Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 871

Search results for: coastal waters

871 Integrated Imaging Management System: An Approach in the Collaborative Coastal Resource Management of Bagac, Bataan

Authors: Aljon Pangan

Abstract:

The Philippines being an archipelagic country, is surrounded by coastlines (36,289 km), coastal waters (226,000 km²), oceanic waters (1.93 million km²) and territorial waters (2.2 million km²). Studies show that the Philippine coastal ecosystems are the most productive and biologically diverse in the world, however, plagued by degradation problems due to over-exploitation and illegal activities. The existence of coastal degradation issues in the country led to the emergence of Coastal Resource Management (CRM) as an approach to both national and local government in providing solutions for sustainable coastal resource utilization. CRM applies the idea of planning, implementing and monitoring through the lens of collaborative governance. It utilizes collective action and decision-making to achieve sustainable use of coastal resources. The Municipality of Bagac in Bataan is one of the coastal municipalities in the country who crafts its own CRM Program as a solution to coastal resource degradation and problems. Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly Integrated Imaging Management System (IIMS) is one approach that can be applied in the formula of collaborative governance which entails the Government, Private Sector, and Civil Society. IIMS can help policymakers, managers, and citizens in managing coastal resources through analyzed spatial data describing the physical, biological, and socioeconomic characteristics of the coastal areas. Moreover, this study will apply the qualitative approach in deciphering possible impacts of the application of IIMS in the Coastal Resource Management policy making and implementation of the Municipality of Bagac.

Keywords: coastal resource management, collaborative governance, integrated imaging management system, information and communication technology

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870 Phylogeography and Evolutionary History of Whiting (Merlangius merlangus) along the Turkish Coastal Waters with Comparisons to the Atlantic

Authors: Aslı Şalcıoğlu, Grigorous Krey, Raşit Bilgin

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the Turkish Straits System (TSS), comprising a biogeographical boundary that forms the connection between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, on the evolutionary history, phylogeography and intraspecific gene flow of the whiting (Merlangius merlangus) a demersal fish species, was investigated. For these purposes, the mitochondrial DNA (CO1, cyt-b) genes were used. In addition, genetic comparisons samples from other regions (Greece, France, Atlantic) obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Database were made to better understand the phylogeographic history of the species at a larger geographic scale. Within this study, high level of genetic differentiation was observed along the Turkish coastal waters based on cyt-b gene, suggesting that TSS is a barrier to dispersal. Two different sub-species were also observed based on mitochondrial DNA, one found in Turkish coastal waters and Greece (M.m euxinus) and other (M.m. merlangus) in Atlantic, France.

Keywords: genetic, phylogeography, TSS, whiting

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869 The Effect of Oil Pollution on Marine Microbial Populations in Israeli Coastal Waters

Authors: Yael Shai, Dror L. Angel, Dror Zurel, Peleg Astrahan, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Eyal Rahav

Abstract:

The high demand for oil and its by-products is symptomatic of the 21st century and occasionally leads to oil spills and pollution of coastal waters. Marine oil pollution may originate from a variety of sources -urban runoff, tanker cleaning, drilling activities, and oil spills. These events may release large amounts of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants to coastal water, thereby threatening local marine life. Here, we investigated the effects of crude oil on the temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in Israeli coastal waters. To this end, we added crude oil (500 µm thick layer, with and without additional nutrients; NO₃ and PO₄) to mesocosms (1m³ bags) containing oligotrophic surface coastal water collected near Haifa during summer and winter. Changes in phytoplankton biomass, activity and diversity were monitored daily for 5-6 days. Our results demonstrate that crude oil addition resulted in a pronounced decrease in phytoplankton biomass and production rates, while heterotrophic bacterial production increased significantly. Importantly, a few days post addition we found that the oil-degrading bacteria, Oleibacter sp. and Oleispira sp. appeared in the mesocosms and that the addition of nutrients (along with the crude oil) further increased this trend. This suggests that oil-degrading bacteria may be NO₃ and PO₄ limited in Israeli coastal waters. The results of this study should enable us to establish improved science-based environmental policy with respect to handling crude oil pollution in this region.

