Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: GFRP

42 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty


The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. As it well known that, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been applied to many purposes for civil engineering structures not only for new structures but also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, to weight ratio. Glass composed FRP (GFRP) sheet is most commonly used due to its relatively lower cost compared to the other FRP materials. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. Many studies have been done to investigate the bonding of GFRP sheet. However, it is still very rarely studies on the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the strengthened beams due to flexural loadings. This is important to be clarified for the wider application of GFRP sheet especially on the flexural structure that directly contact to the sea environment. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six months exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding

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41 Preparation and Analysis of Enhanced Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics with Al Base Alloy

Authors: M. R. Ashok, S. Srivatsan, S. Vignesh


Common replacement for glass in composites is the Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). The GFRP has its own advantages for being a good alternative. The purpose of this research is to find a suitable enhancement for the commonly used composite Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). The goal is to enhance the material properties of the composite by providing a suitable matrix with Al base. The various mechanical tests are performed to analyze and compare the improvement in the mechanical properties of the composite. As a result, this material can be used as an alternative for the commonly used GFRP in various fields with increased effectiveness in its functioning.

Keywords: alloy based composites, composite materials, glass fiber reinforced plastics, sSuper composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
40 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty


Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
39 Influence of Stacking Sequence and Temperature on Buckling Resistance of GFRP Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, SeungHyun Kim, JungKyu Choi, WooYoung Jung


Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material for seismic retrofitting of steel frame, a basic PMC infill wall system consists of two GFRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the influence of environment temperature and stacking sequence of laminate skin. Mode of failure under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length between infill and frame, laminate stacking sequence of GFRP skin and variation of mechanical properties due to increment of temperature. The analysis is done with four cases of simple stacking sequence over a range of temperature. The result showed that both the effect of temperature and stacking sequence alter the performance of entire panel system. The rises of temperature resulted in the decrements of the panel’s strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on the performance of infill panel. Furthermore, the laminate stiffness can be modified by orientation of laminate, which can increase the infill panel strength. Hence, optimal performance of the entire panel system can be obtained by comparing different cases of stacking sequence.

Keywords: buckling resistance, GFRP infill panel, stacking sequence, temperature dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
38 Optimization of Cutting Parameters on Delamination Using Taguchi Method during Drilling of GFRP Composites

Authors: Vimanyu Chadha, Ranganath M. Singari


Drilling composite materials is a frequently practiced machining process during assembling in various industries such as automotive and aerospace. However, drilling of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites is significantly affected by damage tendency of these materials under cutting forces such as thrust force and torque. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the various cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate; subsequently also to study the influence of number of layers on delamination produced while drilling a GFRP composite. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi techniques, was instituted considering drilling with prefixed cutting parameters in a hand lay-up GFRP material. The damage induced associated with drilling GFRP composites were measured. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed to obtain minimization of delamination influenced by drilling parameters and number layers. The optimum drilling factor combination was obtained by using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio. The conclusion revealed that feed rate was the most influential factor on the delamination. The best results of the delamination were obtained with composites with a greater number of layers at lower cutting speeds and feed rates.

Keywords: analysis of variance, delamination, design optimization, drilling, glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
37 Experimental and Analytical Study on the Bending Behavior of Concrete-GFRP Hybrid Beams

Authors: Alaa Koaik, Bruno Jurkiewiez, Sylvain Bel


Recently, the use of GFRP pultruded profiles increased in the domain of civil engineering especially in the construction of sandwiched slabs and footbridges. However, under heavy loads, the risk of using these profiles increases due to their high deformability and instability as a result of their weak stiffness and orthotropic nature. A practical solution proposes the assembly of these profiles with concrete slabs to create a stiffer hybrid element to support higher loads. The connection of these two elements is established either by traditional means of steel studs (bolting in our case) or bonding technique. These two techniques have their advantages and disadvantages regarding the mechanical behavior and in-situ implementation. This paper presents experimental results of interface characterization and bending behavior of two hybrid beams, PB7 and PB8, designed and constructed using both connection techniques. The results obtained are exploited to design and build a hybrid footbridge BPBP1 which is tested within service limits (elastic domain). Analytical methods are also developed to analyze the behavior of these structures in the elastic range and the ultimate phase. Comparisons show acceptable differences mainly due to the sensitivity of the GFRP moduli as well as the non-linearity of concrete elements.

