Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7498

Search results for: marine environment

7498 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty

Abstract:

Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
7497 System Engineering Design of Offshore Oil Drilling Production Platform from Marine Environment

Authors: C. Njoku Paul

Abstract:

This paper deals with systems engineering applications design for offshore oil drilling production platform in the Nigerian Marine Environment. Engineering Design model of the distribution and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons discharged into marine environment production platform and sources of impact of an offshore is treated.

Keywords: design of offshore oil drilling production platform, marine, environment, petroleum hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
7496 Application and Limitation of Heavy Metal Pollution Indicators in Coastal Environment of Pakistan

Authors: Noor Us Saher

Abstract:

Oceans and Marine areas have a great importance, mainly regarding food resources, fishery products and reliance of livelihood. Aquatic pollution is common due to the incorporation of various chemicals mainly entering from urbanization, industrial and commercial facilities, such as oil and chemical spills. Many hazardous wastes and industrial effluents contaminate the nearby areas and initiate to affect the marine environment. These contaminated conditions may become worse in those aquatic environments situated besides the world’s largest cities, which are hubs of various commercial activities. Heavy metal contamination is one of the most important predicaments for marine environments and during past decades this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization. Coastal regions of Pakistan are facing severe threats from various organic and inorganic pollutants, especially the estuarine and coastal areas of Karachi city, the most populated and industrialized city situated along the coastline. Metal contamination causes severe toxicity in biota resulting the degradation of Marine environments and depletion of fishery resources and sustainability. There are several abiotic (air, water and sediment) and biotic (fauna and flora) indicators that indicate metal contamination. However, all these indicators have certain limitations and complexities, which delay their implementation for rehabilitation and conservation in the marine environment. The inadequate evidences have presented on this significant topic till the time and this study discussed metal pollution and its consequences along the marine environment of Pakistan. This study further helps in identification of possible hazards for the ecological system and allied resources for management strategies and decision making for sustainable approaches.

Keywords: coastal and estuarine environment, heavy metals pollution, pollution indicators, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
7495 Fiber Release from Fabrics with Various Weave Parameters and Finishing Treatments during Washing and Their Marine Biodegradation

Authors: Seoyoun Kim, Chunghee Park

Abstract:

Microplastics have recently become an issue due to their potentially harmful effects on the marine environment and the human body. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of fiber emissions during the home laundering with the fabric parameters such as yarn density, warp/weft density, and weave structure. Also, the effect of finishing treatments such as reactive dyeing, water-repellent finish, peach skin finish on fiber emissions was evaluated. Furthermore, we studied the biodegradability of fibers in the marine environment compared to those in soil burial and the impact of finishing treatment on the biodegradability. Biodegradability was evaluated by measuring BOD values and tensile strength reduction. The results showed that more fibers were released in the thicker yarn, lower weave density. Also, a weave structure which has less compactness, released more fibers. Peach skin finish with microfibers exposed on the surface caused more fiber release, whereas water-repellent finish reduced the fiber emission. In addition, the biodegradability of the fabrics submerged in the marine environment were lower compared with those buried in the soil. Also, the water-repellent fabric was less biodegradable than the untreated one. Further research is suggested considering the fabrics with various chemical components or geometry and their fouling behavior in the marine environment.

Keywords: biodegradation, fibers, microplastic, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
7494 Prediction of Marine Ecosystem Changes Based on the Integrated Analysis of Multivariate Data Sets

Authors: Prozorkevitch D., Mishurov A., Sokolov K., Karsakov L., Pestrikova L.

Abstract:

The current body of knowledge about the marine environment and the dynamics of marine ecosystems includes a huge amount of heterogeneous data collected over decades. It generally includes a wide range of hydrological, biological and fishery data. Marine researchers collect these data and analyze how and why the ecosystem changes from past to present. Based on these historical records and linkages between the processes it is possible to predict future changes. Multivariate analysis of trends and their interconnection in the marine ecosystem may be used as an instrument for predicting further ecosystem evolution. A wide range of information about the components of the marine ecosystem for more than 50 years needs to be used to investigate how these arrays can help to predict the future.

