Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6496

Search results for: phase space

6496 Analysis of Different Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for a Five-Phase Inverter

Authors: K. A. Chinmaya, M. Udaya Bhaskar

Abstract:

Multiphase motor drives are now a day considered for numerous applications due to the advantages that they offer when compared to their three-phase counterparts. Proper modeling of inverters and motors are important in devising an appropriate control algorithm. This paper develops a complete modeling of a five-phase inverter and five-phase space vector modulation schemes which can be used for five-phase motor drives. A novel modified algorithm is introduced which enables the sinusoidal output voltages up to certain voltage value. The waveforms of phase to neutral voltage are compared with the different modulation techniques and also different modulation indexes in terms of Low-order Harmonic (LH) voltage of 3rd and 7th present. A detailed performance evolution of existing and newly modified schemes is done in terms of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

Keywords: multi-phase drives, space vector modulation, voltage source inverter, low order harmonic voltages, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
6495 Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space

Authors: Mitsuyoshi Tomiya, Kentaro Kawamura, Shoichi Sakamoto

Abstract:

In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.

Keywords: chaotic billiard, Poincaré section, scar, wave packet

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
6494 Monthly River Flow Prediction Using a Nonlinear Prediction Method

Authors: N. H. Adenan, M. S. M. Noorani

Abstract:

River flow prediction is an essential to ensure proper management of water resources can be optimally distribute water to consumers. This study presents an analysis and prediction by using nonlinear prediction method involving monthly river flow data in Tanjung Tualang from 1976 to 2006. Nonlinear prediction method involves the reconstruction of phase space and local linear approximation approach. The phase space reconstruction involves the reconstruction of one-dimensional (the observed 287 months of data) in a multidimensional phase space to reveal the dynamics of the system. Revenue of phase space reconstruction is used to predict the next 72 months. A comparison of prediction performance based on correlation coefficient (CC) and root mean square error (RMSE) have been employed to compare prediction performance for nonlinear prediction method, ARIMA and SVM. Prediction performance comparisons show the prediction results using nonlinear prediction method is better than ARIMA and SVM. Therefore, the result of this study could be used to developed an efficient water management system to optimize the allocation water resources.

Keywords: river flow, nonlinear prediction method, phase space, local linear approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
6493 Transient Voltage Distribution on the Single Phase Transmission Line under Short Circuit Fault Effect

Authors: A. Kojah, A. Nacaroğlu

Abstract:

Single phase transmission lines are used to transfer data or energy between two users. Transient conditions such as switching operations and short circuit faults cause the generation of the fluctuation on the waveform to be transmitted. Spatial voltage distribution on the single phase transmission line may change owing to the position and duration of the short circuit fault in the system. In this paper, the state space representation of the single phase transmission line for short circuit fault and for various types of terminations is given. Since the transmission line is modeled in time domain using distributed parametric elements, the mathematical representation of the event is given in state space (time domain) differential equation form. It also makes easy to solve the problem because of the time and space dependent characteristics of the voltage variations on the distributed parametrically modeled transmission line.

Keywords: energy transmission, transient effects, transmission line, transient voltage, RLC short circuit, single phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
6492 Generalized Mean-Field Theory of Phase Unwrapping via Multiple Interferograms

Authors: Yohei Saika

Abstract:

On the basis of Bayesian inference using the maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate, we carry out phase unwrapping using multiple interferograms via generalized mean-field theory. Numerical calculations for a typical wave-front in remote sensing using the synthetic aperture radar interferometry, phase diagram in hyper-parameter space clarifies that the present method succeeds in phase unwrapping perfectly under the constraint of surface- consistency condition, if the interferograms are not corrupted by any noises. Also, we find that prior is useful for extending a phase in which phase unwrapping under the constraint of the surface-consistency condition. These results are quantitatively confirmed by the Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, generalized mean-field theory, phase unwrapping, multiple interferograms, statistical mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
6491 A Linear Relation for Voltage Unbalance Factor Evaluation in Three-Phase Electrical Power System Using Space Vector

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A Ghaeb

Abstract:

The Voltage Unbalance Factor (VUF) index is recommended to evaluate system performance under unbalanced operation. However, its calculation requires complex algebra which limits its use in the field. Furthermore, one system cycle is required at least to detect unbalance using the VUF. Ideally unbalance mitigation must be performed within 10 ms for 50 Hz systems. In this work, a linear relation for VUF evaluation in three-phase electrical power system using space vector (SV) is derived. It is proposed to determine the voltage unbalance quickly and accurately and to overcome the constraints associated with the traditional methods of VUF evaluation. Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) power system is considered to study the system performance under unbalanced conditions. The results show that both the complexity of calculations and the time required to evaluate VUF are reduced significantly.

