Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

Search results for: absorbance

119 Barrier Properties of Starch-Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli


Replacement of plastics used in the food industry seems to be a serious issue to overcome mainly the environmental problems in recent years. This study investigates the hydrophilicity and permeability properties of starch biopolymer which ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (0-10%) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) (1 -15%) were used to enhance its properties. Starch -EVOH nanocomposites were prepared by casting method in different formulations. NCC production by acid hydrolysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Solubility, water vapor permeability, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorbance were measured on each of the nanocomposites. The results were analyzed by SAS software. The lowest moisture absorbance was measured in pure starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC. The lowest permeability to water vapor belongs to starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC and the sample containing 7.8% EVOH and 13% NCC. Also, the lowest solubility was observed in the composite contains the highest amount of EVOH. Applied Process resulted in production of bio films which have good resistance to water vapor permeability and solubility in water. The use of NCC and EVOH leads to reduced moisture absorbance property of the biofilms.

Keywords: starch, EVOH, nanocrystalline cellulose, hydrophilicity

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118 HPSEC Application as a New Indicator of Nitrification Occurrence in Water Distribution Systems

Authors: Sina Moradi, Sanly Liu, Christopher W. K. Chow, John Van Leeuwen, David Cook, Mary Drikas, Soha Habibi, Rose Amal


In recent years, chloramine has been widely used for both primary and secondary disinfection. However, a major concern with the use of chloramine as a secondary disinfectant is the decay of chloramine and nitrification occurrence. The management of chloramine decay and the prevention of nitrification are critical for water utilities managing chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. The detection and monitoring of nitrification episodes is usually carried out through measuring certain water quality parameters, which are commonly referred to as indicators of nitrification. The approach taken in this study was to collect water samples from different sites throughout a drinking water distribution systems, Tailem Bend – Keith (TBK) in South Australia, and analyse the samples by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). We investigated potential association between the water qualities from HPSEC analysis with chloramine decay and/or nitrification occurrence. MATLAB 8.4 was used for data processing of HPSEC data and chloramine decay. An increase in the absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles at λ=230 nm between apparent molecular weights of 200 to 1000 Da was observed at sampling sites that experienced rapid chloramine decay and nitrification while its absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles at λ=254 nm decreased. An increase in absorbance at λ=230 nm and AMW < 500 Da was detected for Raukkan CT (R.C.T), a location that experienced nitrification and had significantly lower chloramine residual (<0.1 mg/L). This increase in absorbance was not detected in other sites that did not experience nitrification. Moreover, the UV absorbance at 254 nm of the HPSEC spectra was lower at R.C.T. than other sites. In this study, a chloramine residual index (C.R.I) was introduced as a new indicator of chloramine decay and nitrification occurrence, and is defined based on the ratio of area underneath the HPSEC spectra at two different wavelengths of 230 and 254 nm. The C.R.I index is able to indicate DS sites that experienced nitrification and rapid chloramine loss. This index could be useful for water treatment and distribution system managers to know if nitrification is occurring at a specific location in water distribution systems.

Keywords: nitrification, HPSEC, chloramine decay, chloramine residual index

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
117 Surface Thermodynamics Approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-TB) – Human Sputum Interactions

Authors: J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, S. N. Omenyi


This research work presents the surface thermodynamics approach to M-TB/HIV-Human sputum interactions. This involved the use of the Hamaker coefficient concept as a surface energetics tool in determining the interaction processes, with the surface interfacial energies explained using van der Waals concept of particle interactions. The Lifshitz derivation for van der Waals forces was applied as an alternative to the contact angle approach which has been widely used in other biological systems. The methodology involved taking sputum samples from twenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible Spectrophotometer. The variables required for the computations with the Lifshitz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The Matlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the data produced from the experiments (absorbance values). The Hamaker constants and the combined Hamaker coefficients were obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the Lifshitz equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficients A132abs and A131abs on both infected and uninfected sputum samples gave the values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule for M-TB infected sputum and Ã132abs = 0.18825x10-21Joule for M-TB/HIV infected sputum. The significance of this result is the positive value of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which suggests the existence of net positive van der waals forces demonstrating an attraction between the bacteria and the macrophage. This however, implies that infection can occur. It was also shown that in the presence of HIV, the interaction energy is reduced by 13% conforming adverse effects observed in HIV patients suffering from tuberculosis.