Keywords: barents sea ecosystem, abiotic, biotic, data sets, trends, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
7493 Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution

Authors: A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Alawi, T. Al-Said, E. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Roumi

Abstract:

Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.

Keywords: organic pollution, sea cucumbers, mitigation, Stichopus hermanni, Holothuria atra

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
7492 Derivation of Fragility Functions of Marine Drilling Risers Under Ocean Environment

Authors: Pranjal Srivastava, Piyali Sengupta

Abstract:

The performance of marine drilling risers is crucial in the offshore oil and gas industry to ensure safe drilling operation with minimum downtime. Experimental investigations on marine drilling risers are limited in the literature owing to the expensive and exhaustive test setup required to replicate the realistic riser model and ocean environment in the laboratory. Therefore, this study presents an analytical model of marine drilling riser for determining its fragility under ocean environmental loading. In this study, the marine drilling riser is idealized as a continuous beam having a concentric circular cross-section. Hydrodynamic loading acting on the marine drilling riser is determined by Morison’s equations. By considering the equilibrium of forces on the marine drilling riser for the connected and normal drilling conditions, the governing partial differential equations in terms of independent variables z (depth) and t (time) are derived. Subsequently, the Runge Kutta method and Finite Difference Method are employed for solving the partial differential equations arising from the analytical model. The proposed analytical approach is successfully validated with respect to the experimental results from the literature. From the dynamic analysis results of the proposed analytical approach, the critical design parameters peak displacements, upper and lower flex joint rotations and von Mises stresses of marine drilling risers are determined. An extensive parametric study is conducted to explore the effects of top tension, drilling depth, ocean current speed and platform drift on the critical design parameters of the marine drilling riser. Thereafter, incremental dynamic analysis is performed to derive the fragility functions of shallow water and deep-water marine drilling risers under ocean environmental loading. The proposed methodology can also be adopted for downtime estimation of marine drilling risers incorporating the ranges of uncertainties associated with the ocean environment, especially at deep and ultra-deepwater.

Keywords: drilling riser, marine, analytical model, fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
7491 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo

Abstract:

The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
7490 Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan

Authors: Asmat Siddiqui, Noor Us Saher

Abstract:

Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.

Keywords: coastal contamination, enrichment factor, geo-indicator, heavy metal flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
7489 A Comparative Study of Black Carbon Emission Characteristics from Marine Diesel Engines Using Light Absorption Method

Authors: Dongguk Im, Gunfeel Moon, Younwoo Nam, Kangwoo Chun

Abstract:

Recognition of the needs about protecting environment throughout worldwide is widespread. In the shipping industry, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been regulating pollutants emitted from ships by MARPOL 73/78. Recently, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO, at its 68th session, approved the definition of Black Carbon (BC) specified by the following physical properties (light absorption, refractory, insolubility and morphology). The committee also agreed to the need for a protocol for any voluntary measurement studies to identify the most appropriate measurement methods. Filter Smoke Number (FSN) based on light absorption is categorized as one of the IMO relevant BC measurement methods. EUROMOT provided a FSN measurement data (measured by smoke meter) of 31 different engines (low, medium and high speed marine engines) of member companies at the 3rd International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) workshop on marine BC. From the comparison of FSN, the results indicated that BC emission from low speed marine diesel engines was ranged from 0.009 to 0.179 FSN and it from medium and high speed marine diesel engine was ranged 0.012 to 3.2 FSN. In consideration of measured the low FSN from low speed engine, an experimental study was conducted using both a low speed marine diesel engine (2 stroke, power of 7,400 kW at 129 rpm) and a high speed marine diesel engine (4 stroke, power of 403 kW at 1,800 rpm) under E3 test cycle. The results revealed that FSN was ranged from 0.01 to 0.16 and 1.09 to 1.35 for low and high speed engines, respectively. The measurement equipment (smoke meter) ranges from 0 to 10 FSN. Considering measurement range of it, FSN values from low speed engines are near the detection limit (0.002 FSN or ~0.02 mg/m3). From these results, it seems to be modulated the measurement range of the measurement equipment (smoke meter) for enhancing measurement accuracy of marine BC and evaluation on performance of BC abatement technologies.