Keywords: power quality, space vector, unbalance evaluation, three-phase power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
6490 Designing Space through Narratives: The Role of the Tour Description in the Architectural Design Process

Authors: A. Papadopoulou

Abstract:

When people are asked to provide an oral description of a space they usually provide a Tour description, which is a dynamic type of spatial narrative centered on the narrator’s body, rather than a Map description, which is a static type of spatial narrative focused on the organization of the space as seen from above. Also, subjects with training in the architecture discipline tend to adopt a Tour perspective of space when the narrative refers to a space they have actually experienced but tend to adopt a Map perspective when the narrative refers to a space they have merely imagined. This pilot study aims to investigate whether the Tour description, which is the most common mode in the oral descriptions of experienced space, is a cognitive perspective taken in the process of designing a space. The study investigates whether a spatial description provided by a subject with architecture training in the type of a Tour description would be accurately translated into a spatial layout by other subjects with architecture training. The subjects were given the Tour description in written form and were asked to make a plan drawing of the described space. The results demonstrate that when we conceive and design space we do not adopt the same rules and cognitive patterns that we adopt when we reconstruct space from our memory. As shown by the results of this pilot study, the rules that underlie the Tour description were not detected in the translation from narratives to drawings. In a different phase, the study also investigates how would subjects with architecture training describe space when forced to take a Tour perspective in their oral description of a space. The results of this second phase demonstrate that if intentionally taken, the Tour perspective leads to descriptions of space that are more detailed and focused on experiential aspects.

Keywords: architecture, design process, embodied cognition, map description, oral narratives, tour description

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
6489 ANN Based Simulation of PWM Scheme for Seven Phase Voltage Source Inverter Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Mohammad Arif Khan

Abstract:

This paper analyzes and presents the development of Artificial Neural Network based controller of space vector modulation (ANN-SVPWM) for a seven-phase voltage source inverter. At first, the conventional method of producing sinusoidal output voltage by utilizing six active and one zero space vectors are used to synthesize the input reference, is elaborated and then new PWM scheme called Artificial Neural Network Based PWM is presented. The ANN based controller has the advantage of the very fast implementation and analyzing the algorithms and avoids the direct computation of trigonometric and non-linear functions. The ANN controller uses the individual training strategy with the fixed weight and supervised models. A computer simulation program has been developed using Matlab/Simulink together with the neural network toolbox for training the ANN-controller. A comparison of the proposed scheme with the conventional scheme is presented based on various performance indices. Extensive Simulation results are provided to validate the findings.

Keywords: space vector PWM, total harmonic distortion, seven-phase, voltage source inverter, multi-phase, artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
6488 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Authors: Khattab Al Qaisi, Nicholas Bowring

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: DSI, SVPWM, THD, DC-AC converter, sampling frequency, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
6487 Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator

Authors: Weiwei Shan, Wenjing Ding, Juan Ning, Chao He, Zijuan Wang

Abstract:

Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN2) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN2 feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.

Keywords: cryopumps, gravity circulation loop, liquid nitrogen, two-phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
6486 BIM Application and Construction Schedule Simulation for the Horizontal Work Area

Authors: Hyeon-Seong Kim, Sang-Mi Park, Seul-Gi Kim, Seon-Ju Han, Leen-Seok Kang

Abstract:

The use of BIM, including 4D CAD system, in a construction project is gradually increasing. Since the building construction works repeatedly in the vertical space, it is relatively easy to confirm the interference effect when applying the BIM, but the interference effect for the civil engineering project is relatively small because the civil works perform non-repetitive processes in the horizontal space. For this reason, it is desirable to apply BIM to the construction phase when applying BIM to the civil engineering project, and the most active BIM tool applied to the construction phase is the 4D CAD function for the schedule management. This paper proposes the application procedure of BIM by the construction phase of civil engineering project and a linear 4D CAD construction methodology suitable for the civil engineering project in which linear work is performed.

