Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6147

Search results for: large amplitude

6147 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin finite element method, large amplitude, variational method

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6146 Large Amplitude Vibration of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Youssef Abdelli, Rachid Nasri

Abstract:

The large amplitude free vibration analysis of three-layered symmetric sandwich beams is carried out using two different approaches. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion in free natural vibration are derived using Hamilton's principle. The formulation leads to two nonlinear partial differential equations that are coupled both in axial and binding deformations. In the first approach, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the governing equation that is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In the second approach, we discretize the governing equation by using Galerkin's procedure and then apply the shooting method to the obtained ordinary differential equations. In order to check the validity of the solutions obtained by the two approaches, they are compared with the solutions obtained by two approaches; they are compared with the solutions obtained numerically by the finite difference method.

Keywords: finite difference method, large amplitude vibration, multiple scales, nonlinear vibration

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6145 Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Mariacristina Spizzuoco, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of experimental tests performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small, relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements. Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements. Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, experimental hysteresis loops, wire rope isolators

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6144 Influence of Vibration Amplitude on Reaction Time and Drowsiness Level

Authors: Mohd A. Azizan, Mohd Z. Zali

Abstract:

It is well established that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human health, comfort, and performance. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on performance combined with drowsiness level during vibration exposure. This paper reports a study investigating the influence of vibration amplitude on seated occupant reaction time and drowsiness level. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment, total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat pan and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude (low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude) for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement, volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) before vibration, every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However, the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However, no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. It is concluded that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness, especially at higher vibration amplitude.

Keywords: drowsiness, human vibration, karolinska sleepiness scale, psychomotor vigilance test

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6143 Platform Virtual for Joint Amplitude Measurement Based in MEMS

Authors: Mauro Callejas-Cuervo, Andrea C. Alarcon-Aldana, Andres F. Ruiz-Olaya, Juan C. Alvarez

Abstract:

Motion capture (MC) is the construction of a precise and accurate digital representation of a real motion. Systems have been used in the last years in a wide range of applications, from films special effects and animation, interactive entertainment, medicine, to high competitive sport where a maximum performance and low injury risk during training and competition is seeking. This paper presents an inertial and magnetic sensor based technological platform, intended for particular amplitude monitoring and telerehabilitation processes considering an efficient cost/technical considerations compromise. Our platform particularities offer high social impact possibilities by making telerehabilitation accessible to large population sectors in marginal socio-economic sector, especially in underdeveloped countries that in opposition to developed countries specialist are scarce, and high technology is not available or inexistent. This platform integrates high-resolution low-cost inertial and magnetic sensors with adequate user interfaces and communication protocols to perform a web or other communication networks available diagnosis service. The amplitude information is generated by sensors then transferred to a computing device with adequate interfaces to make it accessible to inexperienced personnel, providing a high social value. Amplitude measurements of the platform virtual system presented a good fit to its respective reference system. Analyzing the robotic arm results (estimation error RMSE 1=2.12° and estimation error RMSE 2=2.28°), it can be observed that during arm motion in any sense, the estimation error is negligible; in fact, error appears only during sense inversion what can easily be explained by the nature of inertial sensors and its relation to acceleration. Inertial sensors present a time constant delay which acts as a first order filter attenuating signals at large acceleration values as is the case for a change of sense in motion. It can be seen a damped response of platform virtual in other images where error analysis show that at maximum amplitude an underestimation of amplitude is present whereas at minimum amplitude estimations an overestimation of amplitude is observed. This work presents and describes the platform virtual as a motion capture system suitable for telerehabilitation with the cost - quality and precision - accessibility relations optimized. These particular characteristics achieved by efficiently using the state of the art of accessible generic technology in sensors and hardware, and adequate software for capture, transmission analysis and visualization, provides the capacity to offer good telerehabilitation services, reaching large more or less marginal populations where technologies and specialists are not available but accessible with basic communication networks.