Keywords: absorbance, dielectric constant, hamaker coefficient, lifshitz formula, macrophage, mycobacterium tuberculosis, van der waals forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
116 Changes of pH and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Growth in Liquid Media

Authors: Sayaka Ono, Ryutaro Imai, Tomoko Ehara, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Hajime Matsumura


Background: Wound pH affects a number of important factors in wound healing. We previously measured the pH value of the exudates collected from second-degree burns and found that the increase in pH was observed in the burn wounds in which colonized by Staphylococcus spp., and the increase in pH was evident prior to the clinical findings of local infection. To investigate the relationship between the changes of pH value and bacterial growth, we performed in vitro study using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and liquid medium as a locally infected wound equivalent model. Methods: Pseudomonas aeruginosa standard strain (ATCCR 10145TM) was cultured at 37 °C environment in Luria Broth Miller medium. The absorbance rate which means the amount of bacteria was measured by a microplate reader 2300EnSpireTM). The pH was measured using pH-indicator strips (MColorpHastTM). The statistical analysis was performed using the product-moment correlation coefficient of Pearson's. Results: The absorbance rate and pH value were increased along with culture period. There was a positive correlation between pH value and absorbance rate (n = 27, Pearson's r = 0.985). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between pH value and the culture period (n = 18, Pearson's r = 0.901). The bacteria was well growth in the media from pH 6.6 to pH 8.0 and the pH of culture media converged at 8 -9 along with the bacterial growth. Conclusion: From these results, we conclude that pH value of the wound is correlated with the number of viable bacteria and bacterial growth periods.

Keywords: colonization, potential of hydrogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wound

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115 Optical Characterization of Lead Sulphide Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Ekpekpo Arthur


Thin films can either be conductive or dielectric (non-conductive). It is formed through atom/molecules state or formed after decomposing the materials into atomic/molecular scale by physical or chemical processes. In this study, thin films of Lead Sulphide were deposited on glass substrate prepared from lead acetate and thiourea solution using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The glass slides were subjected to the pretreatment by soaking them in a solution of 50% sulphuric acid and 50% nitric acid. Lead sulphide was deposited at different parameters such as deposition time and temperature. The optical properties of the thin films were determined from spectroscopy measurements of absorbance and reflectance. Optical studies show that the band gap of lead sulphide ranges between 0.41 eV to 300K.

Keywords: lead sulphide, spectroscopy, absorbance, reflectance

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114 Thermal Stabilisation of Poly(a)•Poly(U) by TMPyP4 and Zn(X)TMPyP4 Derivatives in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: A. Kudrev


The duplex Poly(A)-Poly(U) denaturation in an aqueous solutions in mixtures with the tetracationic MeTMPyP4 (Me = 2H, Zn(II); TMPyP4 is 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin), was investigated by monitoring the changes in the UV-Vis absorbance spectrum with increasing temperatures from 20°С to 70°С (рН 7.0, I=0.15M). The absorbance data matrices were analyzed with a versatile chemometric procedure that provides the melting profile (distribution of species) and the pure spectrum for each chemical species present along the heating experiment. As revealed by the increase of Tm, the duplex structure was stabilized by these porphyrins. The values of stabilization temperature ΔTm in the presence of these porphyrins are relatively large, 1.2-8.4 °C, indicating that the porphyrins contribute differently in stabilizing the duplex Poly(A)-Poly(U) structure. Remarkable is the fact that the porphyrin TMPyP4 was less effective in the stabilization of the duplex structure than the metalloporphyrin Zn(X)TMPyP4 which suggests that metallization play an important role in porphyrin-RNA binding. Molecular Dynamics Simulations has been used to illustrate melting of the duplex dsRNA bound with a porphyrin molecule.

Keywords: melting, Poly(A)-Poly(U), TMPyP4, Zn(X)TMPyP4

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113 Thiazolo [5,4-d] Thiazole Based Polymers and Investigation of Optical Properties for Electronic Applications

Authors: Zeynep Dikmen, Vural Bütün


Electron donor or acceptor capability to participate in electron conjugation is the requirement for an electroactive material. Conjugated molecules and polymers bearing heterocyclic units have potential as optically electroactive materials. Thiazolo thiazole based compounds have attention for last two decades, because they have attractive electronic and optical properties, these compounds are useful for electronic application areas such as dye sentisized solar cells (DSSCs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole is bicyclic aromatic structure contains N and S atoms which act as electron donor. A new electron accepting or donating group bound to thiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole fused ring can change the electronic, spectroscopic, stability and dyeing properties of the new material. Polyphenylene(thiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole) (p-PhTT) compound was synthesized via condensation reaction of terephthalaldehyde with dithiooxamide. The chemical structure was determined with solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Optical properties (i.e. absorbance and band gap) was determined via solid UV-vis spectroscopy. The insoluble polymer was quarternized with 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC). Colorless VBC changed into a yellow liquid. AgNO3 complex were prepared and optical properties were investigated with UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were examined in this research. This structure exhibits good absorbance and fluorescence in UV-vis region. Synthesis scheme of PyTT and preparation of metal complexes are given. PyTT has absorbance at ~360 nm and fluorescence at ~420 nm.

Keywords: thiazolo thiazole, quarternized polymers, polymeric ligands, Ag complexes

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112 Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured Acropora-Like Lead Sulfide Thin Films

Authors: S. Kaci, A. Keffous, O. Fellahi, I. Bozetine, H. Menari


In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of Acropora-like lead sulfide nanostructured thin films using chemical bath deposition. The method has the strong points of low temperature and no surfactant, comparing with the other method. The preferential growth directions of the broad branches were indexed as along (200) directions. The photoelectrochemical property of the as-deposited thin films was also investigated. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed in the aim to determine the flat band potential (Vfb) and to confirm the n-type character of PbS, elucidated from the J(V) curves both in the dark and under illumination. The apparition of the photocurrent Jph started at a potential VON of −0.41 V/ECS and increased towards the anodic direction, which is typical of n-type behavior. The near infrared absorbance spectrum displayed an absorbance edge at 1959 nm, showing blue shift comparing to bulk PbS (3020 nm). These nanostructured lead sulfide thin films may have potential application as dispersed photoelectrode capable of generating H2 under visible light.

