Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 321

Search results for: lexical invariant

321 New Ways of Vocabulary Enlargement

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak


Lexical invariants, being a sort of stereotypes within the frames of ordinary consciousness, are created by the members of a language community as a result of uniform division of reality. The invariant meaning is formed in person’s mind gradually in the course of different actualizations of secondary meanings in various contexts. We understand lexical the invariant as abstract language essence containing a set of semantic components. In one of its configurations it is the basis or all or a number of the meanings making up the semantic structure of the word.

Keywords: lexical invariant, invariant theories, polysemantic word, cognitive linguistics

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320 Knowledge Required for Avoiding Lexical Errors at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam


This research aims at finding out the causes that led to wrong lexical selections in machine translation (MT) rather than categorizing lexical errors, which has been a main practice in error analysis. By manually examining and analyzing lexical errors outputted by a MT system, it suggests what knowledge would help the system reduce lexical errors.

Keywords: machine translation, error analysis, lexical errors, evaluation

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319 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak


Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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318 Detailed Observations on Numerically Invariant Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan


Numerically invariant signatures were introduced as a new paradigm of the invariant recognition for visual objects modulo a certain group of transformations. This paper shows that the current formulation suffers from noise and indeterminacy in the resulting joint group-signatures and applies the n-difference technique and the m-mean signature method to minimize their effects. In our experimental results of applying the proposed numerical scheme to generate joint group-invariant signatures, the sensitivity of some parameters such as regularity and mesh resolution used in the algorithm will also be examined. Finally, several interesting observations are made.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometry, differential invariant G-signature curves, numerically invariant joint G-signatures, object recognition, noise, indeterminacy

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317 Lexical Bundles in the Alexiad of Anna Comnena: Computational and Discourse Analysis Approach

Authors: Georgios Alexandropoulos


The purpose of this study is to examine the historical text of Alexiad by Anna Comnena using computational tools for the extraction of lexical bundles containing the name of her father, Alexius Comnenus. For this reason, in this research we apply corpus linguistics techniques for the automatic extraction of lexical bundles and through them we will draw conclusions about how these lexical bundles serve her support provided to her father.

Keywords: lexical bundles, computational literature, critical discourse analysis, Alexiad

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316 Biases in Numerically Invariant Joint Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan


This paper illustrates that numerically invariant joint signatures suffer biases in the resulting signatures. Next, we classify the arising biases as Bias Type 1 and Bias Type 2 and show how they can be removed.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometries, differential invariant signature curves, numerically invariant joint signatures, numerical analysis, numerical bias, curve analysis

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315 The EFL Mental Lexicon: Connectivity and the Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge Depth

Authors: Khalid Soussi


The study at hand has attempted to describe the acquisition of three EFL lexical knowledge aspects - meaning, synonymy and collocation – across three academic levels: Baccalaureate, second year and fourth year university levels in Morocco. The research also compares the development of the three lexical knowledge aspects between knowledge (reception) and use (production) and attempts to trace their order of acquisition. This has led to the use of three main data collection tasks: translation, acceptability judgment and multiple choices. The study has revealed the following findings. First, L1 and EFL mental lexicons are connected at the lexical knowledge depth. Second, such connection is active whether in language reception or use. Third, the connectivity between L1 and EFL mental lexicons tends to relatively decrease as the academic level of the learners increases. Finally, the research has revealed a significant 'order' of acquisition between the three lexical aspects, though not a very strong one.

Keywords: vocabulary acquisition, EFL lexical knowledge, mental lexicon, vocabulary knowledge depth

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314 Differences in the Processing of Sentences with Lexical Ambiguity and Structural Ambiguity: An Experimental Study