Keywords: black carbon, filter smoke number, international maritime organization, marine diesel engine (two and four stroke), particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
7488 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh

Abstract:

This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: marine sediments, river sediments, physico chemical characterizations, environmental characterizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
7487 Apparent Ageing Mechanism of Polyurethane Coating in Typical Atmospheric Environment

Authors: Jin Gao, Jin Zhang, Xiaogang Li

Abstract:

Outdoor exposure experiments were conducted in three extreme environments, namely the Chinese plateau mountain environment (Lhasa), the cold–temperate environment (Mohe), and the marine atmospheric environment (Wanning), to track a new long-life environment-friendly polyurethane coating. The relationship between apparent properties, namely gloss and microstructural changes, was analyzed, and the influence of typical climatic environment on the aging mechanism of polyurethane coatings was discussed. Results show that the UV radiation in the Lhasa area causes photoaging degradation, micropores are formed on the coating surface, and the powdering phenomenon is obvious. Photodegradation occurs in the Wanning area, and a hydrolysis reaction is observed. The hydrolysis reaction catalyzes the photoaging, the coating surface becomes yellow, and the powdering becomes serious. Photoaging is also present in the Mohe area, but it is mainly due to temperature changes that in turn change the internal stress of the coating. Microcracks and bumps form on the coating surface.

Keywords: aging, atmospheric environment, outdoor exposure, polyurethane coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
7486 Genetic Instabilities in Marine Bivalve Following Benzo(α)pyrene Exposure: Utilization of Combined Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Comet Assay

Authors: Mengjie Qu, Yi Wang, Jiawei Ding, Siyu Chen, Yanan Di

Abstract:

Marine ecosystem is facing intensified multiple stresses caused by environmental contaminants from human activities. Xenobiotics, such as benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) have been discharged into marine environment and cause hazardous impacts on both marine organisms and human beings. As a filter-feeder, marine mussels, Mytilus spp., has been extensively used to monitor the marine environment. However, their genomic alterations induced by such xenobiotics are still kept unknown. In the present study, gills, as the first defense barrier in mussels, were selected to evaluate the genetic instability alterations induced by the exposure to BaP both in vivo and in vitro. Both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and comet assay were applied as the rapid tools to assess the environmental stresses due to their low money- and time-consumption. All mussels were identified to be the single species of Mytilus coruscus before used in BaP exposure at the concentration of 56 μg/l for 1 & 3 days (in vivo exposure) or 1 & 3 hours (in vitro). Both RAPD and comet assay results were showed significantly increased genomic instability with time-specific altering pattern. After the recovery period in 'in vivo' exposure, the genomic status was as same as control condition. However, the relative higher genomic instabilities were still observed in gill cells after the recovery from in vitro exposure condition. Different repair mechanisms or signaling pathway might be involved in the isolated gill cells in the comparison with intact tissues. The study provides the robust and rapid techniques to exam the genomic stability in marine organisms in response to marine environmental changes and provide basic information for further mechanism research in stress responses in marine organisms.

Keywords: genotoxic impacts, in vivo/vitro exposure, marine mussels, RAPD and comet assay

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
7485 Effects of Epinephrine on Gene Expressions during the Metamorphosis of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Authors: Fei Xu, Guofan Zhang, Xiao Liu

Abstract:

Many major marine invertebrate phyla are characterized by indirect development. These animals transit from planktonic larvae to benthic adults via settlement and metamorphosis, which has many advantages for organisms to adapt marine environment. Studying the biological process of metamorphosis is thus a key to understand the origin and evolution of indirect development. Although the mechanism of metamorphosis has been largely studied on their relationships with the marine environment, microorganisms, as well as the neurohormones, little is known on the gene regulation network (GRN) during metamorphosis. We treated competent oyster pediveligers with epinephrine, which was known to be able to effectively induce oyster metamorphosis, and analyzed the dynamics of gene and proteins with transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The result indicated significant upregulation of protein synthesis system, as well as some transcription factors including Homeobox, basic helix-loop-helix, and nuclear receptors. The result suggested the GRN complexity of the transition stage during oyster metamorphosis.