Keywords: lead sulfide, nanostructures, photo-conversion, thin films

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111 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle: An Analytical Method Based Approach for the Quantitative Assessment of Drug

Authors: Zeid A. Alothman


Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag(+) ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adapted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, adrenaline, XRD, TEM, analysis

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110 BaFe12O19/Polythiophene Nanocomposite as Electrochemical Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: H. Farokhi, A. Bahadoran


This paper is focused on the absorbance and magnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite based on conducting polymer, carbon black and barium hexaferrite in epoxy resin on the E-glass fibre substrate. The highly conductive nanocomposite was provided by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of carbon black (C) and barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) as electromagnetic absorbance material. The structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). SEM images showed the uniformly coated PAni on the surface of carbon black and barium hexaferrite. XRD peaks also verified the presence of carbon black and barium hexaferrite in the nanocomposite. The microwave characteristics determined from the magnetic and dielectric properties of the elastomeric composites obtained from scattering data by fitting the samples in a waveguide, where measured in the frequency in X-band frequency range, the range of 8 to 12 GHz. The reflection losses were evaluated to be less than −5dB over the whole X-band frequency (8–12 GHz) for the thickness of 1.4mm.

Keywords: conductive polymer, magnetic materials, capacitance, electrochemical cell

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109 Investigation of the Morphology and Optical Properties of CuAlO₂ Thin Film

Authors: T. M. Aminu, A. Salisu, B. Abdu, H. U. Alhassan, T. H. Dharma


Thin films of CuAlO2 were deposited on clean glass substrate using the chemical solution deposition (sol-gel) method of deposition with CuCl and AlCl3 taken as the starting materials. CuCl was dissolved in HCl while AlCl₃ in distilled water, pH value of the mixture was controlled by addition of NaOH. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of the deposited CuAlO₂ thin film. The surface morphology reveals an improved crystalline as annealing temperature increases. The results of the UV-vis and FT-IR spectrophotometry indicate that the absorbance for all the samples decreases sharply from a common value of about 89% at about 329 nm to a range of values of 56.2%-35.2% and the absorption / extinction coefficients of the films decrease with increase in annealing temperature from 1.58 x 10⁻⁶ to1.08 x 10⁻⁶ at about 1.14eV in the infrared region to about 1.93 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.29 x 10⁻⁶ at about 3.62eV in the visible region, the transmittance, reflectance and band gaps vary directly with annealing temperature, the deposited films were found to be suitable in optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: copper aluminium-oxide (CuAlO2), absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, band gaps

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108 DNA-Based Gold Nanoprobe Biosensor to Detect Pork Contaminant

Authors: Rizka Ardhiyana, Liesbetini Haditjaroko, Sri Mulijani, Reki Ashadi Wicaksono, Raafqi Ranasasmita


Designing a sensitive, specific and easy to use method to detect pork contamination in the food industry remains a major challenge. In the current study, we developed a sensitive thiol-bond AuNP-Probe biosensor that will change color when detecting pork DNA in the Cytochrome B region. The interaction between the biosensors and DNA sample is measured by spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The biosensor is made by reducing gold with trisodium citrate to produce gold nanoparticle with 39.05 nm diameter. The AuNP-Probe biosensor (gold nanoprobe) achieved 16.04 ng DNA/µl limit of detection and 53.48 ng DNA/µl limit of quantification. The linearity (R2) between color absorbance changes and DNA concentration is 0.9916. The biosensor has a good specificty as it does not cross-react with DNA of chicken and beef. To verify specificity towards the target sequence, PCR was tested to the target sequence and reacted to the PCR product with the biosensor. The PCR DNA isolate resulted in a 2.7 fold higher absorbance compared to pork-DNA isolate alone (without PCR). The sensitivity and specificity of the method show the promising application of the thiol-bond AuNP biosensor in pork-detection.

Keywords: biosensor, DNA probe, gold nanoparticle (AuNP), pork meat, qPCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
107 Photophysical Study of Pyrene Butyric Acid in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

