foundation at Platform T. The fit-for-purpose relief well design as well as adopting headspace testing can be used to address the shallow gas issue at Platform T in a cost effective and efficient manners.

Keywords: dissipation test, headspace test, excess pore pressure, relief well, shallow gas

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35 Numerical Study on the Effect of Spudcan Penetration on the Jacket Platform

Authors: Xiangming Ge, Bing Pan, Wei He, Hao Chen, Yong Zhou, Jiayao Wu, Weijiang Chu

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How the extraction and penetration of spudcan affect the performance of the adjacent pile foundation supporting the jacket platform was studied in the program FLAC3D depending on a wind farm project in Bohai sea. The simulations were conducted at the end of the spudcan penetration, which induced a pockmark in the seabed. The effects of the distance between the pile foundation and the pockmark were studied. The displacement at the mudline arose when the pockmark was closer. The bearing capacity of this jacket platform with deep pile foundations has been less influenced by the process of spudcan penetration, which can induce severe stresses on the pile foundation. The induced rotation was also satisfied with the rotation-controlling criteria.

Keywords: offshore foundation, pile-soil interaction, spudcan penetration, FLAC3D

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34 A Review on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram, V. Sundar

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Caisson breakwaters are gravity structures resting on the seabed and piercing the free surface sunk in coastal waters to break the energy in the waves and protect the water area behind them by creating tranquil conditions on its lee side for the purpose of berthing of vessels. A number of formula and methodologies have been proposed for calculating the forces on caissons due to waves, most of which being evolved through intensive laboratory and field measurements. The reflection of waves from such breakwaters often generates clapotis, leading to an amplification of waves in its vicinity. This result in increased pressures and forces, forcing researchers to modify its seaside shape as well as placing dissipaters in the form of screens. Apart from the above aspects, this paper also discusses the other important phenomena, like overtopping that dictates the stability of caisson breakwaters.

Keywords: caisson breakwater, Jarlan type breakwater, screens, circular breakwater

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33 Physical Model Testing of Storm-Driven Wave Impact Loads and Scour at a Beach Seawall

Authors: Sylvain Perrin, Thomas Saillour

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The Grande-Motte port and seafront development project on the French Mediterranean coastline entailed evaluating wave impact loads (pressures and forces) on the new beach seawall and comparing the resulting scour potential at the base of the existing and new seawall. A physical model was built at ARTELIA’s hydraulics laboratory in Grenoble (France) to provide insight into the evolution of scouring overtime at the front of the wall, quasi-static and impulsive wave force intensity and distribution on the wall, and water and sand overtopping discharges over the wall. The beach was constituted of fine sand and approximately 50 m wide above mean sea level (MSL). Seabed slopes were in the range of 0.5% offshore to 1.5% closer to the beach. A smooth concrete structure will replace the existing concrete seawall with an elevated curved crown wall. Prior the start of breaking (at -7 m MSL contour), storm-driven maximum spectral significant wave heights of 2.8 m and 3.2 m were estimated for the benchmark historical storm event dated of 1997 and the 50-year return period storms respectively, resulting in 1 m high waves at the beach. For the wave load assessment, a tensor scale measured wave forces and moments and five piezo / piezo-resistive pressure sensors were placed on the wall. Light-weight sediment physical model and pressure and force measurements were performed with scale 1:18. The polyvinyl chloride light-weight particles used to model the prototype silty sand had a density of approximately 1 400 kg/m3 and a median diameter (d50) of 0.3 mm. Quantitative assessments of the seabed evolution were made using a measuring rod and also a laser scan survey. Testing demonstrated the occurrence of numerous impulsive wave impacts on the reflector (22%), induced not by direct wave breaking but mostly by wave run-up slamming on the top curved part of the wall. Wave forces of up to 264 kilonewtons and impulsive pressure spikes of up to 127 kilonewtons were measured. Maximum scour of -0.9 m was measured for the new seawall versus -0.6 m for the existing seawall, which is imputable to increased wave reflection (coefficient was 25.7 - 30.4% vs 23.4 - 28.6%). This paper presents a methodology for the setup and operation of a physical model in order to assess the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes at a beach seawall during storms events. It discusses the pros and cons of such methodology versus others, notably regarding structures peculiarities and model effects.

