Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Rudy Djamaluddin

14 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty

Abstract:

Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

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13 Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS

Authors: Harmonis Rante, Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Victor Sampebulu

Abstract:

Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.

Keywords: belt, CFRP-s, connection method, strengthening

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12 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

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11 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty

Abstract:

The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. As it well known that, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been applied to many purposes for civil engineering structures not only for new structures but also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, to weight ratio. Glass composed FRP (GFRP) sheet is most commonly used due to its relatively lower cost compared to the other FRP materials. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. Many studies have been done to investigate the bonding of GFRP sheet. However, it is still very rarely studies on the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the strengthened beams due to flexural loadings. This is important to be clarified for the wider application of GFRP sheet especially on the flexural structure that directly contact to the sea environment. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six months exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding

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10 Effect of the Truss System to the Flexural Behavior of the External Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Yasser Bachtiar, Rita Irmawati, Abd. Madjid Akkas, Rusdi Usman Latief

Abstract:

The aesthetic qualities and the versatility of reinforced concrete have made it a popular choice for many architects and structural engineers. Therefore, the exploration of natural materials such as gravels and sands as well as lime-stone for cement production is increasing to produce a concrete material. The exploration must affect to the environment. Therefore, the using of the concrete materials should be as efficient as possible. According to its natural behavior of the concrete material, it is strong in compression and weak in tension. Therefore the contribution of the tensile stresses of the concrete to the flexural capacity of the beams is neglected. However, removing of concrete on tension zone affects to the decreasing of flexural capacity. Introduce the strut action of truss structures may an alternative to solve the decreasing of flexural capacity. A series of specimens were prepared to clarify the effect of the truss structures in the concrete beams without concrete on the tension zone. Results indicated that the truss system is necessary for the external reinforced concrete beams. The truss system of concrete beam without concrete on tension zone (BR) could develop almost same capacity to the normal beam (BN). It can be observed also that specimens BR has lower number of cracks than specimen BN. This may be caused by the fact that there was no bonding effect on the tensile reinforcement on specimen BR to distribute the cracks.

Keywords: external reinforcement, truss, concrete beams, flexural behavior

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9 Effect of Treated Peat Soil on the Plasticity Index and Hardening Time

Authors: Siti Nur Aida Mario, Farah Hafifee Ahmad, Rudy Tawie

Abstract:

Soil Stabilization has been widely implemented in the construction industry nowadays. Peat soil is well known as one of the most problematic soil among the engineers. The procedures need to take into account both physical and engineering properties of the stabilized peat soil. This paper presents a result of plasticity index and hardening of treated peat soil with various dosage of additives. In order to determine plasticity of the treated peat soil, atterberg limit test which comprises plastic limit and liquid limit test has been conducted. Determination of liquid limit in this experimental study is by using cone penetrometer. Vicat testing apparatus has been used in the hardening test which the penetration of the plunger is recorded every one hour for 24 hours. The results show that the plasticity index of peat soil stabilized with 80% FAAC and 20% OPC has the lowest plasticity index and recorded the fastest initial setting time. The significant of this study is to promote greener solution for future soil stabilization industry.

Keywords: additives, hardening, peat soil, plasticity index, soil stabilization

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8 Assessment of Biosecurity Strategies of Selected Fishponds in Bataan

Authors: Rudy C. Flores, Felicisima E. Tungol, Armando A. Villafuerte, Abraham S. Antonio, Roy N. Oroyo, Henry A. Cruz

Abstract:

An assessment of the biosecurity strategies of selected fishponds in Bataan was conducted by the researchers from Bataan Peninsula State University Orani Campus to determine the present status of Biosecurity strategies being practice by selected freshwater and brackish water fishpond operators in the province to have an initial data of their system of safeguarding cultured fishes against possible diseases. Likewise, it aims to evaluate the extent of implementation of the following areas of Biosecurity namely; fishpond location, perimeter, entrance, building/ pond structure, shipping, new stocks, feeds, dead stocks, soil and water treatment, disinfection and vaccination program. The results of the assessment revealed that the present average status of the surveyed fish ponds in Bataan based on the data gathered from selected fishpond operators is poor for 44.64% and fair for 12.61%, which means that more than one- half of the surveyed fishpond do not have the first and second line of defense against diseases and there is always a higher risk of infection, contamination and possibility of disease outbreak. This indicates that fishpond operators in Bataan need technological interventions to improve their harvest and prevent heavy losses from fish diseases, although biosecurity is satisfactory for 12.92% and very good for 9.16%, which indicate that 22.08% of the surveyed fishponds have their own strategies to keep their stocks from diseases.