Authors: Pratap K. Chhotaray, Jitendriya Swain, Ashok Mishra, Ramesh L. Gardas


Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts, consist predominantly of ions and found to be liquid below 100°C. The unparalleled growing interest in ILs is based upon their never ending design flexibility. The use of ILs as a co-solvent in binary as well as a ternary mixture with molecular solvents multifold it’s utility. Since polarity is one of the most widely applied solvent concepts which represents simple and straightforward means for characterizing and ranking the solvent media, its study for a binary mixture of ILs is crucial for its widespread application and development. The primary approach to the assessment of solution phase intermolecular interactions, which generally occurs on the picosecond to nanosecond time scales, is to exploit the optical response of photophysical probe. Pyrene butyric acid (PBA) is used as fluorescence probe due to its high quantum yield, longer lifetime and high solvent polarity dependence of fluorescence spectra. Propylammonium formate (PAF) is the IL used for this study. Both the UV-absorbance spectra and steady state fluorescence intensity study of PBA in different concentration of aqueous PAF, reveals that with an increase in PAF concentration, both the absorbance and fluorescence intensity increases which indicate the progressive solubilisation of PBA. Whereas, near about 50% of IL concentration, all of the PBA molecules get solubilised as there are no changes in the absorbance and fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, the ratio II/IV, where the band II corresponds to the transition from S1 (ν = 0) to S0 (ν = 0), and the band IV corresponds to transition from S1 (ν = 0) to S0 (ν = 2) of PBA, indicates that the addition of water into PAF increases the polarity of the medium. Time domain lifetime study shows an increase in lifetime of PBA towards the higher concentration of PAF. It can be attributed to the decrease in non-radiative rate constant at higher PAF concentration as the viscosity is higher. The monoexponential decay suggests that homogeneity of solvation environment whereas the uneven width at full width at half maximum (FWHM) indicates there might exist some heterogeneity around the fluorophores even in the water-IL mixed solvents.

Keywords: fluorescence, ionic liquid, lifetime, polarity, pyrene butyric acid

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106 Dairy Wastewater Remediation Using Electrochemical Oxidation on Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

Authors: Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum’h, Abeer Albsoul, Khalideh Alrawashdeh, Dina Al Tarazi


Treated wastewater reuse has been considered recently as one of the successful management strategies to overcome water shortage in countries suffering from water scarcity. The non-readily biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater cannot be destructed by conventional treatment methods. This paper deals with the electrochemical treatment of dairy wastewater using a promising non-conventional Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) anode. During the electrochemical process, different operating parameters were investigated, such as electrolysis time, current density, supporting electrolyte, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity as well as absorbance/color. The experimental work revealed that electrochemical oxidation carried out with no added electrolyte has significantly reduced the COD, turbidity, and color (absorbance) by 72%, 76%, and 78% respectively. Results also showed that raising the current density from 5.1 mA/cm² to 7.7 mA/cm² has boosted COD, and color removal to 82.5%, and 83% respectively. However, the current density did not show any significant effect on the turbidity. Interestingly, it was observed that adding Na₂SO₄ and FeCl₃ as supporting electrolytes brought the COD removal to 91% and 97% respectively. Likewise, turbidity and color removal has been enhanced by the addition of the same supporting electrolytes.

Keywords: boron doped-diamond anode, dairy wastewater, electrochemical oxidation, supporting electrolytes

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105 Anti-Fibrillation Propensity of a Flavonoid Baicalein against the Fibrils of Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Potential Therapeutics for Lysozyme Amyloidosis

Authors: Naveed Ahmad Fazili


More than 20 human diseases involve the fibrillation of a specific protein/peptide which forms pathological deposits at various sites. Hereditary lysozyme amyloidosis is a systemic disorder which mostly affects liver, spleen and kidney. This conformational disorder is featured by lysozyme fibril formation. In vivo lysozyme fibrillation was simulated under in vitro conditions using a strong denaturant GdHCl at 3M concentration. Sharp decline in the ANS fluorescence intensity compared to the partially unfolded states, almost 20 fold increase in ThT fluorescence intensity, increase in absorbance at 450 nm suggesting turbidity, negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD at 217 nm, red shift of 50 nm compared to the native state in congo red assay and appearance of a network of long rope like fibrils in TEM analysis suggested HEWL fibrillation. Anti-fibrillation potency of baicalein against the preformed fibrils of HEWL was investigated following ThT assay in which there was a dose dependent decrease in ThT fluorescence intensity compared to the fibrillar state of HEWL with the maximum effect observed at 150 μM baicalein concentration, loss of negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD region, dip in the Rayleigh scattering intensity and absorbance at 350 nm and 450 nm respectively together with a reduction in the density of fibrillar structure in TEM imaging. Thus, it could be suggested that baicalein could prove to be a positive therapeutics for hereditary human lysozyme amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, baicalein, congo red, negative ellipticity, therapeutics

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104 Radical Scavenging Activity of Protein Extracts from Pulse and Oleaginous Seeds

Authors: Silvia Gastaldello, Maria Grillo, Luca Tassoni, Claudio Maran, Stefano Balbo