Authors: Mariana T. Teixeira, Joana P. Luz


This paper is based on assumptions of psycholinguistics and investigates the processing of ambiguous sentences in Brazilian Portuguese. Specifically, it aims to verify if there is a difference in processing time between sentences with lexical ambiguity and sentences with structural (or syntactic) ambiguity. We hypothesize, based on the Garden Path Theory, that the two types of ambiguity entail different cognitive efforts, since sentences with structural ambiguity require that two structures be processed, whereas ambiguous phrases whose root of ambiguity is in a word require the processing of a single structure, which admits a variation of punctual meaning, within the scope of only one lexical item. In order to test this hypothesis, 25 undergraduate students, whose average age was 27.66 years, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, performed a self-monitoring reading task of ambiguous sentences, which had lexical and structural ambiguity. The results suggest that unambiguous sentence processing is faster than ambiguous sentence processing, whether it has lexical or structural ambiguity. In addition, participants presented a mean reading time greater for sentences with syntactic ambiguity than for sentences with lexical ambiguity, evidencing a greater cognitive effort in sentence processing with structural ambiguity.

Keywords: Brazilian portuguese, lexical ambiguity, sentence processing, syntactic ambiguity

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313 Airy Wave Packet for a Particle in a Time-Dependant Linear Potential

Authors: M. Berrehail, F. Benamira


We study the quantum motion of a particle in the presence of a time- dependent linear potential using an operator invariant that is quadratic in p and linear in q within the framework of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant, The special invariant operator proposed in this work is demonstrated to be an Hermitian operator which has an Airy wave packet as its Eigenfunction

Keywords: airy wave packet, ivariant, time-dependent linear potential, unitary transformation

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312 Grammatical and Lexical Cohesion in the Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s Speech Text ‘Nihon wa Modottekimashita’

Authors: Nadya Inda Syartanti


This research aims to identify, classify, and analyze descriptively the aspects of grammatical and lexical cohesion in the speech text of Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe entitled Nihon wa Modotte kimashita delivered in Washington DC, the United States on February 23, 2013, as a research data source. The method used is qualitative research, which uses descriptions through words that are applied by analyzing aspects of grammatical and lexical cohesion proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976). The aspects of grammatical cohesion consist of references (personal, demonstrative, interrogative pronouns), substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction. In contrast, lexical cohesion consists of reiteration (repetition, synonym, antonym, hyponym, meronym) and collocation. Data classification is based on the 6 aspects of the cohesion. Through some aspects of cohesion, this research tries to find out the frequency of using grammatical and lexical cohesion in Shinzo Abe's speech text entitled Nihon wa Modotte kimashita. The results of this research are expected to help overcome the difficulty of understanding speech texts in Japanese. Therefore, this research can be a reference for learners, researchers, and anyone who is interested in the field of discourse analysis.

Keywords: cohesion, grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion, speech text, Shinzo Abe

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311 Pyramid Binary Pattern for Age Invariant Face Verification

Authors: Saroj Bijarnia, Preety Singh


We propose a simple and effective biometrics system based on face verification across aging using a new variant of texture feature, Pyramid Binary Pattern. This employs Local Binary Pattern along with its hierarchical information. Dimension reduction of generated texture feature vector is done using Principal Component Analysis. Support Vector Machine is used for classification. Our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 92:24% and can be used in an automated age-invariant face verification system.

Keywords: biometrics, age invariant, verification, support vector machine

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310 Relativistic Energy Analysis for Some q Deformed Shape Invariant Potentials in D Dimensions Using SUSYQM Approach

Authors: A. Suparmi, C. Cari, M. Yunianto, B. N. Pratiwi


D-dimensional Dirac equations of q-deformed shape invariant potentials were solved using supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) in the case of exact spin symmetry. The D dimensional radial Dirac equation for shape invariant potential reduces to one-dimensional Schrodinger type equation by an appropriate variable and parameter change. The relativistic energy spectra were analyzed by using SUSY QM and shape invariant properties from radial D dimensional Dirac equation that have reduced to one dimensional Schrodinger type equation. The SUSY operator was used to generate the D dimensional relativistic radial wave functions, the relativistic energy equation reduced to the non-relativistic energy in the non-relativistic limit.