Keywords: analytical model, concrete, flexural behavior, GFRP pultruded profile, hybrid structure, interconnection slip, push-out

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
36 Experimental and Computational Analysis of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Beams with Piezoelectric Fibers

Authors: Selin Kunc, Srinivas Koushik Gundimeda, John A. Gallagher, Roselita Fragoudakis


This study investigates the behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) laminated beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers. The electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric materials coupled with high strength/low weight GFRP laminated beams can have significant application in a wide range of industries. Energy scavenging through mechanical vibrations is the focus of this study, and possible applications can be seen in the automotive industry. This study examines the behavior of such composite laminates using Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) under three-point bending conditions. Fiber orientation is optimized for the desired stiffness and deflection that yield maximum energy output. Finite element models using ABAQUS/CAE are verified through experimental testing. The optimum stacking sequences examined are [0o]s, [ 0/45o]s, and [45/-45o]s. Results show the superiority of the stacking sequence [0/45o]s, providing higher strength at a lower weight, and maximum energy output. Furthermore, laminated GFRP beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers can be used under bending to not only replace metallic component while providing similar strength at a lower weight but also provide an energy output.

Keywords: classical lamination theory (CLT), energy scavenging, glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), piezoelectric fibers

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35 Performance of Modified Wedge Anchorage System for Pre-Stressed FRP Bars

Authors: Othman S. Alsheraida, Sherif El-Gamal


Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a composite material with exceptional properties that are capable of replacing conventional steel reinforcement in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures. However, the main obstacle for their wide use in the pre-stressed concrete application is the anchorage system. Due to the weakness of FRP in the transverse direction, the pre-stressing capacity of FRP bars is limited. This paper investigates the modification of the conventional wedge anchorage system to be used for stressing of FRP bars in pre-stressed applications. Epoxy adhesive material with glass FRP (GFRP) bars and conventional steel wedge were used in this paper. The GFRP bars are encased with epoxy at the anchor zone and the wedge system was used in the pull-out test. The results showed a loading capacity of 47.6 kN which is 69% of the bar ultimate capacity. Additionally, nylon wedge was made with the same dimensions of the steel wedge and tested for GFRP bars without epoxy layer. The nylon wedge showed a loading capacity of 19.7 kN which is only 28.5% of the ultimate bar capacity.

Keywords: anchorage, concrete, epoxy, frp, pre-stressed

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34 Nonlinear Analysis of Torsionally Loaded Steel Fibred Self-Compacted Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Bars

Authors: Khaled Saad Eldin Mohamed Ragab


This paper investigates analytically the torsion behavior of steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete beams reinforced by GFRP bars. Nonlinear finite element analysis on 12­ beams specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete beams in the post elastic range or the ultimate strength of a reinforced concrete beams produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC) and reinforced by GFRP bars. A general description of the finite element method, theoretical modeling of concrete and reinforcement are presented. In order to verify the analytical model used in this research using test results of the experimental data, the finite element analysis were performed. Then, a parametric study of the effect ratio of volume fraction of steel fibers in ordinary strength concrete, the effect ratio of volume fraction of steel fibers in high strength concrete, and the type of reinforcement of stirrups were investigated. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions thyat may be useful for designers have been raised and represented.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, torsionally loaded, self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC), GFRP bars and sheets

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33 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Sung Min Park, Ho Young Son, Viriyavudh Sim


This study presents a way to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, high-tech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: aftershock, composite material, GFRP, infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
32 Nondestructive Evaluation of Hidden Delamination in Glass Fiber Composite Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

