Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1324

Search results for: airy wave packet

1324 Airy Wave Packet for a Particle in a Time-Dependant Linear Potential

Authors: M. Berrehail, F. Benamira


We study the quantum motion of a particle in the presence of a time- dependent linear potential using an operator invariant that is quadratic in p and linear in q within the framework of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant, The special invariant operator proposed in this work is demonstrated to be an Hermitian operator which has an Airy wave packet as its Eigenfunction

Keywords: airy wave packet, ivariant, time-dependent linear potential, unitary transformation

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1323 Visualization of Energy Waves via Airy Functions in Time-Domain

Authors: E. Sener, O. Isik, E. Eroglu, U. Sahin


The main idea is to solve the system of Maxwell’s equations in accordance with the causality principle to get the energy quantities via Airy functions in a hollow rectangular waveguide. We used the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics that is an analytical time-domain method. The boundary-value problem for the system of Maxwell’s equations is reformulated in transverse and longitudinal coordinates. A self-adjoint operator is obtained and the complete set of Eigen vectors of the operator initiates an orthonormal basis of the solution space. Hence, the sought electromagnetic field can be presented in terms of this basis. Within the presentation, the scalar coefficients are governed by Klein-Gordon equation. Ultimately, in this study, time-domain waveguide problem is solved analytically in accordance with the causality principle. Moreover, the graphical results are visualized for the case when the energy and surplus of the energy for the time-domain waveguide modes are represented via airy functions.

Keywords: airy functions, Klein-Gordon Equation, Maxwell’s equations, Surplus of energy, wave boundary operators

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1322 Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space

Authors: Mitsuyoshi Tomiya, Kentaro Kawamura, Shoichi Sakamoto


In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.

Keywords: chaotic billiard, Poincaré section, scar, wave packet

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1321 Spatial Direct Numerical Simulation of Instability Waves in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

Authors: Jayahar Sivasubramanian


Understanding laminar-turbulent transition process in hyper-sonic boundary layers is crucial for designing viable high speed flight vehicles. The study of transition becomes particularly important in the high speed regime due to the effect of transition on aerodynamic performance and heat transfer. However, even after many years of research, the transition process in hyper-sonic boundary layers is still not understood. This lack of understanding of the physics of the transition process is a major impediment to the development of reliable transition prediction methods. Towards this end, spatial Direct Numerical Simulations are conducted to investigate the instability waves generated by a localized disturbance in a hyper-sonic flat plate boundary layer. In order to model a natural transition scenario, the boundary layer was forced by a short duration (localized) pulse through a hole on the surface of the flat plate. The pulse disturbance developed into a three-dimensional instability wave packet which consisted of a wide range of disturbance frequencies and wave numbers. First, the linear development of the wave packet was studied by forcing the flow with low amplitude (0.001% of the free-stream velocity). The dominant waves within the resulting wave packet were identified as two-dimensional second mode disturbance waves. Hence the wall-pressure disturbance spectrum exhibited a maximum at the span wise mode number k = 0. The spectrum broadened in downstream direction and the lower frequency first mode oblique waves were also identified in the spectrum. However, the peak amplitude remained at k = 0 which shifted to lower frequencies in the downstream direction. In order to investigate the nonlinear transition regime, the flow was forced with a higher amplitude disturbance (5% of the free-stream velocity). The developing wave packet grows linearly at first before reaching the nonlinear regime. The wall pressure disturbance spectrum confirmed that the wave packet developed linearly at first. The response of the flow to the high amplitude pulse disturbance indicated the presence of a fundamental resonance mechanism. Lower amplitude secondary peaks were also identified in the disturbance wave spectrum at approximately half the frequency of the high amplitude frequency band, which would be an indication of a sub-harmonic resonance mechanism. The disturbance spectrum indicates, however, that fundamental resonance is much stronger than sub-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: boundary layer, DNS, hyper sonic flow, instability waves, wave packet

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1320 Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using SFM and Wavelet Packet

Authors: Somkait Udomhunsakul


In this paper, a multi-focus image fusion method using Spatial Frequency Measurements (SFM) and Wavelet Packet was proposed. The proposed fusion approach, firstly, the two fused images were transformed and decomposed into sixteen subbands using Wavelet packet. Next, each subband was partitioned into sub-blocks and each block was identified the clearer regions by using the Spatial Frequency Measurement (SFM). Finally, the recovered fused image was reconstructed by performing the Inverse Wavelet Transform. From the experimental results, it was found that the proposed method outperformed the traditional SFM based methods in terms of objective and subjective assessments.

Keywords: multi-focus image fusion, wavelet packet, spatial frequency measurement

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1319 Avoiding Packet Drop for Improved through Put in the Multi-Hop Wireless N/W

Authors: Manish Kumar Rajak, Sanjay Gupta


Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure less and intercommunicate using single-hop and multi-hop paths. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. QoS: A set of service requirements that are met by the network while transferring a packet stream from a source to a destination. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.