Keywords: D-dimensional dirac equation, non-central potential, SUSY QM, radial wave function

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309 Effect of the Keyword Strategy on Lexical Semantic Acquisition: Recognition, Retention and Comprehension in an English as Second Language Context

Authors: Fatima Muhammad Shitu


This study seeks to investigate the effect of the keyword strategy on lexico–semantic acquisition, recognition, retention and comprehension in an ESL context. The aim of the study is to determine whether the keyword strategy can be used to enhance acquisition. As a quasi- experimental research, the objectives of the study include: To determine the extent to which the scores obtained by the subjects, who were trained on the use of the keyword strategy for acquisition, differ at the pre-tests and the post–tests and also to find out the relationship in the scores obtained at these tests levels. The sample for the study consists of 300 hundred undergraduate ESL Students in the Federal College of Education, Kano. The seventy-five lexical items for acquisition belong to the lexical field category known as register, and they include Medical, Agriculture and Photography registers (MAP). These were divided in the ratio twenty-five (25) lexical items in each lexical field. The testing technique was used to collect the data while the descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. For the purpose of testing, the two kinds of tests administered at each test level include the WARRT (Word Acquisition, Recognition, and Retention Test) and the CCPT (Cloze Comprehension Passage Test). The results of the study revealed that there are significant differences in the scores obtained between the pre-tests, and the post–tests and there are no correlations in the scores obtained as well. This implies that the keyword strategy has effectively enhanced the acquisition of the lexical items studied.

Keywords: keyword, lexical, semantics, strategy

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308 The Phonology and Phonetics of Second Language Intonation in Case of “Downstep”

Authors: Tayebeh Norouzi


This study aims to investigate the acquisition process of intonation. It examines the intonation structure of Tokyo Japanese and its realization by Iranian learners of Japanese. Seven Iranian learners of Japanese, differing in fluency, and two Japanese speakers participated in the experiment. Two sentences were used to test the phonological and phonetic characteristics of lexical pitch-accent as well as the intonation patterns produced by the speakers. Both sentences consisted of similar words with the same number of syllables and lexical pitch-accents but different syntactic structure. Speakers were asked to read each sentence three times at normal speed, and the data were analyzed by Praat. The results show that lexical pitch-accent, Accentual Phrase (AP) and AP boundary tone realization vary depending on sentence type. For sentences of type XdeYwo, the lexical pitch-accent is realized properly. However, there is a rise in AP boundary tone regardless of speakers’ level of fluency. In contrast, in sentences of type XnoYwo, the lexical pitch-accent and AP boundary tone vary depending on the speakers’ fluency level. Advanced speakers are better at grouping words into phrases and produce more native-like intonation patterns, though they are not able to realize downstep properly. The non-native speakers tried to realize proper intonation patterns by making changes in lexical accent and boundary tone.

Keywords: intonation, Iranian learners, Japanese prosody, lexical accent, second language acquisition.

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307 'Caucasian Mountaineer / Scottish Highlander': Correlation between Semantics and Culture

Authors: Natalia M. Nepomniashchikh


The research focuses on Russian and English linguoculturemes Caucasian mountaineer and Scottish Highlander, the effort of comparative-contrastive analysis was made. In order to reach the aim, the analysis of the vocabulary definitions of the concepts under consideration was taken, which made it possible to build the lexical-semantic fields of both lexical items in Russian and English. This stage of research helped to turn to the linguistic-cultural fields construction. To build these fields, literary pieces containing the concepts under consideration and the items directly related to them were taken from the works about the Caucasus mountains and mountaineers living there by M. Yu. Lermontov and the ones by W. Scott devoted to the Scottish Highlands and their inhabitants. All collected data was systematized in schemes and tables reflecting the differences and intercrossing areas.

Keywords: lexemes, lexical items, lexical-semantic field, linguistic-cultural field, linguoculturemes

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306 Implementation of Integer Sub-Decomposition Method on Elliptic Curves with J-Invariant 1728

Authors: Siti Noor Farwina Anwar, Hailiza Kamarulhaili


In this paper, we present the idea of implementing the Integer Sub-Decomposition (ISD) method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The ISD method was proposed in 2013 to compute scalar multiplication in elliptic curves, which remains to be the most expensive operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). However, the original ISD method only works on integer number field and solve integer scalar multiplication. By extending the method into the complex quadratic field, we are able to solve complex multiplication and implement the ISD method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The curve with j-invariant 1728 has a unique discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. This unique discriminant of quadratic field yields a unique efficiently computable endomorphism, which later able to speed up the computations on this curve. However, the ISD method needs three endomorphisms to be accomplished. Hence, we choose all three endomorphisms to be from the same imaginary quadratic field as the curve itself, where the first endomorphism is the unique endomorphism yield from the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field.

