Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: mangrove

72 Application of Remote Sensing for Monitoring the Impact of Lapindo Mud Sedimentation for Mangrove Ecosystem, Case Study in Sidoarjo, East Java

Authors: Akbar Cahyadhi Pratama Putra, Tantri Utami Widhaningtyas, M. Randy Aswin


Indonesia as an archipelagic nation have very long coastline which have large potential marine resources, one of that is the mangrove ecosystems. Lapindo mudflow disaster in Sidoarjo, East Java requires mudflow flowed into the sea through the river Brantas and Porong. Mud material that transported by river flow is feared dangerous because they contain harmful substances such as heavy metals. This study aims to map the mangrove ecosystem seen from its density and knowing how big the impact of a disaster on the Lapindo mud to mangrove ecosystem and accompanied by efforts to address the mangrove ecosystem that maintained continuity. Mapping coastal mangrove conditions of Sidoarjo was done using remote sensing products that Landsat 7 ETM + images with dry months of recording time in 2002, 2006, 2009, and 2014. The density of mangrove detected using NDVI that uses the band 3 that is the red channel and band 4 that is near IR channel. Image processing was used to produce NDVI using ENVI 5.1 software. NDVI results were used for the detection of mangrove density is 0-1. The development of mangrove ecosystems of both area and density from year to year experienced has a significant increase. Mangrove ecosystems growths are affected by material deposition area of Lapindo mud on Porong and Brantas river estuary, where the silt is growing medium suitable mangrove ecosystem and increasingly growing. Increasing the density caused support by public awareness to prevent heavy metals in the material so that the Lapindo mud mangrove breeding done around the farm.

Keywords: archipelagic nation, mangrove, Lapindo mudflow disaster, NDVI

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71 The Community Structure of Fish and its Correlation with Mangrove Forest Litter Production in Panjang Island, Banten Bay, Indonesia

Authors: Meilisha Putri Pertiwi, Mufti Petala Patria


Mangrove forest often categorized as a productive ecosystem in trophic water and the highest carbon storage among all the forest types. Mangrove-derived organic matter determines the food web of fish and invertebrates. In Indonesia trophic water ecosystem, 80% commersial fish caught in coastal area are high related to food web in mangrove forest ecosystem. Based on the previous research in Panjang Island, Bojonegara, Banten, Indonesia, removed mangrove litterfall to the sea water were 9,023 g/m³/s for two stations (west station–5,169 g/m³/s and north station-3,854 g/m³/s). The vegetation were dominated from Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizopora stylosa. C element is the highest content (27,303% and 30,373%) than N element (0,427% and 0,35%) and P element (0,19% and 0,143%). The aim of research also to know the diversity of fish inhabit in mangrove forest. Fish sampling is by push net. Fish caught are collected into plastics, total length measured, weigh measured, and individual and total counted. Meanwhile, the 3 modified pipes (1 m long, 5 inches diameter, and a closed one hole part facing the river by using a nylon cloth) set in the water channel connecting mangrove forest and sea water for each stasiun. They placed for 1 hour at low tide. Then calculate the speed of water flow and volume of modified pipes. The fish and mangrove litter will be weigh for wet weight, dry weight, and analyze the C, N, and P element content. The sampling data will be conduct 3 times of month in full moon. The salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH, DO, and the sediment of mangrove forest will be measure too. This research will give information about the fish diversity in mangrove forest, the removed mangrove litterfall to the sea water, the composition of sediment, the total element content (C, N, P) of fish and mangrove litter, and the correlation of element content absorption between fish and mangrove litter. The data will be use for the fish and mangrove ecosystem conservation.

Keywords: fish diversity, mangrove forest, mangrove litter, carbon element, nitrogen element, P element, conservation

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70 Using Bamboo Structures for Protecting Mangrove Ecosystems: A Nature-Based Approach

Authors: Sourabh Harihar, Henk Jan Verhagen


The nurturing of a mangrove ecosystem requires a protected coastal environment with adequate drainage of the soil substratum. In a conceptual design undertaken for a mangrove rejuvenation project along the eastern coast of Mumbai (India), various engineering alternatives have been thought of as a protective coastal structure and drainage system. One such design uses bamboo-pile walls in creating shielded compartments in the form of various layouts, coupled with bamboo drains. The bamboo-based design is found to be environmentally and economically advantageous over other designs like sand-dikes which are multiple times more expensive. Moreover, employing a natural material such as bamboo helps the structure naturally blend with the developing mangrove habitat, allaying concerns about dismantling the structure post mangrove growth. A cost-minimising and eco-friendly bamboo structure, therefore, promises to pave the way for large rehabilitation projects in future. As mangrove ecosystems in many parts of the world increasingly face the threat of destruction due to urban development and climate change, protective nature-based designs that can be built in a short duration are the need of the hour.

Keywords: bamboo, environment, mangrove, rehabilitation

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69 Filling the Policy Gap for Coastal Resources Management: Case of Evidence-Based Mangrove Institutional Strengthening in Cameroon