Keywords: heterotrophic bacteria, nutrients, mesocosm, oil pollution, oligotrophic, phytoplankton

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868 Spatio-Temporal Variation of Suspended Sediment Concentration in the near Shore Waters, Southern Karnataka, India

Authors: Ateeth Shetty, K. S. Jayappa, Ratheesh Ramakrishnan, A. S. Rajawat

Abstract:

Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated for the period of four months (November, 2013 to February 2014) using Oceansat-2 (Ocean Colour Monitor) satellite images to understand the coastal dynamics and regional sediment transport, especially distribution and budgeting in coastal waters. The coastal zone undergoes continuous changes due to natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The importance of the coastal zone, with respect to safety, ecology, economy and recreation, demands a management strategy in which each of these aspects is taken into account. Monitoring and understanding the sediment dynamics and suspended sediment transport is an important issue for coastal engineering related activities. A study of the transport mechanism of suspended sediments in the near shore environment is essential not only to safeguard marine installations or navigational channels, but also for the coastal structure design, environmental protection and disaster reduction. Such studies also help in assessment of pollutants and other biological activities in the region. An accurate description of the sediment transport, caused by waves and tidal or wave-induced currents, is of great importance in predicting coastal morphological changes. Satellite-derived SSC data have been found to be useful for Indian coasts because of their high spatial (360 m), spectral and temporal resolutions. The present paper outlines the applications of state‐of‐the‐art operational Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Oceansat-2 to study the dynamics of sediment transport.

Keywords: suspended sediment concentration, ocean colour monitor, sediment transport, case – II waters

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867 Pollutant Dispersion in Coastal Waters

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec

Abstract:

This paper spots light on the effect of a point source pollution on streams, stemming out from intentional release caused by unconscious facts. The consequences of such contamination on ecosystems are very serious. Accordingly, effective tools are highly demanded in this respect, which enable us to come across an accurate progress of pollutant and anticipate different measures to be applied in order to limit the degradation of the environmental surrounding. In this context, we are eager to model a pollutant dispersion of a free surface flow which is ejected by an outfall sewer of an urban sewerage network in coastal water taking into account the influence of climatic parameters on the spread of pollutant. Numerical results showed that pollutant dispersion is merely due to the presence of vortices and turbulence. Hence, it was realized that the pollutant spread in seawater is strongly correlated with climatic conditions in this region.

Keywords: coastal waters, numerical simulation, pollutant dispersion, turbulent flows

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866 Institutional Superposition, over Management and Coastal Economic Development: Coastal Areas in China

Authors: Mingbao Chen, Mingli Zhao

Abstract:

The coastal zone is the intersection of land and sea system, and also is the connecting zone of the two economic systems of land and sea. In the world, all countries attach great importance to the coastal zone management and the coastal zone economy. In China, the government has developed a number of related coastal management policies and institutional, such as marine functional zoning, main function zoning, integrated coastal zone management, to ensure the sustainable utilization of the coastal zone and promote the development of coastal economic. However, in practice, the effect is not satisfactory. This paper analyses the coastal areas of coastal zone management on coastal economic growth contribution based on coastal areas economic development data with the 2007-2015 in China, which uses the method of the evaluation index system of coastal zone management institutional efficiency. The results show that the coastal zone management institutional objectives are not clear, and the institutional has high repeatability. At the same time, over management of coastal zone leads to low economic efficiency because the government management boundary is blurred.

Keywords: institutional overlap, over management, coastal zone management, coastal zone economy

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865 Assessment of the Root Causes of Marine Debris Problem in Lagos State

Authors: Chibuzo Okoye Daniels, Gillian Glegg, Lynda Rodwell

Abstract:

The continuously growing quantity of very slow degrading litter deliberately discarded into the coastal waters around Lagos as marine debris is obvious. What is not known is how to tackle this problem to reduce its prevalence and impact on the environment, economy and community. To identify ways of tackling the marine debris problem two case study areas (Ikoyi and Victoria Islands of Lagos State) were used to assess the root causes, the threat posed by marine debris in the coastal waters around Lagos and the efficacy of current instruments, programmes and initiatives that address marine debris in the study areas. The following methods were used: (1) Self-completed questionnaires for households and businesses within the study areas; (2) Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders; (3) Observational studies of waste management from collection to disposal and waste management facilities for waste originating from land and maritime sources; (4) Beach surveys and marine debris surveys on shorelines and ports; and (5) Fishing for marine debris. Results of this study identified the following root causes: (1) Indiscriminate human activities and behaviors, and lack of awareness on the part of the main stakeholders and the public of the potential consequences of their actions; (2) Poor solid waste management practices; (3) Lack of strict legal frameworks addressing waste and marine debris problem; and (4) Disposal of non-degradable wastes into domestic sewer system and open streets drains. To effectively tackle marine debris problem in the study areas, adequate, appropriate and cost effective solutions to the above mentioned root causes needs to be identified and effectively transferred for implementation in the study areas.

Keywords: marine debris problem, Lagos state, litter, coastal waters

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864 Effects of Coastal Structure Construction on Ecosystem

Authors: Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib, Keyvan Kimiaei, Hossein Basser

Abstract:

Coastal defense structures were built to protect part of shore from beach erosion and flooding by sea water. Effects of coastal defense structures can be negative or positive. Some of the effects are beneficial in socioeconomic aspect, but environment matters should be given more concerns because it can bring bad consequences to the earth landscape and make the ecosystem be unbalanced. This study concerns on the negative impacts as they are dominant. Coastal structures can extremely impact the shoreline configuration. Artificial structures can influence sediment transport, split the coastal space, etc. This can result in habitats loss and lead to noise and visual disturbance of birds. There are two types of coastal defense structures, hard coastal structure and soft coastal structure. Both coastal structures have their own impacts. The impacts are induced during the construction, maintaining, and operation of the structures.

Keywords: ecosystem, environmental impact, hard coastal structures, soft coastal structures

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863 Typology of the Physic-Chemical Quality of the Water of the Area of Touggourt Case: Aquifers of the Intercalary Continental and the Terminal Complex, S-E of Algeria

Authors: Habes Sameh, Bettahar Asma, Nezli Imad Eddine

Abstract:

The region of Touggourt is situated in the southern part is Algeria, it receives important quantities of waters, the latter are extracted from the fossil groundwater (the Intercalary Continental and the Terminal Complex). The mineralization of these waters of the Terminal Complex is between 3 and 6,5 g/l and for waters of Intercalary Continental is 1,8 and 8,7 g/l, thus it constitutes an obstacle as for its use. To highlight the origins of this mineralization, we used the hydrochemical tool. So the chemical analyses in our ownership, were treated by means of the software "Statistica", what allowed us to realize an analysis in main components (ACP), the latter showed a competition between sodic or magnesian chlorinated water and calcic bicarbonate water, rich in potassium for the TC, while for the IC, we have a competition between sodic or calcic chlorinated and magnesian water treated with copper sulphate waters. The simulation realized thermodynamics showed a variation of the index of saturation which do not exceed zero, for waters of two aquifer TC and IC, so indicating one under saturation of waters towards minerals, highlighting the influence of the geologic formation in the outcrop on the quality of waters. However, we notice that these waters remain acceptable for the irrigation of plants but must be treated before what are consumed by the human being.

Keywords: ACP, intercalary, continental, mineralization, SI, Terminal Complex

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862 Levels of Microcystin in the Coastal Waters of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri

Abstract:

Blue-green otherwise called cyanobacteria, produce an array of biotoxins grouped into five categories notably hapatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins. Microcystins which are examples of hepatotoxins produced by blue-green algae Microcystins comprise the most common group of the cyanobacterial toxins. Blue-green algae flourish in aquatic environments, whether marine, brackish or freshwater, producing blooms in different forms such as microscopic, mats, or unsightly odoriferous scums. Microcystins biotoxins cause a plethora of animal and human hazards such as liver damage/cirrhosis and cancer, kidney damage, dermatitis, tinnitus, gastroenteritis, sore throat, nausea, myalgia, neurological problems, respiratory irritation and death. Water samples were collected from coastal regions of Nigeria in March 2014, June 2014, October 2014 and January 2015 and analyzed with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Microcystin biotoxin was recorded in all sites both during dry and wet seasons. The range of microcystins found was 0.000041-There was a seasonal trend of increasing microcystin concentrations from March till Octobers and a decrease thereafter. Generally in the oceanic waters, microcystin levels were highest at Cross Rivers in March and January, Barbeach in June and Lekki in October. In the adjoining riverine ecosystems, on the other hand, the highest concentrations of microcystin were observed at Akwa Ibom in March, June and October and in Bayelsa in January. Continuous monitoring and screening of coastal water bodies is suggested to minimize the health risks of cyanobacterial biotoxins to coastal communities of Nigeria.