Keywords: efficiently computable endomorphism, elliptic scalar multiplication, j-invariant 1728, quadratic field

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305 A Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story ‘The Escape’ by Qaisra Shahraz

Authors: Huma Javed


Stylistics is a broad term that is concerned with both literature and linguistics, due to which the significance of the stylistics increases. This research aims to analyze Qaisra Shahraz's short story ‘The Escape’ from the stylistic analysis viewpoint. The focus of this study is on three aspects grammar category, lexical category, and figure of speech of the short story. The research designs for this article are both explorative and descriptive. The analysis of the data shows that the writer has used more nouns in the story as compared to other lexical items, which suggests that story has a descriptive style rather than narrative.

Keywords: The Escape, stylistics, grammatical category, lexical category, figure of speech

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304 Atwood's Canadianisms and Neologisms: A Cognitive Approach to Literature

Authors: Eleonora Sasso


This paper takes as its starting point the notions of cognitive linguistics and lexical blending, and uses both these theoretical concepts to advance a new reading of Margaret Atwood’s latest writings, one which sees them as paramount literary examples of norm and usage in bilingual Canadian lexicography. Atwood’s prose seems to be imbued with Canadianisms and neologisms, lexical blends of zoomorphic forms, a kind of meeting-point between two conceptual structures which follow the principles of lexical economy and asyntactic relation. Atwood’s neologisms also attest to the undeniable impact on language exerted by Canada’s aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to track through these references and with the aid of the Eskimo-English dictionary look at the linguistic issues – attitudes to contaminations and hybridisations, questions of lexical blending in literary examples, etc – which they raise. Atwood’s fiction, whose cognitive linguistic strategy employs ‘the virtues of scissors and matches’, always strives to achieve isomorphism between word form and concept.

Keywords: Atwood, Canadianisms, cognitive science, Eskimo/English dictionary

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303 Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction

Authors: Khaled Barkaoui


Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.

Keywords: second language writing, Fluency, accuracy, complexity, longitudinal

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302 A Local Invariant Generalized Hough Transform Method for Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning

Authors: Wei Feilong


In this study, an local invariant generalized Houghtransform (LI-GHT) method is proposed for integrated circuit (IC) visual positioning. The original generalized Hough transform (GHT) is robust to external noise; however, it is not suitable for visual positioning of IC chips due to the four-dimensionality (4D) of parameter space which leads to the substantial storage requirement and high computational complexity. The proposed LI-GHT method can reduce the dimensionality of parameter space to 2D thanks to the rotational invariance of local invariant geometric feature and it can estimate the accuracy position and rotation angle of IC chips in real-time under noise and blur influence. The experiment results show that the proposed LI-GHT can estimate position and rotation angle of IC chips with high accuracy and fast speed. The proposed LI-GHT algorithm was implemented in IC visual positioning system of radio frequency identification (RFID) packaging equipment.

Keywords: Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning, Generalized Hough Transform, Local invariant Generalized Hough Transform, ICpacking equipment

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301 On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Teoman Ozer, Ozlem Orhan


This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.

Keywords: λ-symmetry, μ-symmetry, classification, invariant solution

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300 Lie Symmetry of a Nonlinear System Characterizing Endemic Malaria

Authors: Maba Boniface Matadi


This paper analyses the model of Malaria endemic from the point of view of the group theoretic approach. The study identified new independent variables that lead to the transformation of the nonlinear model. Furthermore, corresponding determining equations were constructed, and new symmetries were found. As a result, the findings of the study demonstrate of the integrability of the model to present an invariant solution for the Malaria model.