Keywords: inertial sensors, joint amplitude measurement, MEMS, telerehabilitation

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6142 Free Vibration Analysis of Timoshenko Beams at Higher Modes with Central Concentrated Mass Using Coupled Displacement Field Method

Authors: K. Meera Saheb, K. Krishna Bhaskar

Abstract:

Complex structures used in many fields of engineering are made up of simple structural elements like beams, plates etc. These structural elements, sometimes carry concentrated masses at discrete points, and when subjected to severe dynamic environment tend to vibrate with large amplitudes. The frequency amplitude relationship is very much essential in determining the response of these structural elements subjected to the dynamic loads. For Timoshenko beams, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are to be considered to evaluate the fundamental linear and nonlinear frequencies. A commonly used method for solving vibration problem is energy method, or a finite element analogue of the same. In the present Coupled Displacement Field method the number of undetermined coefficients is reduced to half when compared to the famous Rayleigh Ritz method, which significantly simplifies the procedure to solve the vibration problem. This is accomplished by using a coupling equation derived from the static equilibrium of the shear flexible structural element. The prime objective of the present paper here is to study, in detail, the effect of a central concentrated mass on the large amplitude free vibrations of uniform shear flexible beams. Accurate closed form expressions for linear frequency parameter for uniform shear flexible beams with a central concentrated mass was developed and the results are presented in digital form.

Keywords: coupled displacement field, coupling equation, large amplitude vibrations, moderately thick plates

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6141 A Strategy for Reducing Dynamic Disorder in Small Molecule Organic Semiconductors by Suppressing Large Amplitude Thermal Motions

Authors: Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Stephen G. Yeates, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus

Abstract:

Large-amplitude intermolecular vibrations in combination with complex shaped transfer integrals generate a thermally fluctuating energetic landscape. The resulting dynamic disorder and its intrinsic presence in organic semiconductors is one of the most fundamental differences to their inorganic counterparts. Dynamic disorder is believed to govern many of the unique electrical and optical properties of organic systems. However, the low energy nature of these vibrations makes it difficult to access them experimentally and because of this we still lack clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. Applying a novel technique based on electron diffraction we encountered strong intermolecular, thermal vibrations in every single organic material we studied (14 up to date), indicating that a large degree of dynamic disorder is a universal phenomenon in organic crystals. In this paper a new molecular design strategy will be presented to avoid dynamic disorder. We found that small molecules that have their side chains attached to the long axis of their conjugated core have been found to be less likely to suffer from dynamic disorder effects. In particular, we demonstrate that 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothio-phene (C8-BTBT) and 2,9-di-decyl-dinaphtho-[2,3-b:20,30-f]-thieno-[3,2-b]-thiophene (C10DNTT) exhibit strongly reduced thermal vibrations in comparison to other molecules and relate their outstanding performance to their lower dynamic disorder. We rationalize the low degree of dynamic disorder in C8-BTBT and C10-DNTT with a better encapsulation of the conjugated cores in the crystal structure which helps reduce large amplitude thermal motions. The work presented in this paper provides a general strategy for the design of new classes of very high mobility organic semiconductors with low dynamic disorder.

Keywords: charge transport, C8-BTBT, C10-DNTT, dynamic disorder, organic semiconductors, thermal vibrations

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6140 Development of a Large-Scale Cyclic Shear Testing Machine Under Constant Normal Stiffness

Authors: S. M. Mahdi Niktabara, K. Seshagiri Raob, Amit Kumar Shrivastavac, Jiří Ščučkaa

Abstract:

The presence of the discontinuity in the form of joints is one of the most significant factors causing instability in the rock mass. On the other hand, dynamic loads, including earthquake and blasting induce cyclic shear loads along the joints in rock masses; therefore, failure of rock mass exacerbates along the joints due to changing shear resistance. Joints are under constant normal load (CNL) and constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions. Normal stiffness increases on the joints with increasing depth, and it can affect shear resistance. For correct assessment of joint shear resistance under varying normal stiffness and number of cycles, advanced laboratory shear machine is essential for the shear test. Conventional direct shear equipment has limitations such as boundary conditions, working under monotonic movements only, or cyclic shear loads with constant frequency and amplitude of shear loads. Hence, a large-scale servo-controlled direct shear testing machine was designed and fabricated to perform shear test under the both CNL and CNS conditions with varying normal stiffness at different frequencies and amplitudes of shear loads. In this study, laboratory cyclic shear tests were conducted on non-planar joints under varying normal stiffness. In addition, the effects of different frequencies and amplitudes of shear loads were investigated. The test results indicate that shear resistance increases with increasing normal stiffness at the first cycle, but the influence of normal stiffness significantly decreases with an increase in the number of shear cycles. The frequency of shear load influences on shear resistance, i.e. shear resistance increases with increasing frequency. However, at low shear amplitude the number of cycles does not affect shear resistance on the joints, but it decreases with higher amplitude.