Keywords: indirect development, gene regulation network, protein synthesis, transcription factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7484 Inhibition of Sea Urchin and Starfish Embryonic Development by Hexane Extracts from Five Philippine Marine Sponges

Authors: Chona Gelani, Mylene Uy, Keisuke Yasuda, Emi Ohta, Shinji Ohta

Abstract:

The marine environment is undoubtedly a rich source of diverse organisms that possess bioactive secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities. Marine sponges have since been contributing a wide array of compounds of biomedical and pharmaceutical importance. This study is an attempt to contribute to the growing and advancing marine natural products research. It aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the hexane extract (H) from the Philippine marine sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata (Rg), Callyspongia sp. (Calsp), Callyspongia aerizusa (Ca), Carteriospongia sp. (Carsp), and Cinachyrella sp. (Cisp) using the eggs of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, and sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of the marine sponge hexane extract was determined through its inhibition of starfish and sea urchin embryonic development. After 24 hours, CarspH and RgH inhibited early gastrulation of sea urchin at a minimum concentration of 15.63 and 31.25 μg/mL, respectively. CalspH inhibited the early gastrulation of both sea urchin and starfish at 125 μg/mL, whereas CaH halted the morula of sea urchin and early gastrulation of starfish at 250 μg/mL. CispH exhibited relatively weak inhibitory activity on starfish embryogenesis but inhibited the early gastrulation of sea urchin at 250 μg/mL. The results obtained from this study were used as basis for the separation, isolation and purification of the component(s) of the hexane extracts from the five Philippine marine sponges.

Keywords: embryonic development, marine sponge cytotoxicity, Philippine marine sponges, sea urchin and starfish embryogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
7483 Bioprospecting of Marine Actinobacteria: The Leading Way for Industrially Important Enzymes and Bioactive Natural Products

Authors: Ramesh Subramani, Mathivanan Narayanasamy, William Aalbersberg

Abstract:

It is well accepted by last 35 years of research and on-going programmes that marine environment harbours abundant and unique biodiversity, which is currently playing as an important source in bioprospecting. It has become apparent that marine microorganisms are lead in the biodiscovery. Among marine organisms, actinobacteria are a target phylum for discovering novel antibiotics against increasing the multi-drug resistant human pathogens because of these taxa representing for novel genera and species. Marine actinomycetes are a proven source of new antibiotic leads and novel enzymes with important industrial applications. A total of 183 streptomycete and 25 non-streptomycete strains were isolated from different marine samples collected from north-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. Among them, 111 isolates displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens and 151 exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Importantly, most of them produced various extracellular enzymes and 58 of them produced exopolysaccharides. Totally eight small bioactive compounds and a thermostable alkaline protease have been purified from a selected strain, Streptomyces fungicidicus. Besides, our on-going studies on non-streptomycete strains (rare actinomycetes) are most likely promising resource for new and unique compounds against current emerging drug-resistant pathogens. We have just recognised the chemical diversity in marine microorganisms. Therefore it is worthwhile to continue the exploration of marine microorganisms for new drug leads, novel enzymes and other bioprospecting research.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, industrial enzymes, marine actinobacteria, microbial metabolites, marine natural products

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
7482 Optimizing Availability of Marine Knowledge Repository with Cloud-Based Framework

Authors: Ahmad S. Mohd Noor, Emma A. Sirajudin, Nur F. Mat Zain

Abstract:

Reliability is an important property for knowledge repository system. National Marine Bioinformatics System or NABTICS is a marine knowledge repository portal aimed to provide a baseline for marine biodiversity and a tool for researchers and developers. It is intended to be a large and growing online database and also a metadata system for inputs of research analysis. The trends of present large distributed systems such as Cloud computing are the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. The goal of this research is to make NABTICS a system of greater availability by integrating it with Cloud based Neighbor Replication and Failure Recovery (NRFR). This can be achieved by implementation of NABTICS into distributed environment. As a result, the user can experience minimum downtime while using the system should the server is having a failure. Consequently the online database application is said to be highly available.