Keywords: group theory, lie symmetry, invariant solutions, malaria

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299 Cross-Language Variation and the ‘Fused’ Zone in Bilingual Mental Lexicon: An Experimental Research

Authors: Yuliya E. Leshchenko, Tatyana S. Ostapenko


Language variation is a widespread linguistic phenomenon which can affect different levels of a language system: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, etc. It is obvious that the scope of possible standard alternations within a particular language is limited by a variety of its norms and regulations which set more or less clear boundaries for what is possible and what is not possible for the speakers. The possibility of lexical variation (alternate usage of lexical items within the same contexts) is based on the fact that the meanings of words are not clearly and rigidly defined in the consciousness of the speakers. Therefore, lexical variation is usually connected with unstable relationship between words and their referents: a case when a particular lexical item refers to different types of referents, or when a particular referent can be named by various lexical items. We assume that the scope of lexical variation in bilingual speech is generally wider than that observed in monolingual speech due to the fact that, besides ‘lexical item – referent’ relations it involves the possibility of cross-language variation of L1 and L2 lexical items. We use the term ‘cross-language variation’ to denote a case when two equivalent words of different languages are treated by a bilingual speaker as freely interchangeable within the common linguistic context. As distinct from code-switching which is traditionally defined as the conscious use of more than one language within one communicative act, in case of cross-language lexical variation the speaker does not perceive the alternate lexical items as belonging to different languages and, therefore, does not realize the change of language code. In the paper, the authors present research of lexical variation of adult Komi-Permyak – Russian bilingual speakers. The two languages co-exist on the territory of the Komi-Permyak District in Russia (Komi-Permyak as the ethnic language and Russian as the official state language), are usually acquired from birth in natural linguistic environment and, according to the data of sociolinguistic surveys, are both identified by the speakers as coordinate mother tongues. The experimental research demonstrated that alternation of Komi-Permyak and Russian words within one utterance/phrase is highly frequent both in speech perception and production. Moreover, our participants estimated cross-language word combinations like ‘маленькая /Russian/ нывка /Komi-Permyak/’ (‘a little girl’) or ‘мунны /Komi-Permyak/ домой /Russian/’ (‘go home’) as regular/habitual, containing no violation of any linguistic rules and being equally possible in speech as the equivalent intra-language word combinations (‘учöтик нывка’ /Komi-Permyak/ or ‘идти домой’ /Russian/). All the facts considered, we claim that constant concurrent use of the two languages results in the fact that a large number of their words tend to be intuitively interpreted by the speakers as lexical variants not only related to the same referent, but also referring to both languages or, more precisely, to none of them in particular. Consequently, we can suppose that bilingual mental lexicon includes an extensive ‘fused’ zone of lexical representations that provide the basis for cross-language variation in bilingual speech.

Keywords: bilingualism, bilingual mental lexicon, code-switching, lexical variation

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298 Distinguishing Borrowings from Code Mixes: An Analysis of English Lexical Items Used in the Print Media in Sri Lanka

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne


Borrowing is the morphological, syntactic and (usually) phonological integration of lexical items from one language into the structure of another language. Borrowings show complete linguistic integration and due to the frequency of use become fossilized in the recipient language differentiating them from switches and mixes. Code mixes are different to borrowings. Code mixing takes place when speakers use lexical items in casual conversation to serve a variety of functions. This study presents an analysis of lexical items used in English newspapers in Sri Lanka in 2017 which reveal characteristics of borrowing or code mixes. Both phenomena arise due to language contact. The study will also use data from social media websites that comment on newspaper articles available on the web. The study reiterates that borrowings are distinguishable from code mixes and that they are two different phenomena that occur in language contact situations. The study also shows how existing morphological processes are used to create new vocabulary in language use. The study sheds light into how existing morphological processes are used by the bilingual to be creative, innovative and convey a bilingual identity.

Keywords: borrowing, code mixing, morphological processes

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297 The Structure of Invariant Manifolds after a Supercritical Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation

Authors: Matthaios Katsanikas


We study the structure of the invariant manifolds of complex unstable periodic orbits of a family of periodic orbits, in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type, after a transition of this family from stability to complex instability (Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation). We consider the case of a supercritical Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation. The invariant manifolds of complex unstable periodic orbits have two kinds of structures. The first kind is represented by a disk confined structure on the 4D space of section. The second kind is represented by a complicated central tube structure that is associated with an extended network of tube structures, strips and flat structures of sheet type on the 4D space of section.