Keywords: beach, impacts, scour, seawall, waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
32 Regional Rates of Sand Supply to the New South Wales Coast: Southeastern Australia

Authors: Marta Ribo, Ian D. Goodwin, Thomas Mortlock, Phil O’Brien

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Coastal behavior is best investigated using a sediment budget approach, based on the identification of sediment sources and sinks. Grain size distribution over the New South Wales (NSW) continental shelf has been widely characterized since the 1970’s. Coarser sediment has generally accumulated on the outer shelf, and/or nearshore zones, with the latter related to the presence of nearshore reef and bedrocks. The central part of the NSW shelf is characterized by the presence of fine sediments distributed parallel to the coastline. This study presents new grain size distribution maps along the NSW continental shelf, built using all available NSW and Commonwealth Government holdings. All available seabed bathymetric data form prior projects, single and multibeam sonar, and aerial LiDAR surveys were integrated into a single bathymetric surface for the NSW continental shelf. Grain size information was extracted from the sediment sample data collected in more than 30 studies. The information extracted from the sediment collections varied between reports. Thus, given the inconsistency of the grain size data, a common grain size classification was her defined using the phi scale. The new sediment distribution maps produced, together with new detailed seabed bathymetric data enabled us to revise the delineation of sediment compartments to more accurately reflect the true nature of sediment movement on the inner shelf and nearshore. Accordingly, nine primary mega coastal compartments were delineated along the NSW coast and shelf. The sediment compartments are bounded by prominent nearshore headlands and reefs, and major river and estuarine inlets that act as sediment sources and/or sinks. The new sediment grain size distribution was used as an input in the morphological modelling to quantify the sediment transport patterns (and indicative rates of transport), used to investigate sand supply rates and processes from the lower shoreface to the NSW coast. The rate of sand supply to the NSW coast from deep water is a major uncertainty in projecting future coastal response to sea-level rise. Offshore transport of sand is generally expected as beaches respond to rising sea levels but an onshore supply from the lower shoreface has the potential to offset some of the impacts of sea-level rise, such as coastline recession. Sediment exchange between the lower shoreface and sub-aerial beach has been modelled across the south, central, mid-north and far-north coast of NSW. Our model approach is that high-energy storm events are the primary agents of sand transport in deep water, while non-storm conditions are responsible for re-distributing sand within the beach and surf zone.

Keywords: New South Wales coast, off-shore transport, sand supply, sediment distribution maps

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31 Near Bottom Concentrations of Krill in Two Arctic Fjords, Spitsbergen

Authors: Kajetan Deja, Katarzyna Draganska-Deja, Mateusz Ormanczyk, Michał Procajlo

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Two glaciated fjords on Spitsbergen (Hornsund 77°N) and Kongsfjorden (79°N) were studied for the occurrence of macroplankton (mostly euphausids, hyperiids, chaetognaths) with the use of drop down the camera. The underwater imagery demonstrates that closer to the glacier front, where turbid and freshwater occurs, most of the macroplankters leave the upper water column and descends to the bottom (about 100m depth). Concentrations of macroplankton in the immediate vicinity of the sediment reach over 500 specimens per m² - what corresponds to the biomass of 10g C/m³. Such concentrations of macroplankton are of prime interest for fish, seals and other carnivores. Conditions in the near-bottom waters are in many respects better than in the upper water column- better oxygenated, cold, fully saline and transparent waters with rich food deposited on the seabed from the surface (sinking microplankton). We suggest that near bottom occurrence of macroplankton is related to the increase of glacier melt and freshwater discharge intensity.