Keywords: cloud, availability, distributed system, marine repository, database replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
7481 Depositional Environment and Source Potential of Devonian Source Rock, Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia

Authors: S. Mahmoudi, A. Belhaj Mohamed, M. Saidi, F. Rezgui

Abstract:

Depositional environment and source potential of the different organic rich levels of Devonian age (up to 990m thick) from the onshore EC-1 well (Southern Tunisia) were investigated using different geochemical techniques (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC-MS) of over than 130 cutting samples. The obtained results including Rock Eval Pyrolysis data and biomarker distribution (terpanes, steranes and aromatics) have been used to describe the depositional environment and to assess the thermal maturity of the Devonian organic matter. These results show that the Emsian deposits exhibit poor to fair TOC contents. The associated organic matter is composed of mixed kerogen (type II/III), as indicated by the predominance of C29 steranes over C27 and C28 homologous, that was deposited in a slightly reduced environment favoring organic matter preservation. Thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TNR and MPI-1 values shows a mature stage of organic matter. The Middle Devonian (Eifelian) shales are rich in type II organic matter that was deposited in an open marine depositional environment. The TOC values are high and vary between 2 and 7 % indicating good to excellent source rock. The relatively high IH values (reaching 547 mg HC/g TOC) and the low values of t19/t23 ratio (down to 0.2) confirm the marine origin of the organic matter (type II). During the Upper Devonian, the organic matter was deposited under variable redox conditions, oxic to suboxic which is clearly indicated by the low C35/C34 hopanes ratio, immature to marginally mature with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 Ro and Tmax value of 426°C-436 °C and the TOC values range between 0.8% to 4%.

Keywords: biomarker, depositional environment, devonian, source rock

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
7480 Radioactive Contamination by ¹³⁷Cs in Marine Sediments Taken up from Cuba's North and South Coast

Authors: Marisé García Batlle, Juan Manuel Navarrete Tejero

Abstract:

In aquatic ecosystems, the main indicators of pollution are contaminated sediments, which are the primary repository of radionuclides and chemicals elements in the marine environment. Radioactive Contamination Factor (RCF) has been proposed as a suitable unit to measure the magnitude of radioactive contamination at global scale, caused mainly by more than 2,000 nuclear explosions tests performed during the 1945-65 period. It is obtained as percentage of contaminant radioactivity (¹³⁷Cs) compared to natural radioactivity (⁴⁰K), both expressed in Bq/g of marine sediments conditioned in Marinelli containers and detected in both NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. So, in this paper samples of marine sediments were taken up along the occidental Cuban coasts and analyzed by gamma spectrometry for the determination of gamma-emitting radioisotopes with energies between 60 and 2000 keV. The results proved that the proposed method is simple and suitable to evaluated radioactive contamination. Also, the RCF values provide an appropriate indicator to predict which pollution levels in the future will be and if the rate will go down as disintegrates the ¹³⁷Cs present when only 2,4 half-lives have passed away.

Keywords: Cuba, gamma spectrometry, marine sediments, radioactive pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
7479 Neighbor Caring Environment System (NCE) Using Parallel Replication Mechanism

Authors: Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Emma Ahmad Sirajudin, Rabiei Mamat

Abstract:

Pertaining to a particular Marine interest, the process of data sampling could take years before a study can be concluded. Therefore, the need for a robust backup system for the data is invariably implicit. In recent advancement of Marine applications, more functionalities and tools are integrated to assist the work of the researchers. It is anticipated that this modality will continue as research scope widens and intensifies and at the same to follow suit with current technologies and lifestyles. The convenience to collect and share information these days also applies to the work in Marine research. Therefore, Marine system designers should be aware that high availability is a necessary attribute in Marine repository applications as well as a robust backup system for the data. In this paper, the approach to high availability is related both to hardware and software but the focus is more on software. We consider a NABTIC repository system that is primitively built on a single server and does not have replicated components. First, the system is decomposed into separate modules. The modules are placed on multiple servers to create a distributed system. Redundancy is added by placing the copies of the modules on different servers using Neighbor Caring Environment System(NCES) technique. NCER is utilizing parallel replication components mechanism. A background monitoring is established to check servers’ heartbeats to confirm their aliveness. At the same time, a critical adaptive threshold is maintained to make sure a failure is timely detected using Adaptive Fault Detection (AFD). A confirmed failure will set the recovery mode where a selection process will be done before a fail-over server is instructed. In effect, the Marine repository service is continued as the fail-over masks a recent failure. The performance of the new prototype is tested and is confirmed to be more highly available. Furthermore, the downtime is not noticeable as service is immediately restored automatically. The Marine repository system is said to have achieved fault tolerance.