Authors: Julius Niba Fon, Jean Hude E. Moudingo


Mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon are valuable both in services and functions as they play host to carbon sinks, fishery breeding grounds and natural coastal barriers against storms. In addition to the globally important biodiversity that they contain, they also contribute to local livelihoods. Despite these appraisals, a reduction of about 30 % over a 25 years period due to anthropogenic and natural actions has been recorded. The key drivers influencing mangrove change include population growth, climate change, economic and political trends and upstream habitat use. Reversing the trend of mangrove loss and growing vulnerability of coastal peoples requires a real commitment by the government to develop and implement robust level policies. It has been observed in Cameroon that special ecosystems like mangroves are insufficiently addressed by forestry and/or environment programs. Given these facts, the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) in partnership with the Government of Cameroon and other development actors have put in place the project for sustainable community-based management and conservation of mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon. The aim is to address two issues notably the present weak institutional and legal framework for mangrove management, and the unrestricted and unsustainable harvesting of mangrove resources. Civil society organizations like the Cameroon Wildlife Conservation Society, Cameroon Ecology and Organization for the Environment and Development have been working to reduce the deforestation and degradation trend of Cameroon mangroves and also bringing the mangrove agenda to the fore in national and international arenas. Following a desktop approach, we found out that in situ and ex situ initiatives on mangrove management and conservation exist on propagation of improved fish smoke ovens to reduce fuel wood consumption, mangrove forest regeneration, shrimps farming and mangrove protected areas management. The evidence generated from the field experiences are inputs for processes of improving the legal and institutional framework for mangrove management in Cameroon, such as the elaboration of norms for mangroves management engaged by the government.

Keywords: mangrove ecosystem, legal and institutional framework, climate change, civil society organizations

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68 Modified Mangrove Pens for Polyculture System in Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) and Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Production

Authors: Laurence G. Almoguera, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Armando N. Espino, Marvin M. Cinense


The mangrove pens were modified to produce mud crab (Scylla serrata) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) in a polyculture system. The modification of mangrove pens was done by adding excavations inside the pen. The water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, and temperature) were monitored, the recovery and the production rate in each pen were evaluated. The experiment was conducted for a rearing period of 143 days in nine mangrove pens, each having an area of 32 m² with an average net enclosure height of 3 m from the soil surface. The three different pens constructed (existing design - with canal only, with 43% excavation by area, and 54% excavation by area) were designated as T₁, T₂, and T₃, respectively. All experimental units were stocked with 31 pieces of crablets (with 33.3 g average weight) and additional 130 pieces of milkfish fingerlings (with 0.11 g average weight) to the modified mangrove pens. The water quality parameters recorded in the pens were favorable for the growth and recovery of the mud crab and milkfish, except for dissolved oxygen (DO). It was found to be the reason for the total mortality of the stocked milkfish. For mud crab, the highest mean recovery was recorded in T₂ (34.41%), followed by T₃ (26.91%) and the lowest in T1 (21.50%). The production rate followed the same trend as the recovery, where T₂ (74.49 g/m²) obtained the highest, followed by T₃ (55 g/m2) and the lowest was in T₁ (34.87 g/m²). The statistical analysis revealed that the variations of the mud crab recovery were not significant, while in terms of production rate, modified mangrove pens were found to be more effective than the existing design. Due to the total mortality of the cultured milkfish, the current set-up of modified mangrove pens was found to be not suitable for the polyculture system of milkfish and mud crab production.

Keywords: aquasilviculture, milkfish, modified mangrove pen, mud crab, polyculture, production rate

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67 Spatial Mapping and Change Detection of a Coastal Woodland Mangrove Habitat in Fiji

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Anish Maharaj, Havish Naidu, Michelle Kumar


Mangrove patches are the foundation species located in the estuarine land areas. These patches provide a nursery, food source and protection for numerous aquatic, intertidal and well as land-based organisms. Mangroves also help in coastal protection, maintain water clarity and are one of the biggest sinks for blue carbon sequestration. In the Pacific Island countries, numerous coastal communities have a heavy socioeconomic dependence on coastal resources and mangroves play a key ecological and economical role in structuring the availability of these resources. Fiji has a large mangrove patch located in the Votua area of the Ba province. Globally, mangrove population continues to decline with the changes in climatic conditions and anthropogenic activities. Baseline information through wetland maps and time series change are essential references for development of effective mangrove management plans. These maps reveal the status of the resource and the effects arising from anthropogenic activities and climate change. In this study, we used remote sensing and GIS tools for mapping and temporal change detection over a period of >20 years in Votua, Fiji using Landsat imagery. Landsat program started in 1972 initially as Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Since then it has acquired millions of images of Earth. This archive allows mapping of temporal changes in mangrove forests. Mangrove plants consisted of the species Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora samoensis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lumnitzera littorea, Heritiera littoralis, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus granatum. Change detection analysis revealed significant reduction in the mangrove patch over the years. This information serves as a baseline for the development and implementation of effective management plans for one of Fiji’s biggest mangrove patches.

Keywords: climate change, GIS, Landsat, mangrove, temporal change

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66 Status of Mangrove Wetlands and Implications for Sustainable Livelihood of Coastal Communities on the Lagos Coast (West Africa)

Authors: I. Agboola Julius, Christopher A. Kumolu-Johnson, O. Kolade Rafiu, A. Saba Abdulwakil


This work elucidates on mangrove diversity, trends of change, factors responsible for loss over the years and implications for sustainable livelihoods of locals in four villages (Ajido (L1), Tarkwa bay (L2), University of Lagos (L3), and Ikosi (L4)) along the coast of Lagos, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through field survey, questionnaires, interviews, and review of existing literature. Field observation and data analysis reveals mangrove diversity as low and varied on a spatial scale, where Margalef’s Diversity Index (D) was 0.368, 0.269, 0.326, and 0.333, respectively for L1, L2, L3, and L4. Shannon Weiner’s Index (H) was estimated to be 1.003, 1.460, 1.160, 1.046, and Specie Richness (E) 0.913, 0.907, 0.858, and 0.015, respectively, for the four villages. Also, The Simpson’s index of diversity was analyzed to be 0.632, 0. 731, 0.647, 0.667, and Simpson’s reciprocal index 2.717, 3.717, 3.060, and 3.003, respectively, for the four villages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the impact of mangrove loss on the sustainable livelihood of coastal communities. Calculated Chi-square (X2) value (5) was higher than tabulated value (4.30), suggesting that loss of mangrove wetlands impacted on local communities’ livelihood at the four villages. Analyses of causes and trends of mangrove wetland loss over the years suggest that urbanization, fuel wood and agricultural activities are major causes. Current degradation observed in mangrove wetlands on the Lagos coast suggest a reduction in mangroves biodiversity and associated fauna with potential cascading effects on higher trophic levels such as fisheries. Low yield in fish catch, reduction in income and increasing cases of natural disaster has culminated in threats to sustainable livelihoods of local communities along the coast of Lagos.