Keywords: biotoxins, harmful algae, marine, microcystin, Nigeria

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861 Coastal Water Characteristics along the Saudi Arabian Coastline

Authors: Yasser O. Abualnaja1, Alexandra Pavlidou2, Taha Boksmati3, Ahmad Alharbi3, Hammad Alsulmi3, Saleh Omar Maghrabi3, Hassan Mowalad3, Rayan Mutwalli3, James H. Churchill4, Afroditi Androni2, Dionysios Ballas2, Ioannis Hatzianestis2, Harilaos Kontoyiannis2, Angeliki Konstantinopoulou2, Georgios Krokkos1, 5, Georgios Pappas2, Vassilis P. Papadopoulos2, Konstantinos Parinos2, Elvira Plakidi2, Eleni Rousselaki2, Dimitris Velaoras2, Panagiota Zachioti2, Theodore Zoulias2, Ibrahim Hoteit5.

Abstract:

The coastal areas along the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on both the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf have been witnessing in the past decades an unprecedented economic growth and a rapid increase in anthropogenic activities. Therefore, the Saudi Arabian government has decided to frame a strategy for sustainable development of the coastal and marine environments, which comes in the context of the Vision 2030, aimed at providing the first comprehensive ‘Status Quo Assessment’ of the Kingdom’s coastal and marine environments. This strategy will serve as a baseline assessment for future monitoring activities; this baseline is relied on scientific evidence of the drivers, pressures, and their impact on the environments of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. A key element of the assessment was the cumulative pressures of the hotspots analysis, which was developed following the principles of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework and using the cumulative pressure and impact assessment methodology. Ten hotspot sites were identified, eight in the Red Sea and two in the Arabian Gulf. Thus, multidisciplinary research cruises were conducted throughout the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastal and marine environments in June/July 2021 and September 2021, respectively, in order to understand the relative impact of hydrography and the various pressures on the quality of seawater and sediments. The main objective was to record the physical and biogeochemical parameters along the coastal waters of the Kingdom, tracing the dispersion of contaminants related to specific pressures. The assessment revealed the effect of hydrography on the trophic status of the southern marine coastal areas of the Red Sea. Jeddah Lagoon system seems to face significant eutrophication and pollution challenges, whereas sediments are enriched in some heavy metals in many areas of the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. This multidisciplinary research in the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastal waters will pave the way for future detailed environmental monitoring strategies for the Saudi Arabian marine environment.

Keywords: arabian gulf, contaminants, hotspot, red sea

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860 Water Quality and Coastal Management Profile Assessment of Puerto Galera Bay, Philippines

Authors: Ma. Manna Farrel B. Pinto

Abstract:

As global industrialization progresses, the environment remains to be at risk of disturbances brought by developments of cities and communities. Impacts of flourishing industries such as tourism require rapid growth of establishments and may threaten ecosystems and natural resources. Puerto Galera as a biosphere reserve and declared as the Center of the World’s Center of Marine Shorefish Biodiversity is on the brink of ecological deterioration as tourism further develops in its coastal areas. Apparently, attempts were initiated to establish a baseline for designation of protection in the economic and coastal marine zones of Puerto Galera but continuity of its implementation and coordination of concerned units remains deficient. Indications of eutrophication have been observed based on water quality analysis although parameter values still comply with the national standards for coastal waters. Water quality data, biodiversity and hydrodynamic information, gathered from studies, and local government units were analysed to assess the condition of the coast as well as acting policies implemented by the local authorities. Sources of contaminants were also located in its three main communities, and their shores wherein in recommendations for installing wastewater treatment facilities and further improvement of policies of waste discharge must be addressed. With a conceptual framework proposed in the study, a comprehensive data analysis and coordinated management are necessary to form an integrated coastal management for further protection and preservation of the sustainable coastal marine ecosystem of Puerto Galera.