Antioxidants are nowadays attractive not only for the countless benefits to the human and animal health, but also for the perspective of use as food preservative instead of synthetic chemical molecules. In this study, the radical scavenging activity of six protein extracts from pulse and oleaginous seeds was evaluated. The selected matrices are Pisum sativum (yellow pea from two different origins), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lupinus luteus cv Mister (lupin) and Glycine max (soybean), since they are economically interesting for both human and animal nutrition. The seeds were grinded and proteins extracted from 20mg powder with a specific vegetal-extraction kit. Proteins have been quantified through Bradford protocol and scavenging activity was revealed using DPPH assay, based on radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) absorbance decrease in the presence of antioxidants molecules. Different concentrations of the protein extract (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µg/ml) were mixed with DPPH solution (DPPH 0,004% in ethanol 70% v/v). Ascorbic acid was used as a scavenging activity standard reference, at the same six concentrations of protein extracts, while DPPH solution was used as control. Samples and standard were prepared in triplicate and incubated for 30 minutes in dark at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 517nm (ABS30). Average and standard deviation of absorbance values were calculated for each concentration of samples and standard. Statistical analysis using t-students and p-value were performed to assess the statistical significance of the scavenging activity difference between the samples (or standard) and control (ABSctrl). The percentage of antioxidant activity has been calculated using the formula [(ABSctrl-ABS30)/ABSctrl]*100. The obtained results demonstrate that all matrices showed antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid, used as standard, exhibits a 96% scavenging activity at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. At the same conditions, sunflower, safflower and yellow peas revealed the highest antioxidant performance among the matrices analyzed, with an activity of 74%, 68% and 70% respectively (p < 0.005). Although lupin and soybean exhibit a lower antioxidant activity compared to the other matrices, they showed a percentage of 46 and 36 respectively. All these data suggest the possibility to use undervalued edible matrices as antioxidants source. However, further studies are necessary to investigate a possible synergic effect of several matrices as well as the impact of industrial processes for a large-scale approach.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH assay, natural matrices, vegetal proteins

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103 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Matricaria pubscens Extracts: A Wild Space of North African Pharmacopeia

Authors: Abdelouahab Dehimati, Fatiha Bedjou


This study focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four extracts from the plant Matricaria pubscens (Asteraceae) harvest in the region of Ghardaia, the northern Sahara of Algeria. The different extracts were analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds and their biological activities. The ethanol extract expresses a better extraction yield (44.22%). We have first performed the quantitative colorimetric methods for total polyphenols. Wherein the aqueous extract shows the highest total polyphenol content and total flavonoid (216.66±2.58 mg Eq GA/g and 111.04±0.49 mg Eq Q/g E, respectively) and ethanol extract 50% total tannins content (68.88±2.72 mg Eq AT/g E). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts of Matricaria pubscens by the arbitrary value IC50. The ethanol 50% extract is expressed strong activity with an IC50 14.19±1.25 mg/m against the DPPH radical and 11.66±0.53 mg/ml against the ABTS radical). In addition, the aqueous extract showed strong reducing power with an IC50 (48.61±1.14 mg/ml). However, the results obtained by the reducing power of phosphomolybdat the test are calculated by the iron maximum absorbance where ethanol extract 50% gives an absorbance of about 1.641 ± 0.01nm. Otherwise, methanol 70% and butanol 80% extracts gave a very large chelating effect of iron with an IC50 (38.38±0.01 μg/ml and 38.58±0.04 μg/ml respectively). By the method of disc Diffuson, the results of the antimicrobial activity are achieved butanolic extract 80% shows high activity towards MRSA (MIC: 3.51mg/ml; BMC>100 mg/ml). Their shares, the extracts were the most active for the antifungal test, the butanol 80% extract was the most active against A. niger (MIC: 12.5 mg/ml; FMC>100 mg/ml). These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their phenolic compounds could be exploited for therapeutic purposes, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: Matricaria pubscens, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, IC50, MIC

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102 Optimized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dye and Counter Electrode from Robusta Coffee Beans Peel Waste

Authors: Tomi Setiawan, Wahyu Y. Subekti, Siti S. Nur'Adya, Khusnul Ilmiah


Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is one type of solar cell, where solar cells function to convert light energy become the electrical energy. DSSC has two important parts of dye and counter electrode. Anthocyanin compounds in the coffee beans peel can be potential as natural dye and also counter electrodes as activated carbon in the DSSC system. The purpose of this research is to find out how to isolate Anthocyanin, manufacture of counter electrode, and to know the efficiency of counter electrode produced from the coffee pulp waste in DSSC prototype. In this research we used 2 x 2 cm FTO glass coated carbon paste with a thickness variation of 100 μL, 200 μL and 300 μL as counter electrode and other FTO glass coated with TiO₂ paste as work electrode, then two FTO glasses are connected to form a sandwich-liked structure and add Triiodide electrolyte solution in its gap, thus forming a DSSC prototype. The results showed that coffee pulp waste contains anthocyanin of 12.23 mL/80gr and it can produce activated carbon. The characterization performed shows that the UV-Vis Anthocyanin result is at wavelength of ultra violet area that is 219,50 nm with absorbance value equal to 1,469, and maximum wavelength at visible area is 720,00 nm with absorbance value equal to 0,013. The functional groups contained in the anthocyanin are O-H groups at wave numbers 3385.60 cm⁻¹, C = O groups at wave numbers 1618.63 cm⁻¹, and C-O-C groups at 1065.40 cm⁻¹ wave numbers. Morphological characterization using the SEM shows the activated carbon surface area becomes larger and evenly distributed. Voltage obtained on Counter Electrode 100 μL variation of 395mV, 200 μL of 334mV 100 μL of 254mV.