Keywords: Mangroves, lagos coast, fisheries, management

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65 Effect of Planting Techniques on Mangrove Seedling Establishment in Kuwait Bay

Authors: L. Al-Mulla, B. M. Thomas, N. R. Bhat, M. K. Suleiman, P. George


Mangroves are halophytic shrubs habituated in the intertidal zones in the tropics and subtropics, forming a complex and highly dynamic coastal ecosystem. Historical evidence indicating the existence followed by the extinction of mangrove in Kuwait; hence, continuous projects have been established to reintroduce this plant to the marine ecosystem. One of the major challenges in establishing large-scale mangrove plantations in Kuwait is the very high rate of seedling mortality, which should ideally be less than 20%. This study was conducted at three selected locations in the Kuwait bay during 2016-2017, to evaluate the effect of four planting techniques on mangrove seedling establishment. Coir-pillow planting technique, comp-mat planting technique, and anchored container planting technique were compared with the conventional planting method. The study revealed that the planting techniques significantly affected the establishment of mangrove seedlings in the initial stages of growth. Location-specific difference in seedling establishment was also observed during the course of the study. However, irrespective of the planting techniques employed, high seedling mortality was observed in all the planting locations towards the end of the study; which may be attributed to the physicochemical characteristics of the mudflats selected.

Keywords: Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh, coastal pollution, heavy metal accumulation, marine ecosystem, sedimentation, tidal inundation

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64 Rehabilitation and Conservation of Mangrove Forest as Pertamina Corporate Social Responsibility Approach in Prevention Damage Climate in Indonesia

Authors: Nor Anisa


This paper aims to describe the use of conservation and rehabilitation of Mangrove forests as an alternative area in protecting the natural environment and ecosystems and ecology, community education and innovation of sustainable industrial development such as oil companies, gas and coal. The existence of globalization encourages energy needs such as gas, diesel and coal as an unaffected resource which is a basic need for human life while environmental degradation and natural phenomena continue to occur in Indonesia, especially global warming, sea water pollution, extinction of animal steps. The phenomenon or damage to nature in Indonesia is caused by a population explosion in Indonesia that causes unemployment, the land where the residence will disappear so that this will encourage the exploitation of nature and the environment. Therefore, Pertamina as a state-owned oil and gas company carries out its social responsibility efforts, namely to carry out conservation and rehabilitation and management of Mangrove fruit seeds which will provide an educational effect on the benefits of Mangrove seed maintenance. The method used in this study is a qualitative method and secondary data retrieval techniques where data is taken based on Pertamina activity journals and websites that can be accounted for. So the conclusion of this paper is: the benefits and function of conservation of mangrove forests in Indonesia physically, chemically, biologically and socially and economically and can provide innovation to the CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) of the company in continuing social responsibility in the scope of environmental conservation and social education.

Keywords: mangrove, environmental damage, conservation and rehabilitation, innovation of corporate social responsibility

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63 Genetic Analysis of the Endangered Mangrove Species Avicennia Marina in Qatar Detected by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat DNA Markers

Authors: Talaat Ahmed, Amna Babssail


Mangroves are evergreen trees and grow along the coastal areas of Qatar. The largest and oldest area of mangroves can be found around Al-Thakhira and Al-Khor. Other mangrove areas originate from fairly recent plantings by the government, although unfortunately the picturesque mangrove lake in Al-Wakra has now been uprooted. Avicinnia marina is the predominant mangrove species found in the region. Mangroves protect and stabilize low lying coastal land, and provide protection and food sources for estuarine and coastal fishery food chains. They also serve as feeding, breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of fish, crustaceans, reptiles, birds and other wildlife. A total of 21 individuals of A. marina, representing seven diverse Natural and artificial populations, were sampled throughout its range in Qatar. Leaves from 2-3 randomly selected trees at each location were collected. The locations are as follows: Al-Rawis, Ras-Madpak, Fuwairt, Summaseima, Al-khour, AL-Mafjar and Zekreet. Total genomic DNA was extracted using commercial DNeasy Plant System (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, CA) kit to be used for genetic diversity analysis. Total of 12 (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat) ISSR primers were used to amplify DNA fragments using genomic DNA. The 12 ISSR primers amplified polymorphic bands among mangrove samples in different areas as well as within each area indicating the existing of variation within each area and among the different areas of mangrove in Qatar. The results could characterize Avicinnia marina populations exist in different areas of Qatar and establish DNA fingerprint documentations for mangrove population to be used in further studies. Moreover, existing of genetic variation within and among Avicinnia marina populations is a strong indication for the ability of such populations to adapt different environmental conditions in Qatar. This study could be a warning to save mangrove in Qatar and save the environment as well.