Keywords: mesh networks, MANET, packet count, threshold, throughput

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1318 Analysis of Interleaving Scheme for Narrowband VoIP System under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Monica Sharma, Harjit Pal Singh, Jasbinder Singh, Manju Bala


In Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system, the speech signal is degraded when passed through the network layers. The speech signal is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss and jitter. The packet loss is the major issue of the degradation in the VoIP signal quality; even a single lost packet may generate audible distortion in the decoded speech signal. In addition to these network degradations, the quality of the speech signal is also affected by the environmental noises and coder distortions. The signal quality of the VoIP system is improved through the interleaving technique. The performance of the system is evaluated for various types of noises at different network conditions. The performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrow band signal.

Keywords: VoIP, interleaving, packet loss, packet size, background noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
1317 Laser Induced Transient Current in Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako


Light-induced ultrafast charge transfer in low-dimensional nanostructure has been studied by a model of a few electrons confined in a 1D electrostatic potential coupled to electrodes at both ends and subjected to an ultrashort pulsed laser field. The time-propagation of the one- and two-electron wave packets has been calculated by integrating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by the symplectic integrator method with uniform Fourier grid. The temporal behavior of the resultant light-induced current in the studied systems has been discussed with respect to the central frequency and pulse width of the applied laser fields.

Keywords: pulsed laser field, nanowire, wave packet, quantum dots, conductivity

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1316 Effect of the Applied Bias on Miniband Structures in Dimer Fibonacci Inas/Ga1-Xinxas Superlattices

Authors: Z. Aziz, S. Terkhi, Y. Sefir, R. Djelti, S. Bentata


The effect of a uniform electric field across multibarrier systems (InAs/InxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased DFHBSL structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the miniband structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the miniband structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark Effect).

Keywords: dimer fibonacci height barrier superlattices, singular extended state, exact airy function, transfer matrix formalism

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1315 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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1314 Effect of the Applied Bias on Mini-Band Structures in Dimer Fibonacci InAs/Ga1-XInXAs Superlattices

Authors: Z. Aziz, S. Terkhi, Y. Sefir, R. Djelti, S. Bentata


The effect of a uniform electric field across multi-barrier systems (InAs/InxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased DFHBSL structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the mini-band structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the mini-band structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark Effect).

Keywords: dimer fibonacci height barrier superlattices, singular extended state, exact Airy function and transfer matrix formalism, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1313 Formation of Miniband Structure in Dimer Fibonacci GaAs/Ga1-XAlXAs Superlattices

Authors: Aziz Zoubir, Sefir Yamina, Djelti Redouan, Bentata Samir


The effect of a uniform electric field across multibarrier systems (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased Dimer Fibonacci Height Barrier superlattices (DFHBSL) structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the miniband structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the miniband structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark effect).

Keywords: Dimer Fibonacci Height Barrier superlattices, singular extended states, exact Airy function, transfer matrix formalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
1312 Dynamics of Light Induced Current in 1D Coupled Quantum Dots

Authors: Tokuei Sako


Laser-induced current in a quasi-one-dimensional nanostructure has been studied by a model of a few electrons confined in a 1D electrostatic potential coupled to electrodes at both ends and subjected to a pulsed laser field. The time-propagation of the one- and two-electron wave packets has been calculated by integrating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation directly by the symplectic integrator method with uniform Fourier grid. The temporal behavior of the resultant light-induced current in the studied systems has been discussed with respect to the lifetime of the quasi-bound states formed when the static bias voltage is applied.

Keywords: pulsed laser field, nanowire, electron wave packet, quantum dots, time-dependent Schrödinger equation

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1311 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang


Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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1310 Analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Parameters to Achive Lower Packet Loss Rates

Authors: Imen Bouazzi


The IEEE-802.15.4 standard utilizes the CSMA-CA mechanism to control nodes access to the shared wireless communication medium. It is becoming the popular choice for various applications of surveillance and control used in wireless sensor network (WSN). The benefit of this standard is evaluated regarding of the packet loss probability who depends on the configuration of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters and the traffic load. Our exigency is to evaluate the effects of various configurable MAC parameters on the performance of beaconless IEEE 802.15.4 networks under different traffic loads, static values of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters (macMinBE, macMaxCSMABackoffs, and macMaxFrame Retries) will be evaluated. To performance analysis, we use ns-2[2] network simulator.

Keywords: WSN, packet loss, CSMA/CA, IEEE-802.15.4

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1309 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang


Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

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1308 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma


We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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1307 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.

Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filter

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1306 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos


A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: layered structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element

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1305 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari


The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: cross-anisotropic, inhomogeneity, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave, shear modulus, Young’s modulus

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1304 Wave Energy: Efficient Conversion of the Big Waves

Authors: Md. Moniruzzaman


The energy of ocean waves across a large part of the earth is inexhaustible. The whole world will benefit if this endless energy can be used in an easy way. The coastal countries will easily be able to meet their own energy needs. The purpose of this article is to use the infinite energy of the ocean wave in a simple way. i.e. a method of efficient use of wave energy. The paper starts by discussing various forces acting on a floating object and, afterward, about the method. And then a calculation for a 73.39MW hydropower from the tidal wave. Used some sketches/pictures. Finally, the conclusion states the possibilities and advantages.

Keywords: anchor, electricity, floating object, pump, ship city, wave energy

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1303 Experimental Investigation for the Overtopping Wave Force of the Vertical Breakwater

Authors: Jin Song Gui, Han Li, Rui Jin Zhang, Heng Jiang Cai


There is a large deviation between the measured wave power at the vertical breast wall and the calculated one according to current specification in the case of overtopping. In order to investigate the reasons for the deviation, the wave forces of vertical breast wall under overtopping conditions have been measured through physical model experiment and compared with the calculated results. The effect of water depth, period and the wave height on the wave forces of the vertical breast wall have been also investigated. The distribution of wave pressure under different wave actions was tested based on the force sensor which is installed in the vertical breakwater. By comparing and analyzing the measured values and norms calculated values, the applicability of the existing norms recommended method were discussed and a reference for the design of vertical breakwater was provided. Experiment results show that with the decrease of the water depth, the gap is growing between the actual wave forces and the specification values, and there are no obvious regulations between these two values with the variation of period while wave force greatly reduces with the overtopping reducing. The amount of water depth and wave overtopping has a significant impact on the wave force of overtopping section while the period has no obvious influence on the wave force. Finally, some favorable recommendations for the overtopping wave force design of the vertical breakwater according to the model experiment results are provided.

Keywords: overtopping wave, physical model experiment, vertical breakwater, wave forces

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1302 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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1301 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng


Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

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1300 Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes

Authors: Suba Periyal Subramaniam, Babette Scheres, Altomare Corrado, Holger Schuttrumpf


Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.

Keywords: curved dikes, DualSPHysics, OpenFOAM, wave run-up

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1299 Near Shore Wave Manipulation for Electricity Generation

Authors: K. D. R. Jagath-Kumara, D. D. Dias


The sea waves carry thousands of GWs of power globally. Although there are a number of different approaches to harness offshore energy, they are likely to be expensive, practically challenging and vulnerable to storms. Therefore, this paper considers using the near shore waves for generating mechanical and electrical power. It introduces two new approaches, the wave manipulation and using a variable duct turbine, for intercepting very wide wave fronts and coping with the fluctuations of the wave height and the sea level, respectively. The first approach effectively allows capturing much more energy yet with a much narrower turbine rotor. The second approach allows using a rotor with a smaller radius but captures energy of higher wave fronts at higher sea levels yet preventing it from totally submerging. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach, the paper contains a description and the simulation results of a scale model of a wave manipulator. Then, it includes the results of testing a physical model of the manipulator and a single duct, axial flow turbine, in a wave flume in the laboratory. The paper also includes comparisons of theoretical predictions, simulation results and wave flume tests with respect to the incident energy, loss in wave manipulation, minimal loss, brake torque and the angular velocity.

Keywords: near-shore sea waves, renewable energy, wave energy conversion, wave manipulation

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1298 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

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1297 A Vertical-Axis Unidirectional Rotor with Nested Blades for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Yingchen Yang


In the present work, development of a new vertical-axis unidirectional wave rotor is reported. The wave rotor is a key component of a wave energy converter (WEC), which harvests energy from ocean waves. Differing from the huge majority of WEC designs that perform reciprocating motions (heaving up and down, swaying back and forth, etc.), our wave rotor performs unidirectional rotation about a vertical axis when directly exposed in waves. The unidirectional feature of the rotor makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency. The vertical axis arrangement of the rotor makes the rotor insensitive to the wave propagation direction. The rotor employs blades with a cross-section in an airfoil shape and a span curled into a semi-oval shape. Two sets of blades, with one nested inside the other, constitute the rotor. In waves, water particles perform an omnidirectional motion that constantly changes in both spatial and temporal domains. The blade nesting permits a compact rotor configuration that ‘sees’ a relatively uniform local flow in the spatial domain. The rotor was experimentally tested in simulated waves in a wave flume under various conditions. The testing results show a promising unidirectional rotor that is capable of extracting energy from waves at a capture width ratio of 0.08 to 0.15, depending on detailed wave conditions.

Keywords: unidirectional, vertical axis, wave energy converter, wave rotor

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1296 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian


Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

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1295 Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry


There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied, though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties, as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling element.

Keywords: finite element, temperature dependency, wave dispersion characteristics, wave finite element, wave scattering properties

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