Keywords: cyclic shear load, frequency of load, amplitude of displacement, normal stiffness

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6139 Study and Solving Partial Differential Equation of Danel Equation in the Vibration Shells

Authors: Hesamoddin Abdollahpour, Roghayeh Abdollahpour, Elham Rahgozar

Abstract:

This paper we deal with an analysis of the free vibrations of the governing partial differential equation that it is Danel equation in the shells. The problem considered represents the governing equation of the nonlinear, large amplitude free vibrations of the hinged shell. A new implementation of the new method is presented to obtain natural frequency and corresponding displacement on the shell. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned complicated partial differential equation (PDE) with a simple and innovative approach. The results reveal that this new method to solve Danel equation is very effective and simple, and can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations. It is necessary to mention that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving nonlinear differential equations and also most of the sets of partial differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they have not had acceptable solutions up to now. We can solve equation(s), and consequently, there is no need to utilize similarity solutions which make the solution procedure a time-consuming task.

Keywords: large amplitude, free vibrations, analytical solution, Danell Equation, diagram of phase plane

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6138 Output Voltage Analysis of CMOS Colpitts Oscillator with Short Channel Device

Authors: Maryam Ebrahimpour, Amir Ebrahimi

Abstract:

This paper presents the steady-state amplitude analysis of MOS Colpitts oscillator with short channel device. The proposed method is based on a large signal analysis and the nonlinear differential equations that govern the oscillator circuit behaviour. Also, the short channel effects are considered in the proposed analysis and analytical equations for finding the steady-state oscillation amplitude are derived. The output voltage calculated from this analysis is in excellent agreement with simulations for a wide range of circuit parameters.

Keywords: colpitts oscillator, CMOS, electronics, circuits

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6137 The Effect of Dark energy on Amplitude of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Jafar Khodagholizadeh

Abstract:

In this talk, we study the tensor mode equation of perturbation in the presence of nonzero $-\Lambda$ as dark energy, whose dynamic nature depends on the Hubble parameter $ H$ and/or its time derivative. Dark energy, according to the total vacuum contribution, has little effect during the radiation-dominated era, but it reduces the squared amplitude of gravitational waves (GWs) up to $60\%$ for the wavelengths that enter the horizon during the matter-dominated era. Moreover, the observations bound on dark energy models, such as running vacuum model (RVM), generalized running vacuum model (GRVM), and generalized running vacuum subcase (GRVS), are effective in reducing the GWs’ amplitude. Although this effect is less for the wavelengths that enter the horizon at later times, this reduction is stable and permanent.

Keywords: gravitational waves, dark energy, GW's amplitude, all stage universe

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6136 Geometrically Non-Linear Axisymmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Annular Plates

Authors: Boutahar Lhoucine, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In this paper, the non-linear free axisymmetric vibration of a thin annular plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) has been studied by using the energy method and a multimode approach. FGM properties vary continuously as well as non-homogeneity through the thickness direction of the plate. The theoretical model is based on the classical plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical non-linearity assumptions. An approximation has been adopted in the present work consisting of neglecting the in-plane deformation in the formulation. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equation of motion. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative procedure in order to obtain more accurate results for vibration amplitudes up to 1.5 times the plate thickness. The numerical results are given for the first axisymmetric non-linear mode shape for a wide range of vibration amplitudes and they are presented either in tabular form or in graphical form to show the effect that the vibration amplitude and the variation in material properties have significant effects on the frequencies and the bending stresses in large amplitude vibration of the functionally graded annular plate.