Keywords: DSSC, anthocyanin, counter electrode, solar cell, coffee pulp

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101 Development and Validation of a Turbidimetric Bioassay to Determine the Potency of Ertapenem Sodium

Authors: Tahisa M. Pedroso, Hérida R. N. Salgado


The microbiological turbidimetric assay allows the determination of potency of the drug, by measuring the turbidity (absorbance), caused by inhibition of microorganisms by ertapenem sodium. Ertapenem sodium (ERTM), a synthetic antimicrobial agent of the class of carbapenems, shows action against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Turbidimetric assays are described in the literature for some antibiotics, but this method is not described for ertapenem. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and accurate microbiological assay by turbidimetry to quantify ertapenem sodium injectable as an alternative to the physicochemical methods described in the literature. Several preliminary tests were performed to choose the following parameters: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, IAL 1851, 8 % of inoculum, BHI culture medium, and aqueous solution of ertapenem sodium. 10.0 mL of sterile BHI culture medium were distributed in 20 tubes. 0.2 mL of solutions (standard and test), were added in tube, respectively S1, S2 and S3, and T1, T2 and T3, 0.8 mL of culture medium inoculated were transferred to each tube, according parallel lines 3 x 3 test. The tubes were incubated in shaker Marconi MA 420 at a temperature of 35.0 °C ± 2.0 °C for 4 hours. After this period, the growth of microorganisms was inhibited by addition of 0.5 mL of 12% formaldehyde solution in each tube. The absorbance was determined in Quimis Q-798DRM spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 530 nm. An analytical curve was constructed to obtain the equation of the line by the least-squares method and the linearity and parallelism was detected by ANOVA. The specificity of the method was proven by comparing the response obtained for the standard and the finished product. The precision was checked by testing the determination of ertapenem sodium in three days. The accuracy was determined by recovery test. The robustness was determined by comparing the results obtained by varying wavelength, brand of culture medium and volume of culture medium in the tubes. Statistical analysis showed that there is no deviation from linearity in the analytical curves of standard and test samples. The correlation coefficients were 0.9996 and 0.9998 for the standard and test samples, respectively. The specificity was confirmed by comparing the absorbance of the reference substance and test samples. The values obtained for intraday, interday and between analyst precision were 1.25%; 0.26%, 0.15% respectively. The amount of ertapenem sodium present in the samples analyzed, 99.87%, is consistent. The accuracy was proven by the recovery test, with value of 98.20%. The parameters varied did not affect the analysis of ertapenem sodium, confirming the robustness of this method. The turbidimetric assay is more versatile, faster and easier to apply than agar diffusion assay. The method is simple, rapid and accurate and can be used in routine analysis of quality control of formulations containing ertapenem sodium.

Keywords: ertapenem sodium, turbidimetric assay, quality control, validation

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100 Viability and Sensitivity of SFN6B (Host-Specific Bacteriophage) towards Shigella Flexneri in Various Water Samples

Authors: Siewchuiang Sia, Gimcheong Tan


Bacteriophages are the most abundant and genetically diverse living entities on earth; they help in regulating and maintaining microbial diversity and balance in its natural ecosystem. In this study, the infectivity of SFN6B tailed phage was investigated in various water samples. Host bacteria (Shigella flexneri) were spiked in sterilized environmental and domestic water samples, followed by SFN6B treatment. Two incubation conditions were selected for this study, 37 oC and room temperature. S. flexneri and SFN6B viability were monitored hourly for consecutive 7 hours and extended viability study for consecutive 4 days. Absorbance of all bacteria spiked water samples were taken to monitor the bacteria count. Results showed reduction in the absorbance of the SFN6B treated water sample as compared to negative control, indicating reduction in bacterial count either due to negative growth or lysis by the lytic bacteriophage. Consistent with the result, SFN6B titer increases for first two days. However, prolong incubation of these cultures reaches equilibrium, between phage and bacteria. Temperature and water sample source also influence the interaction between S. flexneri and SFN6B. Stronger interaction was observed in 37oC as compared to room temperature, where higher bacteria count and phage titer increase were recorded. Availability of nutrient in water sample also plays a crucial role in the interaction between bacteria and phage. Higher nutrient level, such as lake and river waters were observed to give better infectivity and viability of both bacteria and phage as compared to tab water. It is believed that S. flexneri continue to remain viable and able to grow in the present of SFN6B bacteriophage, but the number was closely regulated by surrounding phages. This allows better understanding of the characteristics of SFN6B that could serve as the basis for future studies and applications.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Shigella flexneri, infection, microbial diversity

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99 Pd(II) Complex with 4-Bromo-2,6-Bis-Hydroxymethyl-Phenol and Nikotinamid: Synthesis and Spectral Analysis

Authors: Özlen Altun, Zeliha Yoruç


In the present study, the reactions involving 4-Bromo-2,6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol (BBHMP) and nikotinamide (NA) in the presence Pd (II) ion were investigated. Optimum conditions for the reactions were established as pH 7 and λ = 450 nm. According to absorbance measurements, the mole ratio of BBHMP : NA : Pd2+ was found as 1 : 2 : 2. As a result of physico-chemical, spectrophotometric and thermal analysis results, the reactions of BBHMP and NA with Pd (II) is complexation reactions and one molecule BBHMP and two molecules of NA react with two molecules of metal (II) ion.