Keywords: coastal management, environmental management, integrated resource management, Puerto Galera

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859 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

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In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: biochemical composition, light, microalgae, nitrogen limitation, salinity

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858 Cumulative Pressure Hotspot Assessment in the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

Authors: Schröde C., Rodriguez D., Sánchez A., Abdul Malak, Churchill J., Boksmati T., Alharbi, Alsulmi H., Maghrabi S., Mowalad, Mutwalli R., Abualnaja Y.

Abstract:

Formulating a strategy for sustainable development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s coastal and marine environment is at the core of the “Marine and Coastal Protection Assessment Study for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Coastline (MCEP)”; that was set up in the context of the Vision 2030 by the Saudi Arabian government and aimed at providing a first comprehensive ‘Status Quo Assessment’ of the Kingdom’s marine environment to inform a sustainable development strategy and serve as a baseline assessment for future monitoring activities. This baseline assessment relied on scientific evidence of the drivers, pressures and their impact on the environments of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. A key element of the assessment was the cumulative pressure hotspot analysis developed for both national waters of the Kingdom following the principles of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework and using the cumulative pressure and impact assessment methodology. The ultimate goals of the analysis were to map and assess the main hotspots of environmental pressures, and identify priority areas for further field surveillance and for urgent management actions. The study identified maritime transport, fisheries, aquaculture, oil, gas, energy, coastal industry, coastal and maritime tourism, and urban development as the main drivers of pollution in the Saudi Arabian marine waters. For each of these drivers, pressure indicators were defined to spatially assess the potential influence of the drivers on the coastal and marine environment. A list of hotspots of 90 locations could be identified based on the assessment. Spatially grouped the list could be reduced to come up with of 10 hotspot areas, two in the Arabian Gulf, 8 in the Red Sea. The hotspot mapping revealed clear spatial patterns of drivers, pressures and hotspots within the marine environment of waters under KSA’s maritime jurisdiction in the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. The cascading assessment approach based on the DPSIR framework ensured that the root causes of the hotspot patterns, i.e. the human activities and other drivers, can be identified. The adapted CPIA methodology allowed for the combination of the available data to spatially assess the cumulative pressure in a consistent manner, and to identify the most critical hotspots by determining the overlap of cumulative pressure with areas of sensitive biodiversity. Further improvements are expected by enhancing the data sources of drivers and pressure indicators, fine-tuning the decay factors and distances of the pressure indicators, as well as including trans-boundary pressures across the regional seas.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, DPSIR, hotspot, red sea

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857 Development of Macrobenthic Communities in the North Port, West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh

Abstract:

The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and composition of the macrobenthic community and their response to environmental parameters in the North Port, west coastal waters of Malaysia. A total of 25 species were identified, including 13 bivalvia, 4 gastropoda, and 3 crustacea. The other taxa were less diversified. There were no temporal changes in the macrobenthic community composition, but significant effects (p < 0.05) on the benthic community composition were found on a spatial scale. The correlation analyses and similarity tests were in good agreement, confirming the significant response of macrobenthic community composition to variations of environmental parameters.

Keywords: distribution, macrobenthic community, diversity, North Port, Malaysia

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856 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan

Abstract:

The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

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855 Hydration of Protein-RNA Recognition Sites

Authors: Amita Barik, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur

Abstract:

We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein-RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein-RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein-DNA interfaces, but more than protein-protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein-RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction does not make any. Those making Hbonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein-DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2’OH, the ribose in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein-DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein-RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein-RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein-RNA interfaces.