Keywords: non-linear vibrations, annular plates, large amplitudes, functionally graded material

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6135 Effects of Positron Concentration and Temperature on Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

Authors: S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra

Abstract:

Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with warm adiabatic ions and isothermal electrons has been studied. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method has been derived for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that for the selected set of parameter values, the system supports only compressive solitons. Investigations reveal that an increase in positron concentration diminishes the amplitude as well as the width of the soliton. It is also found that the temperature ratio of electron to positron (γ) affects the amplitude of the solitary wave. An external magnetic field do not affect the amplitude of ion-acoustic solitons, but obliqueness angle (θ), the angle between wave vector and magnetic field affects the amplitude. The amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitons increases with increase in angle of obliqueness. Magnetization and obliqueness drastically affect the width of the soliton. An increase in ionic temperature decreases the amplitude and width. For the fixed set of parameters, profiles have been drawn to study the combined effect with variation of two parameters on the characteristics of the ion-acoustic solitons (i.e., amplitude and width). The result may be applicable to plasma in the laboratory as well as in the magnetospheric region of the earth.

Keywords: ion-acoustic solitons, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma, reductive perturbation method

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6134 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), localization, turbulence, turbulent spectrum

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6133 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Partha Sarathi De, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti

Abstract:

Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: ratcheting phenomena, grain size, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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6132 4D Monitoring of Subsurface Conditions in Concrete Infrastructure Prior to Failure Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Lee Tasker, Ali Karrech, Jeffrey Shragge, Matthew Josh

Abstract:

Monitoring for the deterioration of concrete infrastructure is an important assessment tool for an engineer and difficulties can be experienced with monitoring for deterioration within an infrastructure. If a failure crack, or fluid seepage through such a crack, is observed from the surface often the source location of the deterioration is not known. Geophysical methods are used to assist engineers with assessing the subsurface conditions of materials. Techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) provide information on the location of buried infrastructure such as pipes and conduits, positions of reinforcements within concrete blocks, and regions of voids/cavities behind tunnel lining. This experiment underlines the application of GPR as an infrastructure-monitoring tool to highlight and monitor regions of possible deterioration within a concrete test wall due to an increase in the generation of fractures; in particular, during a time period of applied load to a concrete wall up to and including structural failure. A three-point load was applied to a concrete test wall of dimensions 1700 x 600 x 300 mm³ in increments of 10 kN, until the wall structurally failed at 107.6 kN. At each increment of applied load, the load was kept constant and the wall was scanned using GPR along profile lines across the wall surface. The measured radar amplitude responses of the GPR profiles, at each applied load interval, were reconstructed into depth-slice grids and presented at fixed depth-slice intervals. The corresponding depth-slices were subtracted from each data set to compare the radar amplitude response between datasets and monitor for changes in the radar amplitude response. At lower values of applied load (i.e., 0-60 kN), few changes were observed in the difference of radar amplitude responses between data sets. At higher values of applied load (i.e., 100 kN), closer to structural failure, larger differences in radar amplitude response between data sets were highlighted in the GPR data; up to 300% increase in radar amplitude response at some locations between the 0 kN and 100 kN radar datasets. Distinct regions were observed in the 100 kN difference dataset (i.e., 100 kN-0 kN) close to the location of the final failure crack. The key regions observed were a conical feature located between approximately 3.0-12.0 cm depth from surface and a vertical linear feature located approximately 12.1-21.0 cm depth from surface. These key regions have been interpreted as locations exhibiting an increased change in pore-space due to increased mechanical loading, or locations displaying an increase in volume of micro-cracks, or locations showing the development of a larger macro-crack. The experiment showed that GPR is a useful geophysical monitoring tool to assist engineers with highlighting and monitoring regions of large changes of radar amplitude response that may be associated with locations of significant internal structural change (e.g. crack development). GPR is a non-destructive technique that is fast to deploy in a production setting. GPR can assist with reducing risk and costs in future infrastructure maintenance programs by highlighting and monitoring locations within the structure exhibiting large changes in radar amplitude over calendar-time.

Keywords: 4D GPR, engineering geophysics, ground penetrating radar, infrastructure monitoring

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6131 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin

Abstract:

The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

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6130 An Advanced Exponential Model for Seismic Isolators Having Hardening or Softening Behavior at Large Displacements

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, an advanced Nonlinear Exponential Model (NEM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement in the relatively large displacements range and a hardening or softening behavior at large displacements, is presented. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops obtained during cyclic tests, conducted on a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted analytically. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the force-displacement relationship of seismic isolation devices within the large displacements range. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, unable to simulate the response of seismic isolators at large displacements, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort. Furthermore, the proposed model can simulate the smooth transition of the hysteresis loops from small to large displacements by adopting only one set of five parameters determined from the experimental hysteresis loops having the largest amplitude.