Keywords: DNA fingerprint, Avicinnia marina, genetic analysis, Qatar

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62 Heavy Metal Contamination of Mining-Impacted Mangrove Sediments and Its Correlation with Vegetation and Sediment Attributes

Authors: Jumel Christian P. Nicha, Severino G. Salmo III


This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HM) in mangrove sediments of Lake Uacon, Zambales, Philippines. The relationship among the studied HM (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe) and the mangrove vegetation and sediment characteristics were assessed. Fourteen sampling plots were designated across the lake (10 vegetated and 4 un-vegetated) based on distance from the mining effluents. In each plot, three sediment cores were collected at 20 cm depth. Among the dominant mangrove species recorded were (in order of dominance): Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora stylosa, Avicennia marina, Excoecaria agallocha and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Sediment samples were digested with aqua regia, and the HM concentrations were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that HM concentrations were higher in the vegetated plots as compared to the un-vegetated sites. Vegetated sites had high Ni (mean: 881.71 mg/kg) and Cr (mean: 776.36 mg/kg) that exceeded the threshold values (cf. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; USEPA). Fe, Pb, Cu and Cd had a mean concentration of 2597.92 mg/kg, 40.94 mg/kg, 36.81 mg/kg and 2.22 mg/kg respectively. Vegetation variables were not significantly correlated with HM concentration. However, the HM concentration was significantly correlated with sediment variables particularly pH, redox, particle size, nitrogen, phosphorus, moisture and organic matter contents. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicated moderate to high pollution in the lake. Risk assessment and management should be designed in order to mitigate the ecological risk posed by HM. The need of a regular monitoring scheme for lake and mangrove rehabilitation programs and management should be designed.

Keywords: heavy metals, mangrove vegetation, mining, Philippines, sediment

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61 Colonization of Non-Planted Mangrove Species in the “Rehabilitation of Aquaculture Ponds to Mangroves” Projects in China

Authors: Yanmei Xiong, Baowen Liao, Kun Xin, Zhongmao Jiang, Hao Guo, Yujun Chen, Mei Li


Conversion of mangroves to aquaculture ponds represented as one major reason for mangrove loss in Asian countries in the 20th century. Recently the Chinese government has set a goal to increase 48,650 ha (more than the current mangrove area) of mangroves before the year of 2025 and “rehabilitation of aquaculture ponds to mangroves” projects are considered to be the major pathway to increase the mangrove area of China. It remains unclear whether natural colonization is feasible and what are the main influencing factors for mangrove restoration in these projects. In this study, a total of 17 rehabilitation sites in Dongzhai Bay, Hainan, China were surveyed for vegetation, soil and surface elevation five years after the rehabilitation project was initiated. Colonization of non-planted mangrove species was found at all sites and non-planted species dominated over planted species at 14 sites. Mangrove plants could only be found within the elevation range of -20 cm to 65 cm relative to the mean sea level. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents of the top 20 cm were generally low, ranging between 0.2%–1.4% and 0.03%–0.09%, respectively, and at each site, soil carbon and nitrogen were significantly lower at elevations with mangrove plants than lower elevations without mangrove plants. Seven sites located at the upper stream of river estuaries, where soil salinity was relatively lower, and nutrient was relatively higher, was dominated by non-planted Sonneratia caseolaris. Seven sites located at the down-stream of river estuaries or in the inner part of the bay, where soil salinity and nutrient were intermediate, were dominated by non-planted alien Sonneratia apetala. Another three sites located at the outer part of the bay, where soil salinity was higher and nutrient was lower, were dominated by planted species (Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Bruguiera sexangula) with non-planted S. apetala and Avicennia marina also found. The results suggest that natural colonization of mangroves is feasible in pond rehabilitation projects given the rehabilitation of tidal activities and appropriate elevations. Surface elevation is the major determinate for the success of mangrove rehabilitation, and soil salinity and nutrients are important in shaping vegetation structure. The colonization and dominance of alien species (Sonneratia apetala in this case) in some rehabilitation sites poses invasion risks and thus cautions should be taken when introducing alien mangrove species.

Keywords: coastal wetlands, ecological restoration, mangroves, natural colonization, shrimp pond rehabilitation, wetland restoration

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60 Cadaver Free Fatty Acid Distribution Associated with Burial in Mangrove and Oil Palm Plantation Soils under Tropical Climate

Authors: Siti Sofo Ismail, Siti Noraina Wahida Mohd Alwi, Mohamad Hafiz Ameran, Masrudin M. Yusoff


Locating clandestine cadaver is crucially important in forensic investigations. However, it requires a lot of man power, costly and time consuming. Therefore, the development of a new method to locate the clandestine graves is urgently needed as the cases involve burial of cadaver in different types of soils under tropical climates are still not well explored. This study focused on the burial in mangrove and oil palm plantation soils, comparing the fatty acid distributions in different soil acidities. A stimulated burial experiment was conducted using domestic pig (Sus scrofa) to substitute human tissues. Approximately 20g of pig fatty flesh was allowed to decompose in mangrove and oil palm plantation soils, mimicking burial in a shallow grave. The associated soils were collected at different designated sampling points, corresponding different decomposition stages. Modified Bligh-Dyer Extraction method was applied to extract the soil free fatty acids. Then, the obtained free fatty acids were analyzed with gas chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID). A similar fatty acid distribution was observed for both mangrove and oil palm plantations soils. Palmitic acid (C₁₆) was the most abundance of free fatty acid, followed by stearic acid (C₁₈). However, the concentration of palmitic acid (C₁₆) higher in oil palm plantation compare to mangrove soils. Conclusion, the decomposition rate of cadaver can be affected by different type of soils.