Keywords: h-bonds, minor-major grooves, preserved water, protein-RNA interfaces

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854 Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low-lying areas: Coastal Evolution and Impact of Future Sea Level Rise Scenarios in Mirabello Gulf - NE Crete

Authors: Maria Kazantzaki, Evangelos Tsakalos, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

Mediterranean areas are characterized by intense seismic and volcanic activity as well as eustatic changes, the result of which is the creation of particularly vulnerable coastal zones. The most vulnerable are low-lying coastal areas, the geomorphological evolution of which are highly affected by natural processes and anthropogenic interventions. Therefore, assessing changes that take place along coastal zones is of great importance in order to enable the development of integrated coastal management plans. A characteristic case is the gulf of Mirabello in N.E Crete, where intense coastal erosion, in combination with the tectonic subsidence of the area, threatens a large part of the coastal zone, resulting in direct socio-economic impacts. The present study assesses the temporal geomorphological changes that have taken place in the coastal zone of Mirabello gulf to provide a clear frame of the coastal zone evolution over time and performs a vulnerability assessment based on the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range in the area. In light of this, an impact assessment, based on three different sea level rise scenarios, is also performed and presented.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, GIS, sea level rise

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853 Catch Composition and Amount of Illegal and Unreported Fishing in Iranian Coastal Waters - Hormozgan Province

Authors: Yasemi Mehran, Parsa Mehran, Farzingohar Mehrnaz

Abstract:

Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing has been identified as one of the most serious threats to the sustainability of the world’s fisheries. In the present study, illegal and unreported fishing of different species in waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea (Hormozgan province) were evaluated. Among 47 species of 33 families identified in this study, with 39 species belong to teleosts, 4 species belong to elasmobranchs and 4 species belong to invertebrate. The total weight of illegal and unreported catch were 78525.22 tonnes. Maximum and minimum values were found for Dussumiera acuta (20640.74 tonnes) and Tenualosa ilisha (0.733 tonnes), respectively. The most commercial species group was scombridae, carangidae and clupeidae, respectively. Teleosts with 91.15%, elasmobranchs with 4.82 and invertebrates with 4.03% constituted total weight of illegal and unreported fishing. Results of this study provide valuable information in order to access a sustainable management on fish resources.

Keywords: catch composition, illegal, unreported fishing, Hormozgan province

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852 Forecasting Impacts on Vulnerable Shorelines: Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coastal Zone of Messologi Area - Western Greece

Authors: Evangelos Tsakalos, Maria Kazantzaki, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

The coastal areas of the Mediterranean have been extensively affected by the transgressive event that followed the Last Glacial Maximum, with many studies conducted regarding the stratigraphic configuration of coastal sediments around the Mediterranean. The coastal zone of the Messologi area, western Greece, consists of low relief beaches containing low cliffs and eroded dunes, a fact which, in combination with the rising sea level and tectonic subsidence of the area, has led to substantial coastal. Coastal vulnerability assessment is a useful means of identifying areas of coastline that are vulnerable to impacts of climate change and coastal processes, highlighting potential problem areas. Commonly, coastal vulnerability assessment takes the form of an ‘index’ that quantifies the relative vulnerability along a coastline. Here we make use of the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, by considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates, and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range to assess the present-day vulnerability of the coastal zone of Messologi area. In light of this, an impact assessment is performed under three different sea level rise scenarios, and adaptation measures to control climate change events are proposed. This study contributes toward coastal zone management practices in low-lying areas that have little data information, assisting decision-makers in adopting best adaptations options to overcome sea level rise impact on vulnerable areas similar to the coastal zone of Messologi.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, sea level rise, GIS

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851 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn

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850 Consumer Market for Mineral Water and Development Policy in Georgia

Authors: Gulnaz Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

The paper discusses mineral water consumer market and development policy in Georgia, the tools and measures, which will contribute to the production of mineral waters and increase its export. The paper studies and analyses current situation in mineral water production sector as well as the factors affecting increase and reduction of its export. It’s noted that in order to gain and maintain competitive advantage, it’s necessary to provide continuous supply of high-quality goods with modern design, open new distribution channels to enter new markets, carry out broad promotional activities, organize e-commerce. Economic policy plays an important role in protecting markets from counterfeit goods. The state also plays an important role in attracting foreign direct investments. Stable business environment and export-oriented strategy is the basis for the country’s economic growth. Based on the research, the paper suggests the strategy for improving the competitiveness of Georgian mineral waters, relevant conclusions and recommendations are provided.