Keywords: biosecurity, fishpond operators, soil and water treatment, filtration system, bird scaring devices

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7 Lamb Waves Wireless Communication in Healthy Plates Using Coherent Demodulation

Authors: Rudy Bahouth, Farouk Benmeddour, Emmanuel Moulin, Jamal Assaad

Abstract:

Guided ultrasonic waves are used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for inspection and damage detection. Recently, wireless data transmission using ultrasonic waves in solid metallic channels has gained popularity in some industrial applications such as nuclear, aerospace and smart vehicles. The idea is to find a good substitute for electromagnetic waves since they are highly attenuated near metallic components due to Faraday shielding. The proposed solution is to use ultrasonic guided waves such as Lamb waves as an information carrier due to their capability of propagation for long distances. In addition to this, valuable information about the health of the structure could be extracted simultaneously. In this work, the reliable frequency bandwidth for communication is extracted experimentally from dispersion curves at first. Then, an experimental platform for wireless communication using Lamb waves is described and built. After this, coherent demodulation algorithm used in telecommunications is tested for Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying and Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation techniques. Signal processing parameters such as threshold choice, number of cycles per bit and Bit Rate are optimized. Experimental results are compared based on the average Bit Error Rate. Results have shown high sensitivity to threshold selection for Amplitude Shift Keying and On-Off Keying techniques resulting a Bit Rate decrease. Binary Phase Shift Keying technique shows the highest stability and data rate between all tested modulation techniques.

Keywords: lamb waves communication, wireless communication, coherent demodulation, bit error rate

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6 Jagiellonian-PET: A Novel TOF-PET Detector Based on Plastic Scintillators

Authors: P. Moskal, T. Bednarski, P. Bialas, E. Czerwinski, A. Gajos, A. Gruntowski, D. Kaminska, L. Kaplon, G. Korcyl, P. Kowalski, T. Kozik, W. Krzemien, E. Kubicz, Sz. Niedzwiecki, M. Palka, L. Raczynski, Z. Rudy, P. Salabura, N. G. Sharma, M. Silarski, A. Slomski, J. Smyrski, A. Strzelecki, A. Wieczorek, W. Wislicki, M. Zielinski, N. Zon

Abstract:

A new concept and results of the performance tests of the TOF-PET detection system developed at the Jagiellonian University will be presented. The novelty of the concept lies in employing long strips of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta, and in using predominantly the timing of signals instead of their amplitudes for the reconstruction of Lines-of-Response. The diagnostic chamber consists of plastic scintillator strips readout by pairs of photo multipliers arranged axially around a cylindrical surface. To take advantage of the superior timing properties of plastic scintillators the signals are probed in the voltage domain with the accuracy of 20 ps by a newly developed electronics, and the data are collected by the novel trigger-less and reconfigurable data acquisition system. The hit-position and hit-time are reconstructed by the dedicated reconstruction methods based on the compressing sensing theory and the library of synchronized model signals. The solutions are subject to twelve patent applications. So far a time-of-flight resolution of ~120 ps (sigma) was achieved for a double-strip prototype with 30 cm field-of-view (FOV). It is by more than a factor of two better than TOF resolution achievable in current TOF-PET modalities and at the same time the FOV of 30 cm long prototype is significantly larger with respect to typical commercial PET devices. The Jagiellonian PET (J-PET) detector with plastic scintillators arranged axially possesses also another advantage. Its diagnostic chamber is free of any electronic devices and magnetic materials thus giving unique possibilities of combining J-PET with CT and J-PET with MRI for scanning the same part of a patient at the same time with both methods.