Keywords: clandestine grave, burial, soils, free fatty acid

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59 Biodiversity Indices for Macrobenthic Community structures of Mangrove Forests, Khamir Port, Iran

Authors: Mousa Keshavarz, Abdul-Reza Dabbagh, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi


The diversity of mangrove macrobenthos assemblages at mudflat and mangrove ecosystems of Port Khamir, Iran were investigated for one year. During this period, we measured physicochemical properties of water temperature, salinity, pH, DO and the density and distribution of the macrobenthos. We sampled a total of 9 transects, at three different topographic levels along the intertidal zone at three stations. Assemblages at class level were compared. The five most diverse and abundant classes were Foraminifers (54%), Gastropods (23%), Polychaetes (10%), Bivalves (8%) & Crustaceans (5%), respectively. Overall densities were 1869 ± 424 ind/m2 (26%) in spring, 2544 ± 383 ind/m2(36%) in summer, 1482 ± 323 ind/m2 (21%) in autumn and 1207 ± 80 ind/m2 (17%) in winter. Along the intertidal zone, the overall relative density of individuals at high, intermediate, and low topographic levels was 40, 30, and 30% respectively. Biodiversity indices were used to compare different classes: Gastropoda (Shannon index: 0.33) and Foraminifera (Simpson index: 0.28) calculated the highest scores. It was also calculated other bio-indices. With the exception of bivalves, filter feeders were associated with coarser sediments at higher intertidal levels, while deposit feeders were associated with finer sediments at lower levels. Salinity was the most important factor acting on community structure, while DO and pH had little influence.

Keywords: macrobenthos, biodiversity, mangrove forest, Khamir Port

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58 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono


The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, lead, mangrove propagule

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57 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination for the Sustainable Management of Vulnerable Mangrove Ecosystem, the Sundarbans

Authors: S. Begum, T. Biswas, M. A. Islam


The present research investigates the distribution and contamination of heavy metals in core sediments collected from three locations of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. In this research, quality of the analysis is evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), IAEA-Soil-7, and NIST-1633b (coal fly ash). Total concentrations of 28 heavy metals (Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) have determined in core sediments of the Sundarbans mangrove by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. When compared with upper continental crustal (UCC) values, it is observed that mean concentrations of K, Ti, Zn, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Hf, and Th show elevated values in the research area is high. In this research, the assessments of metal contamination levels using different environmental contamination indices (EF, Igeo, CF) indicate that Ti, Sb, Cs, REEs, and Th have minor enrichment of the sediments of the Sundarbans. The modified degree of contamination (mCd) of studied samples of the Sundarbans ecosystem show low contamination. The pollution load index (PLI) values for the cores suggested that sampling points are moderately polluted. The possible sources of the deterioration of the sediment quality can be attributed to the different chemical carrying cargo accidents, port activities, ship breaking, agricultural and aquaculture run-off of the area. Pearson correlation matrix (PCM) established relationships among elements. The PCM indicates that most of the metal's distributions have been controlled by the same factors such as Fe-oxy-hydroxides and clay minerals, and also they have a similar origin. The poor correlations of Ca with most of the elements in the sediment cores indicate that calcium carbonate has a less significant role in this mangrove sediment. Finally, the data from this research will be used as a benchmark for future research and help to quantify levels of metal pollutions, as well as to manage future ecological risks of the vulnerable mangrove ecosystem, the Sundarbans.

Keywords: contamination, core sediment, trace element, sundarbans, vulnerable

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56 Assessment of Community Perceptions of Mangrove Ecosystem Services and Their Link to SDGs in Vanga, Kenya

Authors: Samson Obiene, Khamati Shilabukha, Geoffrey Muga, James Kairo


Mangroves play a vital role in the achievement of multiple goals of global sustainable development (SDG’s), particularly SDG SDG 14 (life under water). Their management, however, is faced with several shortcomings arising from inadequate knowledge on the perceptions of their ecosystem services, hence a need to map mangrove goods and services within SDGs while interrogating the disaggregated perceptions. This study therefore aimed at exploring the parities and disparities in attitudes and perceptions of mangrove ecosystem services among community members of Vanga and the link of the ecosystem services (ESs) to specific SDG targets. The study was based at the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary area in Vanga; where a carbon-offset project on mangroves is being up scaled. Mixed methods approach employing surveys, focus group discussions (FGDs) and reviews of secondary data were used in the study. A two stage cluster samplings was used to select the study population and the sample size. FGDs were conducted purposively selecting active participants in mangrove related activities with distinct socio-demographic characteristics. Sampled respondents comprised of males and females of different occupations and age groups. Secondary data review was used to select specific SDG targets against which mangrove ecosystem services identified through a value chain analysis were mapped. In Vanga, 20 ecosystem services were identified and categorized under supporting, cultural and aesthetic, provisioning and regulating services. According to the findings of this study, 63.9% (95% ci 56.6-69.3) perceived of the ESs as very important for economic development, 10.3% (95% ci 0-21.3) viewed them as important for environmental and ecological development while 25.8% (95% ci 2.2-32.8) were not sure of any role they play in development. In the social-economic disaggregation, ecosystem service values were found to vary with the level of interaction with the ecosystem which depended on gender and other social-economic classes within the study area. The youths, low income earners, women and those with low education levels were also identified as the primary beneficiaries of mangrove ecosystem services. The study also found that of the 17 SDGs, mangroves have a potential of influencing the achievement 12, including, SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17 either directly or indirectly. Generally therefore, the local community is aware of the critical importance mangroves for enhanced livelihood and ecological services but challenges in sustainability still occur as a result the diverse values and of the services and the contradicting interests of the different actors around the ecosystem. It is therefore important to consider parities in values and perception to avoid a ‘tragedy of the commons’ while striving to enhance sustainability of the Mangrove ecosystem.