Authors: Chung-Hyeon Ryu, Do-Hyoung Kim, Hak-Sung Kim


As the use of the composites was increased, the detecting method of hidden damages which have an effect on performance of the composite was important. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was assessed as one of the new powerful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for fiber reinforced composite structures because it has many advantages which can overcome the limitations of conventional NDE techniques such as x-rays or ultrasound. The THz wave offers noninvasive, noncontact and nonionizing methods evaluating composite damages, also it gives a broad range of information about the material properties. In additions, it enables to detect the multiple-delaminations of various nonmetallic materials. In this study, the pulse type THz spectroscopy imaging system was devised and used for detecting and evaluating the hidden delamination in the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite laminates. The interaction between THz and the GFRP composite was analyzed respect to the type of delamination, including their thickness, size and numbers of overlaps among multiple-delaminations in through-thickness direction. Both of transmission and reflection configurations were used for evaluation of hidden delaminations and THz wave propagations through the delaminations were also discussed. From these results, various hidden delaminations inside of the GFRP composite were successfully detected using time-domain THz spectroscopy imaging system and also compared to the results of C-scan inspection. It is expected that THz NDE technique will be widely used to evaluate the reliability of composite structures.

Keywords: terahertz, delamination, glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, terahertz spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
31 Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung


Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.

Keywords: basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), buckling performance, numerical simulation, temperature dependent materials

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30 Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: Dattaji K. Shinde, Ajit D. Kelkar


Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.

Keywords: electrospun nanofibers, H-VARTM, interlaminar shear strength, matrix modification

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29 An Experimental and Numerical Study on the Pultruded GFRP I-Sections Beams

Authors: Parinaz Arashnia, Farzad Hatami, Saeed Ghaffarpour Jahromi


Using steel in bridges’ construction because of their desired tensile and compressive strength and light weight especially in large spans was widely popular. Disadvantages of steel such as corrosion, buckling and weaknesses in high temperature and unsuitable weld could be solve with using Fibres Reinforced Polymer (FRP) profiles. The FRP is a remarkable class of composite polymers that can improve structural elements behaviour like corrosion resistance, fir resistance with good proofing and electricity and magnetic non-conductor. Nowadays except FRP reinforced bars and laminates, FRP I-beams are made and studied. The main reason for using FRP profiles is, prevent of corrosion and increase the load carrying capacity and durability, especially in large spans in bridges’ deck. In this paper, behaviour of I-section glass fibres reinforced polymer (GFRP) beam is discussed under point loads with numerical models and results has been compared and verified with experimental tests.

Keywords: glass fibres reinforced polymer, composite, I-section beam, durability, finite element method, numerical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
28 Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad, Hanadi Al-Mahmoud


Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.

Keywords: concrete beams, FRP rebar, flexural behavior, heat-damaged

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
27 Mechanical Behavior of Sandwiches with Various Glass Fiber/Epoxy Skins under Bending Load

Authors: Emre Kara, Metehan Demir, Şura Karakuzu, Kadir Koç, Ahmet F. Geylan, Halil Aykul


While the polymeric foam cored sandwiches have been realized for many years, recently there is a growing and outstanding interest on the use of sandwiches consisting of aluminum foam core because of their some of the distinct mechanical properties such as high bending stiffness, high load carrying and energy absorption capacities. These properties make them very useful in the transportation industry (automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding industry), where the "lightweight design" philosophy and the safety of vehicles are very important aspects. Therefore, in this study, the sandwich panels with aluminum alloy foam core and various types and thicknesses of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins produced via Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) technique were obtained by using a commercial toughened epoxy based adhesive with two components. The aim of this contribution was the analysis of the bending response of sandwiches with various glass fiber reinforced polymer skins. The three point bending tests were performed on sandwich panels at different values of support span distance using a universal static testing machine in order to clarify the effects of the type and thickness of the GFRP skins in terms of peak load, energy efficiency and absorbed energy values. The GFRP skins were easily bonded to the aluminum alloy foam core under press machine with a very low pressure. The main results of the bending tests are: force-displacement curves, peak force values, absorbed energy, collapse mechanisms and the influence of the support span length and GFRP skins. The obtained results of the experimental investigation presented that the sandwich with the skin made of thicker S-Glass fabric failed at the highest load and absorbed the highest amount of energy compared to the other sandwich specimens. The increment of the support span distance made the decrease of the peak force and absorbed energy values for each type of panels. The common collapse mechanism of the panels was obtained as core shear failure which was not affected by the skin materials and the support span distance.