Keywords: availability, fault detection, replication, fault tolerance, marine application

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
7478 Assessment of the Root Causes of Marine Debris Problem in Lagos State

Authors: Chibuzo Okoye Daniels, Gillian Glegg, Lynda Rodwell

Abstract:

The continuously growing quantity of very slow degrading litter deliberately discarded into the coastal waters around Lagos as marine debris is obvious. What is not known is how to tackle this problem to reduce its prevalence and impact on the environment, economy and community. To identify ways of tackling the marine debris problem two case study areas (Ikoyi and Victoria Islands of Lagos State) were used to assess the root causes, the threat posed by marine debris in the coastal waters around Lagos and the efficacy of current instruments, programmes and initiatives that address marine debris in the study areas. The following methods were used: (1) Self-completed questionnaires for households and businesses within the study areas; (2) Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders; (3) Observational studies of waste management from collection to disposal and waste management facilities for waste originating from land and maritime sources; (4) Beach surveys and marine debris surveys on shorelines and ports; and (5) Fishing for marine debris. Results of this study identified the following root causes: (1) Indiscriminate human activities and behaviors, and lack of awareness on the part of the main stakeholders and the public of the potential consequences of their actions; (2) Poor solid waste management practices; (3) Lack of strict legal frameworks addressing waste and marine debris problem; and (4) Disposal of non-degradable wastes into domestic sewer system and open streets drains. To effectively tackle marine debris problem in the study areas, adequate, appropriate and cost effective solutions to the above mentioned root causes needs to be identified and effectively transferred for implementation in the study areas.

Keywords: marine debris problem, Lagos state, litter, coastal waters

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
7477 Marine Environmental Peace-Building Initiatives: Factors of Success and Failure

Authors: Yael Teff-Seker

Abstract:

More often than not, ecosystems do not follow anthropogenic political borders. Thus, transboundary environmental protection or rehabilitation initiatives can be beneficial and at times even vital for supporting healthy ecosystems. Marine areas demand unique considerations and challenges for such initiatives, as maritime borders tend to be less defined, less fortified and less visible. In areas of recent conflict, cross-border environmental initiatives can also improve relations between states and promote peace-building efforts, in addition to their environmental benefits. The current study reviews the current literature on transboundary marine environmental protection initiatives that take place in these areas and focuses on joint initiatives in Israel-Jordan and Croatia-Slovenia. In addition to factors described in the literature such as funding and third-party involvement, findings suggest that the peripheral location of marine environmental initiatives can be beneficial for the success of such initiatives, as well as facilitating border crossing and the extent to which such initiatives advance other governmental goals. A sense of urgency, environmental or other, has also been found to be highly relevant to project success.

Keywords: environmental cooperation, environmental peacebuilding, marine environment, environmental conflict, environmental management

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
7476 Differential Sensitivity to Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Water Exposure Between Species at Different Trophic Levels

Authors: Lina M. Zapata-Restrepo, Malcolm D. Hudson, Patrick Osborne, Ian D. Williams

Abstract:

There is an increase in installations of exhaust gas scrubbers to reduce the sulphur emissions from ships following international regulations on sulphur content in marine fuel from 2020. The majority of scrubbers installed on marine vessels are wet scrubbers using either a ‘closed-’ or ‘open- loop’ system. The washwater (also known as scrubber water) from both wet scrubber systems can contain a variety of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, nitrate, and soot particles, thus displacing potential atmospheric pollutants to the marine environment- with, as yet, unknown consequences. A multispecies approach toward ecotoxicological testing is fundamental for the purposes of risk assessment and getting accurate environmental management and ecological risk assessment procedures. Marine microalgae and invertebrate larvae are important components of the aquatic environment due to their role as primary producers in the aquatic food web. The aim of this study, part of the Horizon2020-funded EMERGE project, was to investigate the effects of open-loop scrubber discharge water on cell proliferation and mortality of marine microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, and survival and development of Mytilus edulis larvae. A range of scrubber water dilutions (between 0.001% to 40% of the original outlet scrubber discharge water) were used for treatments. After a 96-h exposure, T. suecica cell concentration and mortality showed a concentration-dependent effect, and the 96-h LC50 was 60.17% at the end of the experiment. After 48-h exposure, M. edulis larvae were inspected, and the percentage of larvae which exhibited normal morphology (normality, D-veliger shape) or any deformity (shell abnormalities, hypertrophy of the mantle, and/or hinge abnormalities) were recorded. A high sensitivity of embryo-larval stage of the blue mussel larvae was found. All the dilutions inhibited the embryonic development of M. edulis in a concentration-dependant manner. The EC50 after 48 h exposure to scrubber water was 0.94%. These results provide information about the potential effect of a direct exposure -not dietary- to scrubber water discharges in the marine environment and the differential sensitivity between trophic levels of the marine food web chain.

Keywords: blue mussel larvae, maritime exhaust gas scrubber water, microalgae, open-loop, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
7475 The Interaction between Human and Environment on the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

Authors: Mella Ismelina Farma Rahayu

Abstract:

Environmental problems could not be separated from unethical human perspectives and behaviors toward the environment. There is a fundamental error in the philosophy of people’s perspective about human and nature and their relationship with the environment, which in turn will create an inappropriate behavior in relation to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate and to understand the ethics of the environment in the context of humans interacting with the environment by using the hermeneutic approach. The related theories and concepts collected from literature review are used as data, which were analyzed by using interpretation, critical evaluation, internal coherence, comparisons, and heuristic techniques. As a result of this study, there will be a picture related to the interaction of human and environment in the perspective of environmental ethics, as well as the problems of the value of ecological justice in the interaction of humans and environment. We suggest that the interaction between humans and environment need to be based on environmental ethics, in a spirit of mutual respect between humans and the natural world.

Keywords: environment, environmental ethics, interaction, value

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7474 Petrologic and Geochemical Characteristics of Marine Sand Strip in the Proterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation of the North China

Authors: Yue Feng, Chun-jiang Wang, Zhi-long Huang

Abstract:

The study of the sedimentary environment of Mesoproterozoic marine deposits in North China has attracted special attention in recent years. It is not clear that the sedimentary environment and the cause of formation of the sandstone strip and its internal carbonate cements and pyrite in the Mesoproterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation in North China. In this study, drilling core samples in North China were identified by microscopy, and their petrological characteristics such as mineral composition and structure were identified. The geochemical data of carbon and oxygen isotopes, total organic carbon (TOC) contents and total sulfur (TS) contents were obtained by processing and analyzing the samples. The samples are mainly quartz particles with low compositional maturity, combined with low value of TOC, it shows that the sedimentary environment of the sandy clastic is a sandy littoral sedimentary environment with relative strong hydrodynamic force, and then the sandstone strip in black shale are formed by the deposition of gravity flow. Analysis of TS values reflect sandstone bands formed in hypoxic environments. The carbonate cements and the pyrite in the sandstone belt are authigenic. The carbon isotope values of authigenic carbonate cements are negatively biased in comparison with the carbonate isotope of carbonate rocks in the same period, but it is more biased than the carbon isotopic values of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) genetic carbonate rocks. Authigenic pyrite may be mainly due to the formation of HS- by the action of bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and Fe²⁺, their causes are in contact. This indicates that authigenic carbonate cements are mainly carbonate precipitates formed but are significantly affected by the effects of AOM. Summary, the sedimentary environment of the sandstone zone in the Chuanlinggou Formation in the North China is a shallow sea facies with iron rich and anoxic.

Keywords: sandstone strip, sedimentary environment, authigenic carbonate cements, authigenic pyrite, The Chuanlinggou group, North China

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
7473 Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani and Arabian Sea and Their Effect on Marine Environment

Authors: Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani

Abstract:

Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs) is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September), recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March). HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts. The effects of HABs on desalination plan were increased in last three years, by blooms of Cochlodinium, noctiluca species, and blooms of jellyfish. Most of these blooms were affected Al Batinah and Muscat coast. These effects include millions of Omani Rials and several shutdowns of desalination plans during these years.