Keywords: PET-CT, PET-MRI, TOF-PET, scintillator

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5 Oil-Oil Correlation Using Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Crude Oil: A Case Study in Iranian Oil Fields

Authors: Morteza Taherinezhad, Ahmad Reza Rabbani, Morteza Asemani, Rudy Swennen

Abstract:

Oil-oil correlation is one of the most important issues in geochemical studies that enables to classify oils genetically. Oil-oil correlation is generally estimated based on non-polar fractions of crude oil (e.g., saturate and aromatic compounds). Despite several advantages, the drawback of using these compounds is their susceptibility of being affected by secondary processes. The polar fraction of crude oil (e.g., asphaltenes) has similar characteristics to kerogen, and this structural similarity is preserved during migration, thermal maturation, biodegradation, and water washing. Therefore, these structural characteristics can be considered as a useful correlation parameter, and it can be concluded that asphaltenes from different reservoirs with the same genetic signatures have a similar origin. Hence in this contribution, an integrated study by using both non-polar and polar fractions of oil was performed to use the merits of both fractions. Therefore, five oil samples from oil fields in the Persian Gulf were studied. Structural characteristics of extracted asphaltenes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Graphs based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds (predominant compounds in asphaltenes structure) and sulphoxide and carbonyl functional groups (which are representatives of sulphur and oxygen abundance in asphaltenes) were used for comparison of asphaltenes structures in different samples. Non-polar fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of asphaltenes showed the studied oil samples comprise two oil families with distinct genetic characteristics. The first oil family consists of Salman and Reshadat oil samples, and the second oil family consists of Resalat, Siri E, and Siri D oil samples. To validate our results, biomarker parameters were employed, and this approach completely confirmed previous results. Based on biomarker analyses, both oil families have a marine source rock, whereby marl and carbonate source rocks are the source rock for the first and the second oil family, respectively.

Keywords: biomarker, non-polar fraction, oil-oil correlation, petroleum geochemistry, polar fraction

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4 Analysis of the Strategic Value at the Usage of Green IT Application for the Organizational Product or Service in Order to Gain the Competitive Advantage; Case: E-Money of a Telecommunication Firm in Indonesia

Authors: I Putu Deny Arthawan Sugih Prabowo, Eko Nugroho, Rudy Hartanto

Abstract:

Known, Green IT is a concept about how to use the technology (IT) wisely, efficiently, and environmentally. However, it exists as the consequence of the rapid-growth of the technology (especially IT) currently. Not only for the environments, the usage of Green IT applications, e.g. Cloud Computing (Cloud Storage) and E-Money (E-Cash), also gives its benefits for the organizational business strategy (especially the organizational product/service strategy) in order to gain the organizational competitive advantage (to be the market leader). This paper takes the case at E-Money as a Value-Added Services (VAS) of a telecommunication firm (company) in Indonesia which it also competes with the competitors’ similar product (service). Although it has been a popular telecommunication firm’s product/service, but its strategic values for the organization (firm) is still unknown, and therefore, the aim of this paper is for analyzing its strategic values for gaining the organizational competitive advantage. However, in this paper, its strategic value analysis is viewed by how to assess (consider) its strategic benefits and also manage the challenges or risks of its implementation at the organization as an organizational product/service. Then the paper uses a research model for investigating the influences of both perceived risks and the organizational cultures to the usage of Green IT Application at the organization and also both the usage of Green IT Application at the organization and the threats-challenges of the organizational products/services to the competitive advantage of the organizational products/services. However, the paper uses the quantitative research method (collecting the information from the field respondents by using the research questionnaires) and then, the primary data is analyzed by both descriptive and inferential statistics. Also in this paper, SmartPLS is used for analyzing the primary data by the quantitative research method. Besides using the quantitative research method, the paper also uses the qualitative research method, such as interviewing the field respondent and/or directly field observation, for deeply confirming the quantitative research method’s analysis results at the certain domain, e.g. both organizational cultures and internal processes that support the usage of Green IT applications for the organizational product/service (E-Money in this paper case). However, the paper is still at an infant stage of in-progress research. Then the paper’s results may be used as a reference for the organization (firm or company) in developing the organizational business strategies, especially about the organizational product/service that relates to Green IT applications. Besides it, the paper may also be the future study, e.g. the influence of knowledge transfer about E-Money and/or other Green IT application-based products/services to the organizational service performance that relates to the product (service) in order to gain the competitive advantage.