Keywords: aluminum foam, collapse mechanisms, light-weight structures, transport application

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26 Mechanical Behaviours of Ti/GFRP/Ti Laminates with Different Surface Treatments of Titanium Sheets

Authors: Amit Kumar Haldar, Mark Simms, Ian McDevitt, Anthony Comer


Interface properties of fiber metal laminates (FML) affects the integrity and deformation failure modes. In this paper, the mechanical behaviours of Ti/GFRP/Ti laminates were experimentally investigated through low-velocity impact tests. Two different surface treatments of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheets were prepared to obtain the composite interface properties based on annealing and sandblast surface treatment processes. The deformation failure modes, impact load sustaining ability and energy absorption capacity of FMLs were analysed. The impact load and modulus were shown to be dependent on the surface treatments of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheets. It was demonstrated that the impact load performance was enhanced when titanium surfaces were annealed and sandblasted. It has also been shown that the values of the strength and energy absorption were slightly higher when the tests conducted at relatively higher loading rate, as a result of the rate-sensitive effects on the damage resistance of the FML.

Keywords: fiber metal laminates, metal composite interface, indentation, low velocity impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
25 Comparative Parametric Analysis on the Dynamic Response of Fibre Composite Beams with Debonding

Authors: Indunil Jayatilake, Warna Karunasena


Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites enjoy an array of applications ranging from aerospace, marine and military to automobile, recreational and civil industry due to their outstanding properties. A structural glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a modified phenolic core has been manufactured in Australia for civil engineering applications. One of the major mechanisms of damage in FRP composites is skin-core debonding. The presence of debonding is of great concern not only because it severely affects the strength but also it modifies the dynamic characteristics of the structure, including natural frequency and vibration modes. This paper deals with the investigation of the dynamic characteristics of a GFRP beam with single and multiple debonding by finite element based numerical simulations and analyses using the STRAND7 finite element (FE) software package. Three-dimensional computer models have been developed and numerical simulations were done to assess the dynamic behavior. The FE model developed has been validated with published experimental, analytical and numerical results for fully bonded as well as debonded beams. A comparative analysis is carried out based on a comprehensive parametric investigation. It is observed that the reduction in natural frequency is more affected by single debonding than the equally sized multiple debonding regions located symmetrically to the single debonding position. Thus it is revealed that a large single debonding area leads to more damage in terms of natural frequency reduction than isolated small debonding zones of equivalent area, appearing in the GFRP beam. Furthermore, the extents of natural frequency shifts seem mode-dependent and do not seem to have a monotonous trend of increasing with the mode numbers.

Keywords: debonding, dynamic response, finite element modelling, novel FRP beams

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24 Thermographic Tests of Curved GFRP Structures with Delaminations: Numerical Modelling vs. Experimental Validation

Authors: P. D. Pastuszak


The present work is devoted to thermographic studies of curved composite panels (unidirectional GFRP) with subsurface defects. Various artificial defects, created by inserting PTFE stripe between individual layers of a laminate during manufacturing stage are studied. The analysis is conducted both with the use finite element method and experiments. To simulate transient heat transfer in 3D model with embedded various defect sizes, the ANSYS package is used. Pulsed Thermography combined with optical excitation source provides good results for flat surfaces. Composite structures are mostly used in complex components, e.g., pipes, corners and stiffeners. Local decrease of mechanical properties in these regions can have significant influence on strength decrease of the entire structure. Application of active procedures of thermography to defect detection and evaluation in this type of elements seems to be more appropriate that other NDT techniques. Nevertheless, there are various uncertainties connected with correct interpretation of acquired data. In this paper, important factors concerning Infrared Thermography measurements of curved surfaces in the form of cylindrical panels are considered. In addition, temperature effects on the surface resulting from complex geometry and embedded and real defect are also presented.