Keywords: base isolation, hardening behavior, nonlinear exponential model, seismic isolators, softening behavior

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6129 Frontal Oscillatory Activity and Phase–Amplitude Coupling during Chan Meditation

Authors: Arthur C. Tsai, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Vincent S. C. Chien, Michelle Liou, Philip E. Cheng

Abstract:

Meditation enhances mental abilities and it is an antidote to anxiety. However, very little is known about brain mechanisms and cortico-subcortical interactions underlying meditation-induced anxiety relief. In this study, the changes of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in which the amplitude of the beta frequency band were modulated in phase with delta rhythm were investigated after eight-week of meditation training. The study hypothesized that through a concentrate but relaxed mental training the delta-beta coupling in the frontal regions is attenuated. The delta-beta coupling analysis was applied to within and between maximally-independent component sources returned from the extended infomax independent components analysis (ICA) algorithm on the continuous EEG data during mediation. A unique meditative concentration task through relaxing body and mind was used with a constant level of moderate mental effort, so as to approach an ‘emptiness’ meditative state. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used in this study. To evaluate cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling of component sources, the modulation index (MI) with statistics to calculate circular phase statistics were estimated. Our findings reveal that a significant delta-beta decoupling was observed in a set of frontal regions bilaterally. In addition, beta frequency band of prefrontal component were amplitude modulated in phase with the delta rhythm of medial frontal component.

Keywords: phase-amplitude coupling, ICA, meditation, EEG

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6128 Mathematical Properties of the Resonance of the Inner Waves in Rotating Stratified Three-Dimensional Fluids

Authors: A. Giniatoulline

Abstract:

We consider the internal oscillations of the ocean which are caused by the gravity force and the Coriolis force, for different models with changeable density, heat transfer, and salinity. Traditionally, the mathematical description of the resonance effect is related to the growing amplitude as a result of input vibrations. We offer a different approach: the study of the relation between the spectrum of the internal oscillations and the properties of the limiting amplitude of the solution for the harmonic input vibrations of the external forces. Using the results of the spectral theory of self-adjoint operators in Hilbert functional spaces, we prove that there exists an explicit relation between the localization of the frequency of the external input vibrations with respect to the essential spectrum of proper inner oscillations and the non-uniqueness of the limiting amplitude. The results may find their application in various problems concerning mathematical modeling of turbulent flows in the ocean.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, essential spectrum, limiting amplitude, rotating fluid, spectral theory, stratified fluid, the uniqueness of solutions of PDE equations

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6127 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das

Abstract:

Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

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6126 Amplitude and Latency of P300 Component from Auditory Stimulus in Different Types of Personality: An Event Related Potential Study

Authors: Nasir Yusoff, Ahmad Adamu Adamu, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza

Abstract:

The P300 from Event related potential (ERP) explains the psycho-physiological phenomenon in human body. The present study aims to identify the differences of amplitude and latency of P300 component from auditory stimuli, between ambiversion and extraversion types of personality. Ambivert (N=20) and extravert (N=20) undergoing ERP recording at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) laboratory. Electroencephalogram data was recorded with oddball paradigm, counting auditory standard and target tones, from nine electrode sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4, T5, T6, P3 and P4) by using the 128 HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net. The P300 latency of the target tones at all electrodes were insignificant. Similarly, the P300 latency of the standard tones were also insignificant except at Fz and T3 electrode. Likewise, the P300 amplitude of the target and standard tone in all electrode sites were insignificant. Extravert and ambivert indicate similar characteristic in cognition processing from auditory task.