Keywords: dynamical systems, galactic dynamics, chaos, phase space

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296 A Combinatorial Representation for the Invariant Measure of Diffusion Processes on Metric Graphs

Authors: Michele Aleandri, Matteo Colangeli, Davide Gabrielli


We study a generalization to a continuous setting of the classical Markov chain tree theorem. In particular, we consider an irreducible diffusion process on a metric graph. The unique invariant measure has an atomic component on the vertices and an absolutely continuous part on the edges. We show that the corresponding density at x can be represented by a normalized superposition of the weights associated to metric arborescences oriented toward the point x. A metric arborescence is a metric tree oriented towards its root. The weight of each oriented metric arborescence is obtained by the product of the exponential of integrals of the form ∫a/b², where b is the drift and σ² is the diffusion coefficient, along the oriented edges, for a weight for each node determined by the local orientation of the arborescence around the node and for the inverse of the diffusion coefficient at x. The metric arborescences are obtained by cutting the original metric graph along some edges.

Keywords: diffusion processes, metric graphs, invariant measure, reversibility

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295 Approximation Property Pass to Free Product

Authors: Kankeyanathan Kannan


On approximation properties of group C* algebras is everywhere; it is powerful, important, backbone of countless breakthroughs. For a discrete group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M₀A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. An approximate identity on G is a sequence (Φn) of finitely supported functions such that (Φn) uniformly converge to constant function 1 In this paper we prove that approximation property pass to free product.

Keywords: approximation property, weakly amenable, strong invariant approximation property, invariant approximation property

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294 Shaping Lexical Concept of 'Mage' through Image Schemas in Dragon Age 'Origins'

Authors: Dean Raiyasmi, Elvi Citraresmana, Sutiono Mahdi


Language shapes the human mind and its concept toward things. Using image schemas, in nowadays technology, even AI (artificial intelligence) can concept things in response to their creator negativity or positivity. This is reflected inside one of the most selling game around the world in 2012 called Dragon Age Origins. The AI in form of NPC (Non-Playable Character) inside the game reflects on the creator of the game on negativity or positivity toward the lexical concept of mage. Through image schemas, shaping the lexical concept of mage deemed possible and proved the negativity or positivity creator of the game toward mage. This research analyses the cognitive-semantic process of image schema and shaping the concept of ‘mage’ by describing kinds of image schemas exist in the Dragon Age Origin Game. This research is also aimed to analyse kinds of image schemas and describing the image schemas which shaping the concept of ‘mage’ itself. The methodology used in this research is qualitative where participative observation is employed with five stages and documentation. The results shows that there are four image schemas exist in the game and those image schemas shaping the lexical concept of ‘mage’.

Keywords: cognitive semantic, image-schema, conceptual metaphor, video game

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293 Change Detection Method Based on Scale-Invariant Feature Transformation Keypoints and Segmentation for Synthetic Aperture Radar Image

Authors: Lan Du, Yan Wang, Hui Dai


Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image change detection has recently become a challenging problem owing to the existence of speckle noises. In this paper, an unsupervised distribution-free change detection for SAR image based on scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) keypoints and segmentation is proposed. Firstly, the noise-robust SIFT keypoints which reveal the blob-like structures in an image are extracted in the log-ratio image to reduce the detection range. Then, different from the traditional change detection which directly obtains the change-detection map from the difference image, segmentation is made around the extracted keypoints in the two original multitemporal SAR images to obtain accurate changed region. At last, the change-detection map is generated by comparing the two segmentations. Experimental results on the real SAR image dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: change detection, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Scale-Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT), segmentation

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292 EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatiana A. Golovko, Yulia V. Kovas


EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions. The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16-20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band were associated with differences between anterior and posterior cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual resources.

Keywords: EEG, brain activity, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, mathematical and trait anxiety

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