Keywords: active thermography, composite, curved structures, defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
23 Experimental Study on Strengthening Systems of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Slabs

Authors: Aymen H. Khalil, Ashraf M. Heniegal, Bassam A. Abdelsalam


There are many problems related to cantilever slabs such as the time-dependent deformation, corrosion problems of steel reinforcement, and lack of experimental studies on the strength of strengthened cantilever slabs. This paper presents an investigation to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete cantilever slabs after strengthening with different techniques. Six medium scale specimens, divided into three groups, were tested along with a control slab. The first group consists of two specimens which were repaired and strengthened using reinforced concrete jacket above with and without shear connector bars, whereas the second group contained two slabs which were strengthened using two strips of two layers of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) covering 60% and 90% from the cantilever length. The last group involves two specimens strengthened with two steel plates. In one specimen, the steel plates were glued to the surface using epoxy resin. The second specimen, the steel plates were affixed to the concrete surface using expansion bolts. The loading was conducted in two phases. Firstly, the samples were subjected to 40% of the ultimate load of the control slab. Secondly, the specimens reloaded after being strengthened up to failure. The load-deflection, steel strain, concrete strain, failure mode, toughness, and ductility index are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: repair, strengthened, GFRP layers, reloaded, jacketing, cantilever slabs

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
22 Effect of Permeability on Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminate Produced by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process

Authors: Nagri Sateesh, Kundavarapu Vengalrao, Kopparthi Phaneendra Kumar


Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the manufacturing technique that is viable for production of fiber reinforced polymer composite components suitable for aerospace, marine and commercial applications. However, the repeatable quality of the product can be achieved by critically fixing the process parameters such as Vacuum Pressure (VP) and permeability of the preform. The present investigation is aimed at studying the effect of permeability for production of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) components with consistent quality. The VARTM mould is made with an acrylic transparent top cover to observe and record the resin flow pattern. Six layers of randomly placed glass fiber under five different vacuum pressures VP1 = 0.013, VP2 = 0.026, VP3 = 0.039, VP4 = 0.053 and VP5 = 0.066 MPa were studied. The laminates produced by this process under the above mentioned conditions were characterized with ASTM D procedures so as to study the effect of these process parameters on the quality of the laminate. Moreover, as mentioned there is a considerable effect of permeability on the impact strength and the void content in the laminates under different vacuum pressures. SEM analysis of the impact tested fractured GFRP composites showed the bonding of fiber and matrix.

Keywords: permeability, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), ASTM D standards, SEM

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21 Flexural Strengthening of Steel Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Sally Hosny, Mona G. Ibrahim, N. K. Hassan


Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is one of the most environmentally method for strengthening and retrofitting steel structure buildings. The behaviour of flexural strengthened steel I-beams using FRP was investigated. The finite element (FE) models were developed using ANSYS® as verification cases to simulate the experimental behaviour of using FRP strips to flexure strengthen steel I-beam. Two experimental studies were selected for verification; first examined the effect of different thicknesses and modulus of elasticity while the second studied the effect of applying different carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bond lengths. The proposed FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of failure modes, load bearing capacities and strain distribution on CFRP strips. The verified FE models can be utilized to conduct a parametric study where various widths (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mm), thickness (1.2, 2 and 4 mm) and lengths (1500, 1700 and 1800 mm) of CFRP were analyzed. The results presented clearly revealed that the load bearing capacity was significantly increased (+7%) when the width and thickness were increased. However, load bearing capacity was slightly affected using longer CFRP strips. Moreover, applying another glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) of 1500 mm in length, 50 mm in width and thicknesses of 1.2, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. Load bearing capacity of strengthened I-beams using GFRP is less than CFRP by average 8%. Statistical analysis has been conducted using Minitab®.

Keywords: FRP, strengthened steel I-beams, flexural, FEM, ANSYS

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20 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Door

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud


This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a door – specimens CMDuS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door before strengthening) and CMDS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMDuS and CMDS are subjected to the same effects. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMDuS is 13.55 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 6.38 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening of the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 10.89 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of the strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMDS, the natural frequency is reduced to 6.66 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

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19 Influence of Single and Multiple Skin-Core Debonding on Free Vibration Characteristics of Innovative GFRP Sandwich Panels