Keywords: arctic, ecosystem, fjords, Krill

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
30 Stability of the Wellhead in the Seabed in One of the Marine Reservoirs of Iran

Authors: Mahdi Aghaei, Saeid Jamshidi, Mastaneh Hajipour

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Effective factors on the mechanical wellbore stability are divided in to two categories: 1) Controllable factors, 2) Uncontrollable factors. The purpose of geo-mechanical modeling of wells is to determine the limit of controlled parameters change based on the stress regime at each point and by solving the governing equations the pore-elastic environment around the well. In this research, the mechanical analysis of wellbore stability was carried out for Soroush oilfield. For this purpose, the geo-mechanical model of the field is made using available data. This model provides the necessary parameters for obtaining the distribution of stress around the wellbore. Initially, a basic model was designed to perform various analysis, based on obtained data, using Abaqus software. All of the subsequent sensitivity analysis such as sensitivity analysis on porosity, permeability, etc. was done on the same basic model. The results obtained from these analysis gives various result such as: with the constant geomechanical parameters, and sensitivity analysis on porosity permeability is ineffective. After the most important parameters affecting the wellbore stability and instability are geo-mechanical parameters.

Keywords: wellbore stability, movement, stress, instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
29 Mixed Natural Adsorbents and Oxides for Oil Remediation

Authors: Cesar Maximo Oliva González, Javier Acevedo Cortez, Boris Kharisov, Thelma Serrano Quezada

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The importance of the crude oil refining process is due to the demand for petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, etc., which are used in daily activities and have a high impact on the global economy. In the processes of oil obtaining and refining, it is common to find problems such as spills on seabed and high energy consumption in processing. In order to quickly and efficiently attack these problems, the use of adsorbents has taken on great importance due to its ease of implementation, as well as the possibility of their regeneration to be reused. In this work, the use of two types of adsorbents is proposed: the first is a natural adsorbent such as aloe vera or nopal, which were lyophilized and hydrophobized to achieve a selectivity in oil adsorption in oil / water mixtures. The second is a mixed iron/nickel oxide, which is specially designed to adsorb the asphaltenes in the heavy fractions of the oil; in addition, this type of adsorbents presents catalytic properties that manage to decompose the heavier fractions of the petroleum in light hydrocarbons, descending thus the energy required for the oil refining process.

Keywords: nanomaterials, oil spills, remediation, natural adsorbents, mixed oxides

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28 Subsea Control Module (SCM) - A Vital Factor for Well Integrity and Production Performance in Deep Water Oil and Gas Fields

Authors: Okoro Ikechukwu Ralph, Fuat Kara

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The discoveries of hydrocarbon reserves has clearly drifted offshore, and in deeper waters - areas where the industry still has limited knowledge; and that were hitherto, regarded as being out of reach. This shift presents significant and increased challenges in technology requirements needed to guarantee safety of personnel, environment and equipment; ensure high reliability of installed equipment; and provide high level of confidence in security of investment and company reputation. Nowhere are these challenges more apparent than on subsea well integrity and production performance. The past two decades has witnessed enormous rise in deep and ultra-deep water offshore field developments for the recovery of hydrocarbons. Subsea installed equipment at the seabed has been the technology of choice for these developments. This paper discusses the role of Subsea Control module (SCM) as a vital factor for deep-water well integrity and production performance. A case study for Deep-water well integrity and production performance is analysed.

Keywords: offshore reliability, production performance, subsea control module, well integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
27 Geographic Information System Based Multi-Criteria Subsea Pipeline Route Optimisation

Authors: James Brown, Stella Kortekaas, Ian Finnie, George Zhang, Christine Devine, Neil Healy