Keywords: sustainable development, community values, socio-demographics, Vanga, mangrove ecosystem services

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55 Assessment of Hydrologic Response of a Naturalized Tropical Coastal Mangrove Ecosystem Due to Land Cover Change in an Urban Watershed

Authors: Bryan Clark B. Hernandez, Eugene C. Herrera, Kazuo Nadaoka


Mangrove forests thriving in intertidal zones in tropical and subtropical regions of the world offer a range of ecosystem services including carbon storage and sequestration. They can regulate the detrimental effects of climate change due to carbon releases two to four times greater than that of mature tropical rainforests. Moreover, they are effective natural defenses against storm surges and tsunamis. However, their proliferation depends significantly on the prevailing hydroperiod at the coast. In the Philippines, these coastal ecosystems have been severely threatened with a 50% decline in areal extent observed from 1918 to 2010. The highest decline occurred in 1950 - 1972 when national policies encouraged the development of fisheries and aquaculture. With the intensive land use conversion upstream, changes in the freshwater-saltwater envelope at the coast may considerably impact mangrove growth conditions. This study investigates a developing urban watershed in Kalibo, Aklan province with a 220-hectare mangrove forest replanted for over 30 years from coastal mudflats. Since then, the mangrove forest was sustainably conserved and declared as protected areas. Hybrid land cover classification technique was used to classify Landsat images for years, 1990, 2010, and 2017. Digital elevation model utilized was Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) with a 5-meter resolution to delineate the watersheds. Using numerical modelling techniques, the hydrologic and hydraulic analysis of the influence of land cover change to flow and sediment dynamics was simulated. While significant land cover change occurred upland, thereby increasing runoff and sediment loads, the mangrove forests abundance adjacent to the coasts for the urban watershed, was somehow sustained. However, significant alteration of the coastline was observed in Kalibo through the years, probably due to the massive land-use conversion upstream and significant replanting of mangroves downstream. Understanding the hydrologic-hydraulic response of these watersheds to change land cover is essential to helping local government and stakeholders facilitate better management of these mangrove ecosystems.

Keywords: coastal mangroves, hydrologic model, land cover change, Philippines

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54 Landmark Based Catch Trends Assessment of Gray Eel Catfish (Plotosus canius) at Mangrove Estuary in Bangladesh

Authors: Ahmad Rabby


The present study emphasizing the catch trends assessment of Gray eel catfish (Plotosus canius) that was scrutinized on the basis of monthly length frequency data collected from mangrove estuary, Bangladesh during January 2017 to December 2018. A total amount of 1298 specimens were collected to estimate the total length (TL) and weight (W) of P. canius ranged from 13.3 cm to 87.4 cm and 28 g to 5200 g, respectively. The length-weight relationship was W=0.006 L2.95 with R2=0.972 for both sexes. The von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L∞=93.25 cm and K=0.28 yr-1, hypothetical age at zero length of t0=0.059 years and goodness of the fit of Rn=0.494. The growth performances indices for L∞ and W∞ were computed as Φ'=3.386 and Φ=1.84, respectively. The size at first sexual maturity was estimated in TL as 48.8 cm for pool sexes. The natural mortality was 0.51 yr-1 at average annual water surface temperature as 22 0C. The total instantaneous mortality was 1.24 yr-1 at CI95% of 0.105–1.42 (r2=0.986). While fishing mortality was 0.73 yr-1 and the current exploitation ratio as 0.59. The recruitment was continued throughout the year with one major peak during May-June was 17.20-17.96%. The Beverton-Holt yield per recruit model was analyzed by FiSAT-II, when tc was at 1.43 yr, the Fmax was estimated as 0.6 yr-1 and F0.1 was 0.33 yr-1. Current age at the first capture was approximately 0.6 year, however Fcurrent = 0.73 yr-1 which is beyond the F0.1 indicated that the current stock of P. canius of Bangladesh was overexploited.

Keywords: Plotosus canius, mangrove estuary, asymptotic length, FiSAT-II

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53 Effect of Pollutions on Mangrove Forests of Nayband National Marine Park

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Elaheh Shakerdargah


The mangrove ecosystem is a complex of various inter-related elements in the land-sea interface zone which is linked with other natural systems of the coastal region such as corals, sea-grass, coastal fisheries and beach vegetation. The mangrove ecosystem consists of water, muddy soil, trees, shrubs, and their associated flora, fauna and microbes. It is a very productive ecosystem sustaining various forms of life. Its waters are nursery grounds for fish, crustacean, and mollusk and also provide habitat for a wide range of aquatic life, while the land supports a rich and diverse flora and fauna, but pollutions may affect these characteristics. Iran has the lowest share of Persian Gulf pollution among the eight littoral states; environmental experts are still deeply concerned about the serious consequences of the pollution in the oil-rich gulf. Prolongation of critical conditions in the Persian Gulf has endangered its aquatic ecosystem. Water purification equipment, refineries, wastewater emitted by onshore installations, especially petrochemical plans, urban sewage, population density and extensive oil operations of Arab states are factors contaminating the Persian Gulf waters. Population density has been the major cause of pollution and environmental degradation in the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf is a closed marine environment which is connected to open waterways only from one way. It usually takes between three and four years for the gulf's water to be completely replaced. Therefore, any pollution entering the water will remain there for a relatively long time. Presently, the high temperature and excessive salt level in the water have exposed the marine creatures to extra threats, which mean they have to survive very tough conditions. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fish grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialization and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region. Pollution may cause the mortality of mangrove forests by effect on root, leaf and soil of the area. Study was showed the high correlation between industrial pollution and mangrove forests health in south of Iran and increase of population, coupled with economic growth, inevitably caused the use of mangrove lands for various purposes such as construction of roads, ports and harbors, industries and urbanization.

Keywords: Mangrove forest, pollution, Persian Gulf, population, environment

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52 The Innovation of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan Province, for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya


The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Mueang district, SamutSongkram province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: (1) The identity of Amphur (District) Mueang, SamutSongkram province. This establishment was near the Mouth of Maekong River for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) and mangrove trees. Don Hoy Lod, is characterized by muddy beaches, is a coastal wetland for Ramsar Site. It is at 1099th ranging where the greatest number of Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) can be seen from March to May each year. (2) The communication of the identity of AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 4 items: 1) The history of AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province 2) WatPhetSamutWorrawihan 3) The Learning source of Ecotourism: Don Hoy Lod and Mangrove forest 4) How to keep AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province for ecotourism.