Keywords: red tide, environment, hypoxia, noctiluca

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
7472 Human Error Analysis in the USA Marine Accidents Reports

Authors: J. Sánchez-Beaskoetxea

Abstract:

The analysis of accidents, such as marine accidents, is one of the most useful instruments to avoid future accidents. In the case of marine accidents, from a simple collision of a small boat in a port to the wreck of a gigantic tanker ship, the study of the causes of the accidents is the basis of a great part of the marine international legislation. Some countries have official institutions who investigate all the accidents in which a ship with their flag is involved. In the case of the USA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is responsible for these researches. The NTSB, after a deep investigation into each accident, publishes a Marine Accident Report with the possible cause of the accident. This paper analyses all the Marine Accident Reports published by the NTBS and focuses its attention especially in the Human Errors that led to reported accidents. In this research, the different Human Errors made by crew members are cataloged in 10 different groups. After a complete analysis of all the reports, the statistical analysis on the Human Errors typology in marine accidents is presented in order to use it as a tool to avoid the same errors in the future.

Keywords: human error, marine accidents, ship crew, USA

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
7471 The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.

Keywords: space environment simulator, control system, architecture, automation control technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
7470 Mapping the Technological Interventions to the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025: Addressing the Marine Plastic Litter at the Marine Tourism Destinations in Indonesia

Authors: Kaisar Akhir, Azhar Slamet

Abstract:

This study aims to provide recommendations for addressing marine plastic litter at the ocean tourism destinations in Indonesia sustainably through technological interventions in the framework of the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. In Indonesia, marine tourism is a rapidly growing economic sector. However, marine tourism destinations are facing a global challenge called marine plastic litter. Marine plastic litter is a threat to those destinations since it has potential impacts on the reduction of marine environmental sustainability, the health of tourists and local communities as well as tourism business income. Since 2018, the Indonesian government has passed and promulgated the National Plan of Action on Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. This national action plan consists of three important key aspects of interventions (i.e., societal effort, technological application, and institutional coordination) and five strategies for addressing marine litter in Indonesia, in particular, to address 70% of marine plastic litter by 2025. The strategies include 1) National movement for raising awareness of stakeholders, 2) Land-based litter management, 3) Litter management at the sea and coasts, 4) Funding mechanism, institutional strengthening, monitoring, and law enforcement, and 5) Research and development. In this study, technological interventions around the world and in Indonesia are reviewed and analyzed on their relevance to the national action plan based on five criteria. As a result, there are twelve kinds of technological interventions recommended to be implemented for addressing marine plastic litter in the marine tourism destinations in Indonesia.

Keywords: marine litter management, marine plastic litter, national action plan, ocean sustainability, ocean tourism destination, technological interventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
7469 Study of the Behavior of Copper Immersed in Sea Water of the Bay of Large Agadir by Electrochemical Methods

Authors: Aicha Chaouay, Lahsen Bazzi, Mustapha Hilali

Abstract:

Seawater has chemical and biological characteristics making it particularly aggressive in relation to the corrosion of many materials including copper and steels low or moderate allies. Note that these materials are widely used in the manufacture of port infrastructure in the marine environment. These structures are exposed to two types of corrosion including: general corrosion and localized corrosion caused by the presence of sulfite-reducing micro-organisms. This work contributes to the study of the problematic related to bacterial contamination of the marine environment of large Agadir and evaluating the impact of this pollution on the corrosion resistance of copper. For the realization of this work, we conducted monthly periodic draws between (October 2012 February 2013) of seawater from the Anza area of the Bay of Agadir. Thus, after each sampling, a study of the electro chemical corrosion behavior of copper was carried out. Electro chemical corrosion parameters such as the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity were evaluated. The electro chemical techniques used in this work are: the route potentiodynamic polarization curves and electro chemical impedance.

Keywords: Bay of Agadir, microbial contamination, seawater (Morocco), corrosion, copper

Procedia PDF Downloads 409