Keywords: mineral waters, consumer market for mineral waters, export of mineral waters, mineral water development policy in Georgia

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849 Harmonization of State Law and Local Laws in Coastal and Marine Areas Management

Authors: N. S. B. Ambarini, Tito Sofyan, Edra Satmaidi

Abstract:

Coastal and marine are two potential natural resource one of the pillars of the national economy. The Indonesian archipelago has marine and coastal which is quite spacious. Various important natural resources such as fisheries, mining and so on are in coastal areas and the sea, so that this region is a unique area with a variety of interests to exploit it. Therefore, to preserve a sustainable manner need good management and comprehensive. To the national and local level legal regulations have been published relating to the management of coastal and marine areas. However, in practice it has not been able to function optimally. Substantially has not touched the problems of the region, especially concerning the interests of local communities (local). This study is a legal non-doctrinal approach to socio-legal studies. Based on the results of research in some coastal and marine areas in Bengkulu province - Indonesia, there is a fact that the system of customary law and local wisdom began to weaken implementation. Therefore harmonization needs to be done in implementing laws and regulations that apply to the values of indigenous and local knowledge that exists in the community.

Keywords: coastal and marine, harmonization, law, local

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
848 Evaluation of Settlement of Coastal Embankments Using Finite Elements Method

Authors: Sina Fadaie, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

Coastal embankments play an important role in coastal structures by reducing the effect of the wave forces and controlling the movement of sediments. Many coastal areas are underlain by weak and compressible soils. Estimation of during construction settlement of coastal embankments is highly important in design and safety control of embankments and appurtenant structures. Accordingly, selecting and establishing of an appropriate model with a reasonable level of complication is one of the challenges for engineers. Although there are advanced models in the literature regarding design of embankments, there is not enough information on the prediction of their associated settlement, particularly in coastal areas having considerable soft soils. Marine engineering study in Iran is important due to the existence of two important coastal areas located in the northern and southern parts of the country. In the present study, the validity of Terzaghi’s consolidation theory has been investigated. In addition, the settlement of these coastal embankments during construction is predicted by using special methods in PLAXIS software by the help of appropriate boundary conditions and soil layers. The results indicate that, for the existing soil condition at the site, some parameters are important to be considered in analysis. Consequently, a model is introduced to estimate the settlement of the embankments in such geotechnical conditions.

Keywords: consolidation, settlement, coastal embankments, numerical methods, finite elements method

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
847 Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

Authors: Sun Jiaojiao, Fu Jiayan

Abstract:

At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combination with regional environmental and economic ability along the coastal area, we put forward the system planning framework, construction strategy and the evaluation index system in order to seek the way of building urban sustainability along coastal area in China.

Keywords: urban sustainability, coastal areas, construction strategy, evaluation index system

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
846 Photochemical Behaviour of Carbamazepine in Natural Waters

Authors: Fanny Desbiolles, Laure Malleret, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob, Christophe Tiliacos, Anne Piram, Mohamed Sarakha, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung

Abstract:

Pharmaceuticals in the environment have become a very hot topic in the recent years. This interest is related to the large amounts dispensed and to their release in urine or faeces from treated patients, resulting in their ubiquitous presence in water resources and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. Thereby, many studies focused on the prediction of pharmaceuticals’ behaviour, to assess their fate and impacts in the environment. Carbamazepine is a widely consumed psychotropic pharmaceutical, thus being one of the most commonly detected drugs in the environment. This organic pollutant was proved to be persistent, especially with respect to its non-biodegradability, rendering it recalcitrant to usual biological treatment processes. Consequently, carbamazepine is very little removed in WWTP with a maximum abatement rate of 5 % and is then often released in natural surface waters. To better assess the environmental fate of carbamazepine in aqueous media, its photochemical transformation was undertaken in four natural waters (two French rivers, the Berre salt lagoon, Mediterranean Sea water) representative of coastal and inland water types. Kinetic experiments were performed in the presence of light using simulated solar irradiation (Xe lamp 300W). Formation of short-lifetime species was highlighted using chemical trap and laser flash photolysis (nanosecond). Identification of transformation by-products was assessed by LC-QToF-MS analyses. Carbamazepine degradation was observed after a four-day exposure and an abatement of 20% maximum was measured yielding to the formation of many by-products. Moreover, the formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) was evidenced in waters using terephthalic acid as a probe, considering the photochemical instability of its specific hydroxylated derivative. Correlations were implemented using carbamazepine degradation rate, estimated hydroxyl radical formation and chemical contents of waters. In addition, laser flash photolysis studies confirmed •OH formation and allowed to evidence other reactive species, such as chloride (Cl2•-)/bromine (Br2•-) and carbonate (CO3•-) radicals in natural waters. Radicals mainly originate from dissolved phase and their occurrence and abundance depend on the type of water. Rate constants between reactive species and carbamazepine were determined by laser flash photolysis and competitive reactions experiments. Moreover, LC-QToF-MS analyses of by-products help us to propose mechanistic pathways. The results will bring insights to the fate of carbamazepine in various water types and could help to evaluate more precisely potential ecotoxicological effects.