Keywords: foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, ecotourism

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51 The Design of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Mueang Distict, Samut Songkram for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya


The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Mueang district, Samut Songkram province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The identity of Amphur (District) Mueang, Samut Songkram province. This establishment was near the Mouth of Maekong River for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) and mangrove trees. Don Hoy Lod, is characterized by muddy beaches, is a coastal wetland for Ramsar Site. It is at 1099th ranging where the greatest number of Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) can be seen from March to May each year. 2. The communication of the identity of Amphur Mueang, Samut Songkram province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 4 items: 1) The history of Amphur Mueang, Samut Songkram province 2) Wat Phet Samut Worrawihan 3) The Learning source of Ecotourism: Don Hoy Lod and Mangrove forest 4) How to keep Amphur Mueang, Samut Songkram province for ecotourism.

Keywords: foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, ecotourism

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50 Trace Element Phytoremediation Potential of Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban

Authors: Ranju Chowdhury, Santosh K. Sarkar


Trace element accumulation potential of ten mangrove species in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) along with host sediments was carried out at 2 study sites of diverse environmental stresses of Indian Sundarban Wetland, a UNESCO world heritage site. The study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to investigate the extent of accumulation and the distribution of trace metals in plant tissues (ii) to determine whether sediment trace metal levels are correlated with trace metal levels in tissues and (iii) to find out the suitable candidate for phytoremediation species. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most trace metals than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The concentrations of studied 11 trace elements (expressed in µg g -1) showed wide range of variations in host sediment with the following descending order: Fe (2865.31-3019.62) > Mn (646.04- 648.47 > Cu (35.03- 41.55) > Zn (32.51- 36.33) > Ni (34.4- 36.60) > Cr (27.5- 29.54) > Pb (11.6- 20.34) > Co (6.79- 8.55) > As (3.22- 4.41) > Cd (0.19- 0.22) > Hg (0.06- 0.07). The ranges of concentration of trace metals (expressed in µg g -1) for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissues were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.20- 938.13, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726.24, 5.41- 11.34, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 respectively. Among all trace elements, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in Excoecaria agallocha (2.97 and 52.20 µg g -1 respectively). The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in E. agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for trace metal bioaccumulation. Therefore, phytoremediation could be extensively used for the removal of the toxic contaminants for sustainable management of Sundarban coastal regions.

Keywords: Indian Sundarban, mangroves, phytoremediation, trace elements

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49 Environmental and Economic Impact of Mangrove Deforestation: Case Study of Vadamaradchy East, Sri Lanka

Authors: Kumaraamy Sasikumar


The study was conducted in Vadamarachchi-East in Sri Lanka. Data collection was done for a period of two months from June to July 2011. The main focus of this study was to examine factors contributing to mangrove deforestation within the study area, and resultant impacts from deforestation. The study found that, the main factors that have contributed to deforestation include: Long civil wars in the region, poverty which pushed people to clear the forest to earn income through the sale of firewood and timber among others, industrial development, increasing demand for farm and settlement land, limited knowledge within the local community, weak government polices and implementation strategies, and natural disasters especially the 2004 Tsunami destruction. The impacts presented are those that impact both on the environment and the economy including; loss of income sources, loss of biodiversity, climate change, desertification, conflicts in the use of forest products and loss of land productivity due to reduced fertility caused by soil erosion. However, a few strategies have been put in place by the government to ensure the sustainable use of mangrove forest products, though these have not proved successful in reducing deforestation. The recommendations make suggestions to the government and other stakeholders to work together in ensuring sustainable use of natural resources, for example implementing laws and regulations aimed at controlling deforestation among others.

Keywords: deforestation, impacts, actors, environment, economic, sustainable development

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48 Evidence of Total Mercury Biomagnification in Tropical Estuary Lagoon in East Coast of Peninsula, Malaysia

Authors: Quang Dung Le, Kentaro Tanaka, Viet Dung Luu, Kotaro Shirai


Mercury pollutant is great concerns in globe due to its toxicity and biomagnification through the food web. Recently increasing approaches of stable isotope analyses which have applied in food-web structure are enabled to elucidate more insight trophic transfer of pollutants in ecosystems. In this study, the integration of total mercury (Hg) and stable isotopic analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were measured from basal food sources to invertebrates and fishes in order to determine Hg transfer in Setiu lagoon food webs. The average Hg concentrations showed the increasing trend from low to high trophic levels. The result also indicated that potential Hg exposure from inside mangrove could be higher than that from the tidal flat of mangrove creek. Fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and many factors driving this variability need further examinations. A positive correlation found between Hg concentrations and δ15N values (the trophic magnification factor was 3.02), suggesting Hg biomagnification through the lagoon food web. Almost all Hg concentrations in fishes and mud crabs did not present a risk for human consumption, however, the Hg concentrations of Caranx ignobilis exceed the permitted level could raise a concern of the potential risk for the marine system. Further investigations should be done to elucidate whether trophic relay relates to high Hg concentrations of some fish species in coastal systems.