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The use of GIS as an analysis tool for engineering decision making is now best practice in the offshore industry. GIS enables multidisciplinary data integration, analysis and visualisation which allows the presentation of large and intricate datasets in a simple map-interface accessible to all project stakeholders. Presenting integrated geoscience and geotechnical data in GIS enables decision makers to be well-informed. This paper is a successful case study of how GIS spatial analysis techniques were applied to help select the most favourable pipeline route. Routing a pipeline through any natural environment has numerous obstacles, whether they be topographical, geological, engineering or financial. Where the pipeline is subjected to external hydrostatic water pressure and is carrying pressurised hydrocarbons, the requirement to safely route the pipeline through hazardous terrain becomes absolutely paramount. This study illustrates how the application of modern, GIS-based pipeline routing techniques enabled the identification of a single most-favourable pipeline route crossing of a challenging seabed terrain. Conventional approaches to pipeline route determination focus on manual avoidance of primary constraints whilst endeavouring to minimise route length. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective and is liable to bias towards the discipline and expertise that is involved in the routing process. For very short routes traversing benign seabed topography in shallow water this approach may be sufficient, but for deepwater geohazardous sites, the need for an automated, multi-criteria, and quantitative approach is essential. This study combined multiple routing constraints using modern least-cost-routing algorithms deployed in GIS, hitherto unachievable with conventional approaches. The least-cost-routing procedure begins with the assignment of geocost across the study area. Geocost is defined as a numerical penalty score representing hazard posed by each routing constraint (e.g. slope angle, rugosity, vulnerability to debris flows) to the pipeline. All geocosted routing constraints are combined to generate a composite geocost map that is used to compute the least geocost route between two defined terminals. The analyses were applied to select the most favourable pipeline route for a potential gas development in deep water. The study area is geologically complex with a series of incised, potentially active, canyons carved into a steep escarpment, with evidence of extensive debris flows. A similar debris flow in the future could cause significant damage to a poorly-placed pipeline. Protruding inter-canyon spurs offer lower-gradient options for ascending an escarpment but the vulnerability of periodic failure of these spurs is not well understood. Close collaboration between geoscientists, pipeline engineers, geotechnical engineers and of course the gas export pipeline operator guided the analyses and assignment of geocosts. Shorter route length, less severe slope angles, and geohazard avoidance were the primary drivers in identifying the most favourable route.

Keywords: geocost, geohazard, pipeline route determination, pipeline route optimisation, spatial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
26 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

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With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
25 Biostabilisation of Sediments for the Protection of Marine Infrastructure from Scour

Authors: Rob Schindler

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Industry-standard methods of mitigating erosion of seabed sediments rely on ‘hard engineering’ approaches which have numerous environmental shortcomings: (1) direct loss of habitat by smothering of benthic species, (2) disruption of sediment transport processes, damaging geomorphic and ecosystem functionality (3) generation of secondary erosion problems, (4) introduction of material that may propagate non-local species, and (5) provision of pathways for the spread of invasive species. Recent studies have also revealed the importance of biological cohesion, the result of naturally occurring extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), in stabilizing natural sediments. Mimicking the strong bonding kinetics through the deliberate addition of EPS to sediments – henceforth termed ‘biostabilisation’ - offers a means in which to mitigate against erosion induced by structures or episodic increases in hydrodynamic forcing (e.g. storms and floods) whilst avoiding, or reducing, hard engineering. Here we present unique experiments that systematically examine how biostabilisation reduces scour around a monopile in a current, a first step to realizing the potential of this new method of scouring reduction for a wide range of engineering purposes in aquatic substrates. Experiments were performed in Plymouth University’s recirculating sediment flume which includes a recessed scour pit. The model monopile was 0.048 m in diameter, D. Assuming a prototype monopile diameter of 2.0 m yields a geometric ratio of 41.67. When applied to a 10 m prototype water depth this yields a model depth, d, of 0.24 m. The sediment pit containing the monopile was filled with different biostabilised substrata prepared using a mixture of fine sand (D50 = 230 μm) and EPS (Xanthan gum). Nine sand-EPS mixtures were examined spanning EPS contents of 0.0% < b0 < 0.50%. Scour development was measured using a laser point gauge along a 530 mm centreline at 10 mm increments at regular periods over 5 h. Maximum scour depth and excavated area were determined at different time steps and plotted against time to yield equilibrium values. After 5 hours the current was stopped and a detailed scan of the final scour morphology was taken. Results show that increasing EPS content causes a progressive reduction in the equilibrium depth and lateral extent of scour, and hence excavated material. Very small amounts equating to natural communities (< 0.1% by mass) reduce scour rate, depth and extent of scour around monopiles. Furthermore, the strong linear relationships between EPS content, equilibrium scour depth, excavation area and timescales of scouring offer a simple index on which to modify existing scour prediction methods. We conclude that the biostabilisation of sediments with EPS may offer a simple, cost-effective and ecologically sensitive means of reducing scour in a range of contexts including OWFs, bridge piers, pipeline installation, and void filling in rock armour. Biostabilisation may also reduce economic costs through (1) Use of existing site sediments, or waste dredged sediments (2) Reduced fabrication of materials, (3) Lower transport costs, (4) Less dependence on specialist vessels and precise sub-sea assembly. Further, its potential environmental credentials may allow sensitive use of the seabed in marine protection zones across the globe.