Keywords: carbamazepine, kinetic and mechanistic approaches, natural waters, photodegradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
845 Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism and Day Trips on an Island Nation

Authors: John Deely, Stephen Hynes, Mary Cawley, Sarah Hogan

Abstract:

Domestic marine and coastal tourism have increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predicts participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent effect on every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.

Keywords: domestic marine and coastal tourism, day tripper, participation models, truncated travel cost model

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
844 Geostatistical and Geochemical Study of the Aquifer System Waters Complex Terminal in the Valley of Oued Righ-Arid Area Algeria

Authors: Asma Bettahar, Imed Eddine Nezli, Sameh Habes

Abstract:

Groundwater resources in the Oued Righ valley are represented like the parts of the eastern basin of the Algerian Sahara, superposed by two major aquifers: the Intercalary Continental (IC) and the Terminal Complex (TC). From a qualitative point of view, various studies have highlighted that the waters of this region showed excessive mineralization, including the waters of the terminal complex (EC Avg equal 5854.61 S/cm) .The present article is a statistical approach by two multi methods various complementary (ACP, CAH), applied to the analytical data of multilayered aquifer waters Terminal Complex of the Oued Righ valley. The approach is to establish a correlation between the chemical composition of water and the lithological nature of different aquifer levels formations, and predict possible connection between groundwater’s layers. The results show that the mineralization of water is from geological origin. They concern the composition of the layers that make up the complex terminal.

Keywords: complex terminal, mineralization, oued righ, statistical approach

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843 Evolution of Chemistry in the Waters of Superposed Aquifer System Terminal Complex in the Valley of the Oued Righ - Arid Area Algeria

Authors: Asma Bettahar, Imed Eldine Nezli, Sameh Habes

Abstract:

Groundwater resources in the Oued Righ valley are represented like the parts of the eastern basin of the Algerian Sahara, superposed by two major aquifers: the Intercalary Continental (IC) and the Terminal Complex (TC). From a qualitative point of view, various studies have highlighted that the waters of this region showed excessive mineralization, including the waters of the terminal complex (EC Avg equal 5854.61 S/cm). The present article is a statistical approach by two multi methods various complementary (ACP CAH), applied to the analytical data of multilayered aquifer waters Terminal Complex of the Oued Righ valley. The approach is to establish a correlation between the chemical composition of water and the lithological nature of different aquifer levels formations, and predict possible connection between groundwater’s layers. The results show that the mineralization of water is from geological origin. They concern the composition of the layers that make up the complex terminal.

Keywords: oued righ, complex terminal, infill continental, mineralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
842 Coastline Change at Koh Tao Island, Thailand

Authors: Cherdvong Saengsupavanich

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Human utilizes coastal resources as well as deteriorates them. Coastal tourism may degrade the environment if poorly managed. This research investigated the shoreline change at Koa Toa Island, one of the most famous tourist destinations. Aerial photographs and satellite images from three different periods were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the noticeable shoreline change before and after the tourism on the island had expanded. Between 1995 and 2002 when the tourism on Koh Toa Island was not intensive, sediment deposition occurred along most of the coastline. However, after the tourism had grown during 2002 to 2015, the coast evidently experienced less deposition and more erosion. The erosion resulted from less land-based sediment being provided to the littoral system. If the coastline of Koh Toa Island is not carefully sustained, the tourism will disappear along with the beautiful beach.  

Keywords: coastal engineering and management, coastal erosion, coastal tourism, Koh Toa Island, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 231