Authors: Indunil Jayatilake, Warna Karunasena, Weena Lokuge


An Australian manufacturer has fabricated an innovative GFRP sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a modified phenolic core for structural applications. Debonding, which refers to separation of skin from the core material in composite sandwiches, is one of the most common types of damage in composites. The presence of debonding is of great concern because it not only severely affects the stiffness but also modifies the dynamic behaviour of the structure. Generally, it is seen that the majority of research carried out has been concerned about the delamination of laminated structures whereas skin-core debonding has received relatively minor attention. Furthermore, it is observed that research done on composite slabs having multiple skin-core debonding is very limited. To address this gap, a comprehensive research investigating dynamic behaviour of composite panels with single and multiple debonding is presented. The study uses finite-element modelling and analyses for investigating the influence of debonding on free vibration behaviour of single and multilayer composite sandwich panels. A broad parametric investigation has been carried out by varying debonding locations, debonding sizes and support conditions of the panels in view of both single and multiple debonding. Numerical models were developed with Strand7 finite element package by innovatively selecting the suitable elements to diligently represent their actual behavior. Three-dimensional finite element models were employed to simulate the physically real situation as close as possible, with the use of an experimentally and numerically validated finite element model. Comparative results and conclusions based on the analyses are presented. For similar extents and locations of debonding, the effect of debonding on natural frequencies appears greatly dependent on the end conditions of the panel, giving greater decrease in natural frequency when the panels are more restrained. Some modes are more sensitive to debonding and this sensitivity seems to be related to their vibration mode shapes. The fundamental mode seems generally the least sensitive mode to debonding with respect to the variation in free vibration characteristics. The results indicate the effectiveness of the developed three-dimensional finite element models in assessing debonding damage in composite sandwich panels

Keywords: debonding, free vibration behaviour, GFRP sandwich panels, three dimensional finite element modelling

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18 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Window

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud


Shaking table tests are planned in order to deepen the understanding of the behavior of confined masonry structures with or without openings. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) – Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and re-tested. This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a window – specimens CMWuS (before strengthening) and CMWS (after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMWuS and CMWS are subjected to the same effects. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMWuS is 18.79 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 12.96 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 14.67 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMWS, the natural frequency is reduced to 10.75 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

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17 Flexural Performance of the Sandwich Structures Having Aluminum Foam Core with Different Thicknesses

Authors: Emre Kara, Ahmet Fatih Geylan, Kadir Koç, Şura Karakuzu, Metehan Demir, Halil Aykul


The structures obtained with the use of sandwich technologies combine low weight with high energy absorbing capacity and load carrying capacity. Hence, there is a growing and markedly interest in the use of sandwiches with aluminium foam core because of very good properties such as flexural rigidity and energy absorption capability. The static (bending and penetration) and dynamic (dynamic bending and low velocity impact) tests were already performed on the aluminum foam cored sandwiches with different types of outer skins by some of the authors. In the current investigation, the static three-point bending tests were carried out on the sandwiches with aluminum foam core and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins at different values of support span distances (L= 55, 70, 80, 125 mm) aiming the analyses of their flexural performance. The influence of the core thickness and the GFRP skin type was reported in terms of peak load, energy absorption capacity and energy efficiency. For this purpose, the skins with two different types of fabrics ([0°/90°] cross ply E-Glass Woven and [0°/90°] cross ply S-Glass Woven which have same thickness value of 1.5 mm) and the aluminum foam core with two different thicknesses (h=10 and 15 mm) were bonded with a commercial polyurethane based flexible adhesive in order to combine the composite sandwich panels. The GFRP skins fabricated via Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) technique used in the study can be easily bonded to the aluminum foam core and it is possible to configure the base materials (skin, adhesive and core), fiber angle orientation and number of layers for a specific application. The main results of the bending tests are: force-displacement curves, peak force values, absorbed energy, energy efficiency, collapse mechanisms and the effect of the support span length and core thickness. The results of the experimental study showed that the sandwich with the skins made of S-Glass Woven fabrics and with the thicker foam core presented higher mechanical values such as load carrying and energy absorption capacities. The increment of the support span distance generated the decrease of the mechanical values for each type of panels, as expected, because of the inverse proportion between the force and span length. The most common failure types of the sandwiches are debonding of the upper or lower skin and the core shear. The obtained results have particular importance for applications that require lightweight structures with a high capacity of energy dissipation, such as the transport industry (automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and marine industry), where the problems of collision and crash have increased in the last years.