Keywords: biostabilisation, EPS, marine, scour

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
24 Design of Single Point Mooring Buoy System by Parametric Analysis

Authors: Chul-Hee Jo, Do-Youb Kim, Seok-Jin Cho, Yu-Ho Rho

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The Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring (CALM) Single Point Mooring (SPM) buoy system is the most popular and widely used type of offshore loading terminals. SPM buoy mooring systems have been deployed worldwide for a variety of applications, water depths and vessel sizes ranging from small production carriers to Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs). Because of safe and easy berthing and un-berthing operations, the SPM buoy mooring system is also preferred for offshore terminals. The SPM buoy consists of a buoy that is permanently moored to the seabed by means of multiple mooring lines. The buoy contains a bearing system that allows a part of it to rotate around the moored geostatic part. When moored to the rotating part of the buoy, a vessel is able to freely weathervane around the buoy. This study was verified the effects of design variables in order to design an SPM buoy mooring system through parametric analysis. The design variables have independent and nonlinear characteristics. Using parametric analysis, this research was found that the fairlead departure angle, wave height and period, chain diameter and line length effect to the mooring top tension, buoy excursion and line layback.

Keywords: Single Point Mooring (SPM), Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring(CALM), design variables, parametric analysis, mooring system optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
23 Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensing Using Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Algorithm

Authors: Zhihua Yu, Qi Zhang, Mingyu Zhang, Haolong Dai

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Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are gaining extensive attention, for the advantages of high sensitivity, accurate location, light weight, large-scale monitoring, good concealment, and etc. In this paper, a novel optical fiber distributed vibration sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson Interferometry (MI) to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. Experiments show that the spatial resolution of is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system is about 10-3 rad/√Hz, and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is about 30.34dB. This vibration measurement scheme can be applied at surface, seabed or downhole for vibration measurements or distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).

Keywords: fiber optics sensors, Michelson interferometry, MI, phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry, Φ-OTDR, phase generated carrier, PGC

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
22 Mathieu Stability of Offshore Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, P. A. Kiran

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Increasing demand for large-sized Floating, Storage and Regasification Units (FSRUs) for oil and gas industries led to the development of novel geometric form of Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform (BLSRP). BLSRP consists of a circular deck supported by six buoyant legs placed symmetrically with respect to wave direction. Circular deck is connected to buoyant legs using hinged joints, which restrain transfer of rotational response from the legs to deck and vice-versa. Buoyant legs are connected to seabed using taut moored system with high initial pretension, enabling rigid body motion in vertical plane. Encountered environmental loads induce dynamic tether tension variations, which in turn affect stability of the platform. The present study investigates Mathieu stability of BLSRP under the postulated tether pullout cases by inducing additional tension in the tethers. From the numerical studies carried out, it is seen that postulated tether pullout on any one of the buoyant legs does not result in Mathieu type instability even under excessive tether tension. This is due to the presence of hinged joints, which are capable of dissipating the unbalanced loads to other legs. However, under tether pullout of consecutive buoyant legs, Mathieu-type instability is observed.

Keywords: offshore platforms, stability, postulated failure, dynamic tether tension

Procedia PDF Downloads 104