Keywords: amplitude, event related potential, p300 component, latency

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6125 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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6124 The Effect of Vibration Amplitude on Tissue Temperature and Lesion Size When Using a Vibrating Cardiac Catheter

Authors: Kaihong Yu, Tetsui Yamashita, Shigeaki Shingyochi, Kazuo Matsumoto, Makoto Ohta

Abstract:

During cardiac ablation, high power delivery for deeper lesion formation is limited by electrode-tissue interface overheating which can cause serious complications such as thrombus. To prevent this overheating, temperature control and open irrigation are often used. In temperature control, radiofrequency generator is adjusted to deliver the maximum output power, which maintains the electrode temperature at a target temperature (commonly 55°C or 60°C). Then the electrode-tissue interface temperature is also limited. The electrode temperature is a result of heating from the contacted tissue and cooling from the surrounding blood. Because the cooling from blood is decreased under conditions of low blood flow, the generator needs to decrease the output power. Thus, temperature control cannot deliver high power under conditions of low blood flow. In open irrigation, saline in room temperature is flushed through the holes arranged in the electrode. The electrode-tissue interface is cooled by the sufficient environmental cooling. And high power delivery can also be done under conditions of low blood flow. However, a large amount of saline infusions (approximately 1500 ml) during irrigation can cause other serious complication. When open irrigation cannot be used under conditions of low blood flow, a new overheating prevention may be required. The authors have proposed a new electrode cooling method by making the catheter vibrating. The previous work has introduced that the vibration can make a cooling effect on electrode, which may result form that the vibration could increase the flow velocity around the catheter. The previous work has also proved that increasing vibration frequency can increase the cooling by vibration. However, the effect of the vibration amplitude is still unknown. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of vibration amplitude on tissue temperature and lesion size. An agar phantom model was used as a tissue-equivalent material for measuring tissue temperature. Thermocouples were inserted into the agar to measure the internal temperature. Porcine myocardium was used for lesion size measurement. A normal ablation catheter was set perpendicular to the tissue (agar or porcine myocardium) with 10 gf contact force in 37°C saline without flow. Vibration amplitude of ± 0.5, ± 0.75, and ± 1.0 mm with a constant frequency (31 Hz or 63) was used. A temperature control protocol (45°C for agar phantom, 60°C for porcine myocardium) was used for the radiofrequency applications. The larger amplitude shows the larger lesion sizes. And the higher tissue temperatures in agar phantom are also shown with the higher amplitude. With a same frequency, the larger amplitude has the higher vibrating speed. And the higher vibrating speed will increase the flow velocity around the electrode more, which leads to a larger electrode temperature decrease. To maintain the electrode at the target temperature, ablator has to increase the output power. With the higher output power in the same duration, the released energy also increases. Consequently, the tissue temperature will be increased and lead to larger lesion sizes.

Keywords: cardiac ablation, electrode cooling, lesion size, tissue temperature

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6123 Analysis of Reflection of Elastic Waves in Three Dimensional Model Comprised with Viscoelastic Anisotropic Medium

Authors: Amares Chattopadhyay, Akanksha Srivastava

Abstract:

A unified approach to study the reflection of a plane wave in three-dimensional model comprised of the triclinic viscoelastic medium. The phase velocities of reflected qP, qSV and qSH wave have been calculated for the concerned medium by using the eigenvalue approach. The generalized method has been implemented to compute the complex form of amplitude ratios. Further, we discussed the nature of reflection coefficients of qP, qSV and qSH wave. The viscoelastic parameter, polar angle and azimuthal angle are found to be strongly influenced by amplitude ratios. The research article is particularly focused to study the effect of viscoelasticity associated with highly anisotropic media which exhibits the notable information about the reflection coefficients of qP, qSV, and qSH wave. The outcomes may further useful to the better exploration of all types of hydrocarbon reservoir and advancement in the field of reflection seismology.

Keywords: amplitude ratios, three dimensional, triclinic, viscoelastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
6122 Wireless Integrated Switched Oscillator Impulse Generator with Application in Wireless Passive Electric Field Sensors

Authors: S. Mohammadzamani, B. Kordi

Abstract:

Wireless electric field sensors are in high demand in the number of applications that requires measuring electric field such as investigations of high power systems and testing the high voltage apparatus. Passive wireless electric field sensors are most desired since they do not require a source of power and are interrogated wirelessly. A passive wireless electric field sensor has been designed and fabricated by our research group. In the wireless interrogation system of the sensor, a wireless radio frequency impulse generator needs to be employed. A compact wireless impulse generator composed of an integrated resonant switched oscillator (SWO) and a pulse-radiating antenna has been designed and fabricated in this research. The fundamental of Switched Oscillators was introduced by C.E.Baum. A Switched Oscillator consists of a low impedance transmission line charged by a DC source, through large impedance at desired frequencies and terminated to a high impedance antenna at one end and a fast closing switch at the other end. Once the line is charged, the switch will close and short-circuit the transmission line. Therefore, a fast transient wave will be generated and travels along the transmission line. Because of the mismatch between the antenna and the transmission line, only a part of fast transient wave will be radiated, and a portion of the fast-transient wave will reflect back. At the other end of the transmission line, there is a closed switch. Consequently, a second reflection with a reversed sign will propagate towards the antenna and the wave continues back and forth. hence, at the terminal of the antenna, there will be a series of positive and negative pulses with descending amplitude. In this research a single ended quarter wavelength Switched Oscillator has been designed and simulated at 800MHz. The simulation results show that the designed Switched Oscillator generates pulses with decreasing amplitude at the frequency of 800MHz with the maximum amplitude of 10V and bandwidth of about 10MHz at the antenna end. The switched oscillator has been fabricated using a 6cm long coaxial cable transmission line which is charged by a DC source and an 8cm monopole antenna as the pulse radiating antenna. A 90V gas discharge switch has been employed as the fast closing switch. The Switched oscillator sends a series of pulses with decreasing amplitude at the frequency of 790MHz with the maximum amplitude of 0.3V in the distance of 30 cm.

Keywords: electric field measurement, impulse radiating antenna, switched oscillator, wireless impulse generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
6121 Spectral Analysis Approaches for Simultaneous Determination of Binary Mixtures with Overlapping Spectra: An Application on Pseudoephedrine Sulphate and Loratadine

Authors: Sara El-Hanboushy, Hayam Lotfy, Yasmin Fayez, Engy Shokry, Mohammed Abdelkawy

Abstract:

Simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine sulphate (PSE) and loratadine (LOR) in combined dosage form based on spectral analysis technique. Pseudoephedrine (PSE) in binary mixture could be analyzed either by using its resolved zero order absorption spectrum at its λ max 256.8 nm after subtraction of LOR spectrum or in presence of LOR spectrum by absorption correction method at 256.8 nm, dual wavelength (DWL) method at 254nm and 273nm, induced dual wavelength (IDWL) method at 256nm and 272nm and ratio difference (RD) method at 256nm and 262 nm. Loratadine (LOR) in the mixture could be analyzed directly at 280nm without any interference of PSE spectrum or at 250 nm using its recovered zero order absorption spectrum using constant multiplication(CM).In addition, simultaneous determination for PSE and LOR in their mixture could be applied by induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM).

Keywords: dual wavelength (DW), induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM), loratadine, pseudoephedrine sulphate, ratio difference (RD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
6120 Expanding the Evaluation Criteria for a Wind Turbine Performance

Authors: Ivan Balachin, Geanette Polanco, Jiang Xingliang, Hu Qin

Abstract:

The problem of global warming raised up interest towards renewable energy sources. To reduce cost of wind energy is a challenge. Before building of wind park conditions such as: average wind speed, direction, time for each wind, probability of icing, must be considered in the design phase. Operation values used on the setting of control systems also will depend on mentioned variables. Here it is proposed a procedure to be include in the evaluation of the performance of a wind turbine, based on the amplitude of wind changes, the number of changes and their duration. A generic study case based on actual data is presented. Data analysing techniques were applied to model the power required for yaw system based on amplitude and data amount of wind changes. A theoretical model between time, amplitude of wind changes and angular speed of nacelle rotation was identified.

Keywords: field data processing, regression determination, wind turbine performance, wind turbine placing, yaw system losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
6119 Analysis of Injection-Lock in Oscillators versus Phase Variation of Injected Signal

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, behavior of an oscillator under injection of another signal has been investigated. Also, variation of output signal amplitude versus injected signal phase variation, the effect of varying the amplitude of injected signal and quality factor of the oscillator has been investigated. The results show that the locking time depends on phase and the best locking time happens at 180-degrees phase. Also, the effect of injected lock has been discussed. Simulations show that the locking time decreases with signal injection to bulk. Locking time has been investigated versus various phase differences. The effect of phase and amplitude changes on locking time of a typical LC oscillator in 180 nm technology has been investigated.

Keywords: analysis, oscillator, injection-lock oscillator, phase modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
6118 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Rozita Borhan, Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, frequency divider, pulse generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 316