Keywords: aluminum foam, composite panel, flexure, transport application

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16 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung


In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

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15 Fiber Stiffness Detection of GFRP Using Combined ABAQUS and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Gyu-Dong Kim, Wuk-Jae Yoo, Sang-Youl Lee


Composite structures offer numerous advantages over conventional structural systems in the form of higher specific stiffness and strength, lower life-cycle costs, and benefits such as easy installation and improved safety. Recently, there has been a considerable increase in the use of composites in engineering applications and as wraps for seismic upgrading and repairs. However, these composites deteriorate with time because of outdated materials, excessive use, repetitive loading, climatic conditions, manufacturing errors, and deficiencies in inspection methods. In particular, damaged fibers in a composite result in significant degradation of structural performance. In order to reduce the failure probability of composites in service, techniques to assess the condition of the composites to prevent continual growth of fiber damage are required. Condition assessment technology and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have provided various solutions for the safety of structures by means of detecting damage or defects from static or dynamic responses induced by external loading. A variety of techniques based on detecting the changes in static or dynamic behavior of isotropic structures has been developed in the last two decades. These methods, based on analytical approaches, are limited in their capabilities in dealing with complex systems, primarily because of their limitations in handling different loading and boundary conditions. Recently, investigators have introduced direct search methods based on metaheuristics techniques and artificial intelligence, such as genetic algorithms (GA), simulated annealing (SA) methods, and neural networks (NN), and have promisingly applied these methods to the field of structural identification. Among them, GAs attract our attention because they do not require a considerable amount of data in advance in dealing with complex problems and can make a global solution search possible as opposed to classical gradient-based optimization techniques. In this study, we propose an alternative damage-detection technique that can determine the degraded stiffness distribution of vibrating laminated composites made of Glass Fiber-reinforced Polymer (GFRP). The proposed method uses a modified form of the bivariate Gaussian distribution function to detect degraded stiffness characteristics. In addition, this study presents a method to detect the fiber property variation of laminated composite plates from the micromechanical point of view. The finite element model is used to study free vibrations of laminated composite plates for fiber stiffness degradation. In order to solve the inverse problem using the combined method, this study uses only first mode shapes in a structure for the measured frequency data. In particular, this study focuses on the effect of the interaction among various parameters, such as fiber angles, layup sequences, and damage distributions, on fiber-stiffness damage detection.

Keywords: stiffness detection, fiber damage, genetic algorithm, layup sequences

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14 Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures

Authors: WooYoung Jung, V. Sim


This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance strength of polymer matrix composite (PMC) infill panels system under the influence of temperature on the foam core. Failure mode under in-plane compression is investigated by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of its Young's Modulus under the thermal influence. Variation of temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core. Indeed, it is shown that the effect of temperature on the panel system mechanical properties is significance. Moreover, the variations of temperature result in the decrements of the system strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Hence, by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be reducing.

Keywords: buckling, contact length, foam core, temperature dependent

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13 Operational Challenges of Marine Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Structures Coupled with Piezoelectric Transducers

Authors: H. Ucar, U. Aridogan


Composite structures become intriguing for the design of aerospace, automotive and marine applications due to weight reduction, corrosion resistance and radar signature reduction demands and requirements. Studies on piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PZT) for diagnostics and health monitoring have gained attention for their sensing capabilities, however PZT structures are prone to fail in case of heavy operational loads. In this paper, we develop a piezo-based Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite finite element (FE) model, validate with experimental setup, and identify the applicability and limitations of PZTs for a marine application. A case study is conducted to assess the piezo-based sensing capabilities in a representative marine composite structure. A FE model of the composite structure combined with PZT patches is developed, afterwards the response and functionality are investigated according to the sea conditions. Results of this study clearly indicate the blockers and critical aspects towards industrialization and wide-range use of PZTs for marine composite applications.

Keywords: FRP composite, operational challenges, piezoelectric transducers, FE modeling

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