Keywords: Green IT, competitive advantage, strategic value, organization (firm or company), organizational product (service)

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3 Evaluation Of A Start Up Business Strategy In Movie Industry: Case Study Of Visinema

Authors: Stacia E. H. Sitohang, S.Mn., Socrates Rudy Sirait

Abstract:

The first movie theater in Indonesia was established in December 1900. The movie industry started with international movie penetration. After a while, local movie producers started to rise and created local Indonesian movies. The industry is growing through ups and downs in Indonesia. In 2008, Visinema was founded in Jakarta, Indonesia, by AnggaDwimasSasongko, one of the most respected movie director in Indonesia. After getting achievements and recognition, Visinema chose to grow the company horizontally as opposed to only grow vertically and gain another similar achievement. Visinemachose to build the ecosystem that enables them to obtain many more opportunities and generatebusiness sustainability. The company proceed as an agile company. They created several business subsidiaries to support the company’s Intellectual Property (IP) development. This research was done through interview with the key persons in the company and questionnaire to get market insights regarding Visinema. The is able to transform their IP that initially started from movies to different kinds of business model. Interestingly, Angga chose to use the start up approach to create Visinema. In 2019, the company successfully gained Series A funding from Intudo Ventures and got other various investment schemes to support the business. In early 2020, Covid-19 pandemic negatively impacted many industries in Indonesia, especially the entertainment and leisure businesses. Fortunately, Visinema did not face any significant problem regarding survival during the pandemic, there were nolay-offs nor work hour reductions. Instead, they were thinking of much bigger opportunities and problems. While other companies suffer during the pandemic, Visinema created the first focused Transactional Video On Demand (TVOD) in Indonesia named Bioskop Online. The platform was created to keep the company innovating and adapting with the new online market as the result of the Covid-19 pandemic. Other than a digital platform, Visinemainvested heavily in animation to target kids and family business. They believed that penetrating the technology and animation market is going to be the biggest opportunity in Visinema’s road map. Besides huge opportunities, Visinema is also facing problems. The first is company brand positioning. Angga, as the founder, felt the need to detach his name from the brand image of Visinema to create system sustainability and scalability. Second, the company has to create a strategy to refocus in a particular business area to maintain and improve the competitive advantages. The third problem, IP piracy is a huge structural problem in Indonesia, the company considers IP thieves as their biggest competitors as opposed to other production company. As the recommendation, we suggest a set of branding and management strategy to detach the founder’s name from Visinema’s brand and improve the competitive advantages. We also suggest Visinema invest in system building to prevent IP piracy in the entertainment industry, which later can be another business subsidiary of Visinema.

Keywords: business ecosystem, agile, sustainability, scalability, start Up, intellectual property, digital platform

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2 Reconstruction of Signal in Plastic Scintillator of PET Using Tikhonov Regularization

Authors: L. Raczynski, P. Moskal, P. Kowalski, W. Wislicki, T. Bednarski, P. Bialas, E. Czerwinski, A. Gajos, L. Kaplon, A. Kochanowski, G. Korcyl, J. Kowal, T. Kozik, W. Krzemien, E. Kubicz, Sz. Niedzwiecki, M. Palka, Z. Rudy, O. Rundel, P. Salabura, N.G. Sharma, M. Silarski, A. Slomski, J. Smyrski, A. Strzelecki, A. Wieczorek, M. Zielinski, N. Zon

Abstract:

The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The J-PET detector improves the TOF resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators. Since registration of the waveform of signals with duration times of few nanoseconds is not feasible, a novel front-end electronics allowing for sampling in a voltage domain at four thresholds was developed. To take fully advantage of these fast signals a novel scheme of recovery of the waveform of the signal, based on ideas from the Tikhonov regularization (TR) and Compressive Sensing methods, is presented. The prior distribution of sparse representation is evaluated based on the linear transformation of the training set of waveform of the signals by using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) decomposition. Beside the advantage of including the additional information from training signals, a further benefit of the TR approach is that the problem of signal recovery has an optimal solution which can be determined explicitly. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This step is crucial to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. It has been proven that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of samples at voltage levels. The method is tested using signals registered by means of the single detection module of the J-PET detector built out from the 30 cm long BC-420 plastic scintillator strip. It is demonstrated that the experimental and theoretical functions describing the recovery errors in the J-PET scenario are largely consistent. The specificity and limitations of the signal recovery method in this application are discussed. It is shown that the PCA basis offers high level of information compression and an accurate recovery with just eight samples, from four voltage levels, for each signal waveform. Moreover, it is demonstrated that using the recovered waveform of the signals, instead of samples at four voltage levels alone, improves the spatial resolution of the hit position reconstruction. The experiment shows that spatial resolution evaluated based on information from four voltage levels, without a recovery of the waveform of the signal, is equal to 1.05 cm. After the application of an information from four voltage levels to the recovery of the signal waveform, the spatial resolution is improved to 0.94 cm. Moreover, the obtained result is only slightly worse than the one evaluated using the original raw-signal. The spatial resolution calculated under these conditions is equal to 0.93 cm. It is very important information since, limiting the number of threshold levels in the electronic devices to four, leads to significant reduction of the overall cost of the scanner. The developed recovery scheme is general and may be incorporated in any other investigation where a prior knowledge about the signals of interest may be utilized.

Keywords: plastic scintillators, positron emission tomography, statistical analysis, tikhonov regularization

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1 When the Children Touched the Paintings: New German Cinema, the Red Army Faction, and their Filmic Afterlives

Authors: Rudy Ralph Martinez

Abstract:

The 1960s provided us with some of the most iconic protest images of the late-20th century. This was the result of worldwide unrest and the proliferation of filmmaking equipment, which led to a flood of photos and films depicting war and activism. Many of these images and films played a pivotal role in shaping the ever-evolving discussions surrounding the ‘60s. However, too often, radical imagery finds itself subsumed by consumer culture, a degradation that flattens radical imagery and turns it into consumer products. With this in mind, the work that follows is an analysis of one of the little-discussed chapters of the 60s and 70s, and it is that of the New German Cinema movement and its relationship with the Rote Armee Fraktion, or Red Army Faction (RAF), an armed Marxist-Leninist group founded in West Germany in 1970. The RAF arose out of a milieu which included student activists protesting Western military involvement in the Vietnam War, civil rights activists, and third world guerillas. The actions undertaken by the group throughout their first decade in existence, including bombings, and assassinations, would create West Germany’s most dire political crisis since the Nazi era, culminating in a crisis of legitimation remembered as the German Autumn, which saw the suicides of several of the militants and the assassination of SS officer-cum-prominent industrialist, Hans Martin-Schleyer. Throughout the 1970s, young filmmakers associated with the New German Cinema sought to analyze the political situation as it was unfolding, their films contributing to the public discourse in concomitance with the government and the media. Four notable examples of these films are Volker Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta’sDie Verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum oder: Wie Gewaltentstehen und wohinsieführenkann (The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum, or: How Violence Develops and Where it Can Lead) (1975), a dark drama about the media’s role in forming public opinion, Deutschland im Herbst(Germany in Autumn) (1977), an experimental collective work released mere months after the German Autumn, Rainer Werner Fassbinder’s Die Dritte Generation (The Third Generation) (1979), a satire about an inept cell of radical militants, and Die bleierne Zeit (The Leaden Time, alt. title: Marianne and Juliane) (1981), an intimate portrayal about two sisters whose activism leads them down disparate paths. The filmmakers of the New German Cinema refused to underline their films with the Manichaean claims respectively espoused by the RAF and the government. These complex portrayals found offspring in films such as Christian Petzold’s Die innere Sicherheit(The State I Am In) (2000), a portrait of a family on the run after the reunification of Germany but were countered by glossy high-budget portrayals such as Uli Edel’s Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex(The Baader-Meinhof Complex) (2008). In focusing on the aesthetic structure of these films in relation to the political atmosphere of the late-60s and 70s West Germany, I hope to shed light on questions concerning spectatorship, surveillance, the role of journalism, and how politics disrupts personal relationships, and the kinship between artists and so-called terrorists.

Keywords: new german cinema, film history, red army faction, german cinema

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