Keywords: mercury, transfer, stable isotopes, health risk, mangrove, food web

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47 Investigation of Mangrove Area Effects on Hydrodynamic Conditions of a Tidal Dominant Strait Near the Strait of Hormuz

Authors: Maryam Hajibaba, Mohsen Soltanpour, Mehrnoosh Abbasian, S. Abbas Haghshenas


This paper aims to evaluate the main role of mangroves forests on the unique hydrodynamic characteristics of the Khuran Strait (KS) in the Persian Gulf. Investigation of hydrodynamic conditions of KS is vital to predict and estimate sedimentation and erosion all over the protected areas north of Qeshm Island. KS (or Tang-e-Khuran) is located between Qeshm Island and the Iranian mother land and has a minimum width of approximately two kilometers. Hydrodynamics of the strait is dominated by strong tidal currents of up to 2 m/s. The bathymetry of the area is dynamic and complicated as 1) strong currents do exist in the area which lead to seemingly sand dune movements in the middle and southern parts of the strait, and 2) existence a vast area with mangrove coverage next to the narrowest part of the strait. This is why ordinary modeling schemes with normal mesh resolutions are not capable for high accuracy estimations of current fields in the KS. A comprehensive set of measurements were carried out with several components, to investigate the hydrodynamics and morpho-dynamics of the study area, including 1) vertical current profiling at six stations, 2) directional wave measurements at four stations, 3) water level measurements at six stations, 4) wind measurements at one station, and 5) sediment grab sampling at 100 locations. Additionally, a set of periodic hydrographic surveys was included in the program. The numerical simulation was carried out by using Delft3D – Flow Module. Model calibration was done by comparing water levels and depth averaged velocity of currents against available observational data. The results clearly indicate that observed data and simulations only fit together if a realistic perspective of the mangrove area is well captured by the model bathymetry data. Generating unstructured grid by using RGFGRID and QUICKIN, the flow model was driven with water level time-series at open boundaries. Adopting the available field data, the key role of mangrove area on the hydrodynamics of the study area can be studied. The results show that including the accurate geometry of the mangrove area and consideration of its sponge-like behavior are the key aspects through which a realistic current field can be simulated in the KS.

Keywords: Khuran Strait, Persian Gulf, tide, current, Delft3D

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46 The Antecedents That Effect to the Adventure Tourism in Krabi, Thailand

Authors: Autjira Songjan, Vimolsri Sansuk


The research aim to study the possible negative environmental impact by adventure tourism in Krabi, Thailand, which is a popular destination for adventure tourism. The research is carried out through quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires are distributed to 400 adventure tourists: 160 Thai and 240 international tourists. Questions involved experiences and opinions towards the environment and certain practices which influence a protection or degradation of environment from tour guides, tour operators and tourists. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were carried out with 21 adventure tour operators operating 5 main adventure tours. The finding shows the various types of adventure activities in Krabi involve different kinds of nature, therefore the characteristics of the different adventure activities are likely to affect the physical environment in different level. Kayaking tours are managed inside the mangrove forests, and may lead to negative impact on the ecosystem of mangroves, through loud noise, pulling out the mangrove population.

Keywords: adventure activities, Krabi province in Thailand, physical environment, adventure tourism

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45 Carbon Storage in Natural Mangrove Biomass: Its Destruction and Potential Impact on Climate Change in the UAE

Authors: Hedaya Ali Al Ameri, Alya A. Arabi


Measuring the level of carbon storage in mangroves’ biomass has a potential impact in the climate change of UAE. Carbon dioxide is one of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a main reason for global warming. Deforestation is a key source of the increase in carbon dioxide whereas forests such as mangroves assist in removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere by storing them in its biomass and soil. By using Kauffman and Donato methodology, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stored in UAE’s natural mangroves were quantified. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) released to the atmosphere was then estimated in case of mangroves deforestation in the UAE. The results show that the mean total biomass of mangroves in the UAE ranged from 15.75 Mg/ha to 3098.69 Mg/ha. The estimated CO2eq released upon deforestation in the UAE was found to have a minimal effect on the temperature increase and thus global warming.

Keywords: carbon stored in biomass, mangrove deforestation, temperature change, United Arab Emirate

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44 Remote Sensing Application in Environmental Researches: Case Study of Iran Mangrove Forests Quantitative Assessment

Authors: Neda Orak, Mostafa Zarei


Environmental assessment is an important session in environment management. Since various methods and techniques have been produces and implemented. Remote sensing (RS) is widely used in many scientific and research fields such as geology, cartography, geography, agriculture, forestry, land use planning, environment, etc. It can show earth surface objects cyclical changes. Also, it can show earth phenomena limits on basis of electromagnetic reflectance changes and deviations records. The research has been done on mangrove forests assessment by RS techniques. Mangrove forests quantitative analysis in Basatin and Bidkhoon estuaries was the aim of this research. It has been done by Landsat satellite images from 1975- 2013 and match to ground control points. This part of mangroves are the last distribution in northern hemisphere. It can provide a good background to improve better management on this important ecosystem. Landsat has provided valuable images to earth changes detection to researchers. This research has used MSS, TM, +ETM, OLI sensors from 1975, 1990, 2000, 2003-2013. Changes had been studied after essential corrections such as fix errors, bands combination, georeferencing on 2012 images as basic image, by maximum likelihood and IPVI Index. It was done by supervised classification. 2004 google earth image and ground points by GPS (2010-2012) was used to compare satellite images obtained changes. Results showed mangrove area in bidkhoon was 1119072 m2 by GPS and 1231200 m2 by maximum likelihood supervised classification and 1317600 m2 by IPVI in 2012. Basatin areas is respectively: 466644 m2, 88200 m2, 63000 m2. Final results show forests have been declined naturally. It is due to human activities in Basatin. The defect was offset by planting in many years. Although the trend has been declining in recent years again. So, it mentioned satellite images have high ability to estimation all environmental processes. This research showed high correlation between images and indexes such as IPVI and NDVI with ground control points.

Keywords: IPVI index, Landsat sensor, maximum likelihood supervised classification, Nayband National Park

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43 Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime

Authors: Hene L. Hapinat, Mae D. Dumapig


This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.

Keywords: shell lime, pH, calcium carbonate concentrations, mollusks, agricultural lime, lime potential concentration, acidic soil

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