Keywords: 4-Bromo-2, 6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol, nicotinamide, Pd(II), spectral analysis, synthesis

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98 Statistical Design of Central Point for Evaluate the Combination of PH and Cinnamon Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Activity Using the ABTS Technique

Authors: H. Minor-Pérez, A. M. Mota-Silva, S. Ortiz-Barrios


Substances of vegetable origin with antioxidant capacity have a high potential for application on the conservation of some foods, can prevent or reduce for example oxidation of lipids. However a food is a complex system whose wide variety of components wich can reduce or eliminate this antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity can be determined with the ABTS technique. The radical ABTS+ is generated from the acid 2, 2´ - Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). This radical is a composite color bluish-green, stable and with a spectrum of absorption into the UV-visible. The addition of antioxidants causes discoloration, value that can be reported as a percentage of inhibition of the cation radical ABTS+. The objective of this study was evaluated the effect of the combination of the pH and the essential oil of cinnamon (EOC) on inhibition of the radical ABTS+, using statistical design of central point (Design Expert) to obtain mathematical models that describe this phenomenon. Were evaluated 17 treatments with combinations of pH 5, 6 and 7 (citrate-phosphate buffer) and the concentration of essential oil of cinnamon (C): 0 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL and 200 µg/mL. The samples were analyzed using the ABTS technique. The reagent was dissolved in methanol 80% to standardized the absorbance to 0.7 +/- 0.1 at 754 nm. Then samples were mixed with reagent standardized ABTS and after 1 min and 7 min absorbance was read for each treatment at 754 nm. Was used a curve pattern with vitamin C and reported the values as inhibition (%) of radical ABTS+. The statistical analysis shows the experimental results were adjusted to a quadratic model, to the times of 1 min and 7 min. This model describes the influence of the factors investigated independently: pH and cinnamon essential oil (µg/mL) and the effect of the interaction between pH*C, as well as the square of the pH2 and C2. The model obtained was Y = 10.33684 - 3.98118*pH + 1.17031*C + 0.62745*pH2 - 3.26675*10-3*C2 - 0.013112*pH*C, where Y is the response variable. The coefficient of determination was 0.9949 for 1 min. The equation was obtained at 7 min and = - 10.89710 + 1.52341*pH + 1.32892*C + 0.47953*pH2 - 3.56605*10- *C2 - 0.034687*pH*C. The coefficient of determination was 0.9970. This means that only 1% of the total variation is not explained by the developed models. At 100 µg/mL of EOC was obtained an inhibition percentage of 80%, 84% and 97% for the pH values of 5,6 and 7 respectively, while a value of 200 µg/mL the inhibition (%) was very similar for the treatments. In these values of pH was obtained an inhibition close 97%. In conclusion the pH does not have a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity, while the concentration of EOC was decisive for the antioxidant capacity. The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the CONACYT for the project 131998.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, ABTS technique, essential oil of cinnamon, mathematical models

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97 Rapid Plasmonic Colorimetric Glucose Biosensor via Biocatalytic Enlargement of Gold Nanostars

Authors: Masauso Moses Phiri


Frequent glucose monitoring is essential to the management of diabetes. Plasmonic enzyme-based glucose biosensors have the advantages of greater specificity, simplicity and rapidity. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid plasmonic colorimetric glucose biosensor based on biocatalytic enlargement of AuNS guided by GOx. Gold nanoparticles of 18 nm in diameter were synthesized using the citrate method. Using these as seeds, a modified seeded method for the synthesis of monodispersed gold nanostars was followed. Both the spherical and star-shaped nanoparticles were characterized using ultra-violet visible spectroscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The feasibility of a plasmonic colorimetric assay through growth of AuNS by silver coating in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by several control and optimization experiments. Conditions for excellent sensing such as the concentration of the detection solution in the presence of 20 µL AuNS, 10 mM of 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), ammonia and hydrogen peroxide were optimized. Using the optimized conditions, the glucose assay was developed by adding 5mM of GOx to the solution and varying concentrations of glucose to it. Kinetic readings, as well as color changes, were observed. The results showed that the absorbance values of the AuNS were blue shifting and increasing as the concentration of glucose was elevated. Control experiments indicated no growth of AuNS in the absence of GOx, glucose or molecular O₂. Increased glucose concentration led to an enhanced growth of AuNS. The detection of glucose was also done by naked-eye. The color development was near complete in ± 10 minutes. The kinetic readings which were monitored at 450 and 560 nm showed that the assay could discriminate between different concentrations of glucose by ± 50 seconds and near complete at ± 120 seconds. A calibration curve for the qualitative measurement of glucose was derived. The magnitude of wavelength shifts and absorbance values increased concomitantly with glucose concentrations until 90 µg/mL. Beyond that, it leveled off. The lowest amount of glucose that could produce a blue shift in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maxima was found to be 10 – 90 µg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.12 µg/mL. This enabled the construction of a direct sensitivity plasmonic colorimetric detection of glucose using AuNS that was rapid, sensitive and cost-effective with naked-eye detection. It has great potential for transfer of technology for point-of-care devices.

Keywords: colorimetric, gold nanostars, glucose, glucose oxidase, plasmonic

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96 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Daucus carota Extract

Authors: M. R. Bindhu, M. Umadevi


Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by Daucus carota extract as reducing agent was reported here. The involvement of phytochemicals in the Daucus carota extract in the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles has been established using XRD and UV-vis studies. The UV-vis spectrum of the prepared silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 450 nm. The obtained silver nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with the average size of 15 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from bright spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. This new, simple and natural method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Keywords: Daucus carota, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance

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95 Structural, Optical and Electrical Thin-Film Characterization Using Graphite-Bioepoxy Composite Materials

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, Nur Munirah Abdullah, M. F. L. Abdullah


The fabrication and characterization of composite films of graphite- bioepoxy is described. Free-standing thin films of ~0.1 mm thick are prepared using a simple solution mixing with mass proportion of 7/3 (bioepoxy/graphite) and drop casting at room temperature. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer are performed to evaluate the changes in chemical structure and adsorption spectra arising with the increasing of graphite weight loading (wt.%) into the biopolymer matrix. The morphologic study shows a homogeneously dispersed and strong particle bonding between the graphite and the bioepoxy, with conductivity of the film 103 S/m, confirming the efficiency of the processes.

Keywords: absorbance peak, biopolymer, graphite- bioepoxy composites, particle bonding

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94 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties

Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutebakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf


CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: Copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.

Keywords: thin films, cuprous oxide, spray pyrolysis, precursor solution

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93 Doping ZnO with Bi through Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxide Application of Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Indigoid Dye in the Visible Light

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami


The aim of this study is to use a synthetic of the layered double hydroxide as a method of doping of zinc by transition metal. The choice of dopant metal being bismuth. The material has been heat treated at different temperatures then tested on the Photo discoloration of indigo carmine under visible irradiation. In contrast, the diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of the UV-visible heat treated material exhibits an absorbance in the visible unlike ZnO and TiO2 P25. This property let the photocatalytic activity of Bi-ZnO under visible irradiation. Indeed, the photocatalytic effectiveness of Bi-ZnO in a visible light was proved by the total discoloration of indigo carmine solution with intial concentration of 16 mg/L after 90 minutes, whereas the TiO2 P25 and ZnO their discolorations are obtained after 120 minutes.

Keywords: photo-catalysis, doping, AOP, ZnO

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92 Non-Destructive Prediction System Using near Infrared Spectroscopy for Crude Palm Oil

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of predictive models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this research, 176 crude palm oil (CPO) samples acquired from Felda Johor Bulker Sdn Bhd were studied. A FOSS NIRSystem was used to tak e absorbance measurements from the sample. The wavelength range for the spectral measurement is taken at 1600nm to 1900nm. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) prediction model with 50 optimal number of principal components was implemented to study the relationship between the measured Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values and the measured spectral absorption. PLSR showed predictive ability of FFA values with correlative coefficient (R) of 0.9808 for the training set and 0.9684 for the testing set.

Keywords: palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, PLSR

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91 A Comparison between Reagents Extracted from Tree Leaves for Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV)

Authors: A. Boveiri Monji, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, B. Salimi


The main goal of this paper was to make use of green reagents as a substitute of perilous synthetic reagents and organic solvents for spectrophotometric determination of hafnium(IV). The extracts taken from six different kinds of tree leaves including Acer negundo, Ficus carica, Cerasus avium, Chimonanthus, Salix babylonica and Pinus brutia, were applied as green reagents for the experiments. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacted with the reagent to form a yellow product and showed maximum absorbance at 421 nm. Among tree leaves, Chimonanthus showed satisfactory results with a molar absorptivity value of 0.61 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the method was linear in the 0.3-9 µg mL -1 concentration range. The detection limit value was 0.064 µg mL-1. The proposed method was simple, low cost, clean, and selective.

Keywords: hafnium, spectrophotometric determination, synthetic reagents, tree leaves

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90 Selection the Most Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Muscle of Iran's Canned Tuna by Comparison of Different DNA Extraction Methods

Authors: Marjan Heidarzadeh


High quality and purity of DNA isolated from canned tuna is essential for species identification. In this study, the efficiency of five different methods for DNA extraction was compared. Method of national standard in Iran, the CTAB precipitation method, Wizard DNA Clean Up system, Nucleospin and GenomicPrep were employed. DNA was extracted from two different canned tuna in brine and oil of the same tuna species. Three samples of each type of product were analyzed with the different methods. The quantity and quality of DNA extracted was evaluated using the 260 nm absorbance and ratio A260/A280 by spectrophotometer picodrop. Results showed that the DNA extraction from canned tuna preserved in different liquid media could be optimized by employing a specific DNA extraction method in each case. Best results were obtained with CTAB method for canned tuna in oil and with Wizard method for canned tuna in brine.

Keywords: canned tuna PCR, DNA, DNA extraction methods, species identification

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