Keywords: BIM, 4D CAD, linear 4D simulation, VR

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
6485 Crystal Structures and High-Temperature Phase Transitions of the New Ordered Double Perovskites SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6

Authors: Asmaa Zaraq

Abstract:

In the present work we report X-ray powder diffraction measurements of SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, at different temperatures. The crystal structures at room temperature of both compounds are determined; and results showing the existence of high-temperature phase transitions in them are presented. Both compounds have double perovskite structure with 1:1 ordered arrangement of the B site cations. At room temperature their symmetries are described with the P21/n space group, that correspond to the (a+b-b-) tilt system. The evolution with temperature of the structure of both compounds shows the presence of three phase transitions: a continuous one, at 450 and 500 K, a discontinuous one, at 700 and 775 K, and a continuous one at 900 and 950 K for SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, respectively with the following phase-transition sequence: P21/n → I2/m → I4/m → Fm-3m.

Keywords: double perovskites, caracterisation DRX, transition de phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
6484 Assessment of Exploitation Vulnerability of Quantum Communication Systems with Phase Encryption

Authors: Vladimir V. Nikulin, Bekmurza H. Aitchanov, Olimzhon A. Baimuratov

Abstract:

Quantum communication technology takes advantage of the intrinsic properties of laser carriers, such as very high data rates and low power requirements, to offer unprecedented data security. Quantum processes at the physical layer of encryption are used for signal encryption with very competitive performance characteristics. The ultimate range of applications for QC systems spans from fiber-based to free-space links and from secure banking operations to mobile airborne and space-borne networking where they are subjected to channel distortions. Under practical conditions, the channel can alter the optical wave front characteristics, including its phase. In addition, phase noise of the communication source and photo-detection noises alter the signal to bring additional ambiguity into the measurement process. If quantized values of photons are used to encrypt the signal, exploitation of quantum communication links becomes extremely difficult. In this paper, we present the results of analysis and simulation studies of the effects of noise on phase estimation for quantum systems with different number of encryption bases and operating at different power levels.

Keywords: encryption, phase distortion, quantum communication, quantum noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
6483 Reconstructed Phase Space Features for Estimating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Andre Wittenborn, Jarek Krajewski

Abstract:

Trauma-related sadness in speech can alter the voice in several ways. The generation of non-linear aerodynamic phenomena within the vocal tract is crucial when analyzing trauma-influenced speech production. They include non-laminar flow and formation of jets rather than well-behaved laminar flow aspects. Especially state–space reconstruction methods based on chaotic dynamics and fractal theory have been suggested to describe these aerodynamic turbulence-related phenomena of the speech production system. To extract the non-linear properties of the speech signal, we used the time delay embedding method to reconstruct from a scalar time series (reconstructed phase space, RPS). This approach results in the extraction of 7238 Features per wav file (N= 47, 32 m, 15 f). The speech material was prompted by telling about autobiographical related sadness-inducing experiences (sampling rate 16 kHz, 8-bit resolution). After combining these features in a Support Vector Machine-based machine learning approach (leave-one-sample out validation), we achieved a correlation of r=.41 with the well-established, self-report ground truth measure (RATS) of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Keywords: non-linear dynamics, reconstructed phase space, post-traumatic stress disorder

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6482 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Homogeneous Scalar Field in Deformed Phase Space

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie

Abstract:

In the present work, we revisit the collapse process of a spherically symmetric homogeneous scalar field (in FRW background) minimally coupled to gravity, when the phase-space deformations are taken into account. Such a deformation is mathematically introduced as a particular type of noncommutativity between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such deformation, the collapse culminates in a spacetime singularity. However, when the phase-space is deformed, we find that the singularity is removed by a non-singular bounce, beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the appearance of a negative pressure, which decelerates the collapse to finally avoid the singularity formation. While in the un-deformed case, the horizon curve monotonically decreases to finally cover the singularity, in the deformed case the horizon has a minimum value that this value depends on deformation parameter and initial configuration of the collapse. Such a setting predicts a threshold mass for black hole formation in stellar collapse and manifests the role of non-commutative geometry in physics and especially in stellar collapse and supernova explosion.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, non-commutative geometry, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
6481 Parameter and Lose Effect Analysis of Beta Stirling Cycle Refrigerating Machine

Authors: Muluken Z. Getie, Francois Lanzetta, Sylvie Begot, Bimrew T. Admassu

Abstract:

This study is aimed at the numerical analysis of the effects of phase angle and losses (shuttle heat loss and gas leakage to the crankcase) that could have an impact on the pressure and temperature of working fluid for a β-type Stirling cycle refrigerating machine. First, the developed numerical model incorporates into the ideal adiabatic analysis, the shuttle heat transfer (heat loss from compression space to expansion space), and gas leakage from the working space to the buffer space into the crankcase. The other losses that may not have a direct effect on the temperature and pressure of working fluid are simply incorporated in a simple analysis. The model is then validated by reversing the model to the engine model and compared with other literature results using (GPU-3) engine. After validating the model with other engine model and experiment results, analysis of the effect of phase angle, shuttle heat lose and gas leakage on temperature, pressure, and performance (power requirement, cooling capacity and coefficient of performance) of refrigerating machine considering the FEMTO 60 Stirling engine as a case study have been conducted. Shuttle heat loss has a greater effect on the temperature of working gas; gas leakage to the crankcase has more effect on the pressure of working spaces and hence both have a considerable impact on the performance of the Stirling cycle refrigerating machine. The optimum coefficient of performance exists between phase angles of 900-950, and optimum cooling capacity could be found between phase angles of 950-980.

Keywords: beta configuration, engine model, moderate cooling, stirling refrigerator, and validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
6480 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev

Abstract:

Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
6479 Review of Urban Vitality in China: Exploring the Theoretical Framework, Characteristics, and Assessment Systems

Authors: Dong Wei, Wu Jinxiu

Abstract:

As China's urban construction enters a new phase of 'stock optimization,' the key point of urban development has shifted to the development and reuse of existing public space. However, cities still face a series of challenges, such as the shortage of space quantity and insufficient space quality, which indirectly affect urban vitality. A review of the vitality of urban public space will significantly contribute to optimizing the quality of the urban built environment. It firstly analyses the research hotspots of urban vitality at home and abroad, based on a semi-systematic literature review. Then this paper summarizes the theoretical definitions of the vitality of urban public space and sorts out the influencing factors from the perspectives of society, environment, and users. Lastly, the paper concludes with the mainstream quantitative and evaluation methods, such as linear evaluation and integrated evaluation. This paper renders a multi-theoretical perspective to understand the characteristics and evaluation system of the vitality of public space, which helps to acknowledge the dynamic relationship between users, urban environment, and vitality. It also looks forward to providing optimal design strategies for constructing a vigorous public space in future cities.

Keywords: public space, quantification of vitality, spatial vitality, urban vitality

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6478 Modeling of Enthalpy and Heat Capacity of Phase-Change Materials

Authors: Igor Medved, Anton Trnik, Libor Vozar

Abstract:

Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of great interest in the applications where a temperature level needs to be maintained and/or where there is demand for thermal energy storage. Examples are storage of solar energy, cold, and space heating/cooling of buildings. During a phase change, the enthalpy vs. temperature plot of PCMs shows a jump and there is a distinct peak in the heat capacity plot. We present a theoretical description from which these jumps and peaks can be obtained. We apply our theoretical results to fit experimental data with very good accuracy for selected materials and changes between two phases. The development is based on the observation that PCMs are polycrystalline; i.e., composed of many single-crystalline grains. The enthalpy and heat capacity are thus interpreted as averages of the contributions from the individual grains. We also show how to determine the baseline and excess part of the heat capacity and thus the latent heat corresponding to the phase change.

Keywords: averaging, enthalpy jump, heat capacity peak, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
6477 Impact of Different Modulation Techniques on the Performance of Free-Space Optics

Authors: Naman Singla, Ajay Pal Singh Chauhan

Abstract:

As the demand for providing high bit rate and high bandwidth is increasing at a rapid rate so there is a need to see in this problem and finds a technology that provides high bit rate and also high bandwidth. One possible solution is by use of optical fiber. Optical fiber technology provides high bandwidth in THz. But the disadvantage of optical fiber is of high cost and not used everywhere because it is not possible to reach all the locations on the earth. Also high maintenance required for usage of optical fiber. It puts a lot of cost. Another technology which is almost similar to optical fiber is Free Space Optics (FSO) technology. FSO is the line of sight technology where modulated optical beam whether infrared or visible is used to transfer information from one point to another through the atmosphere which works as a channel. This paper concentrates on analyzing the performance of FSO in terms of bit error rate (BER) and quality factor (Q) using different modulation techniques like non return to zero on off keying (NRZ-OOK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) using OptiSystem software. The findings of this paper show that FSO system based on DQPSK modulation technique performs better.

Keywords: attenuation, bit rate, free space optics, link length

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
6476 Space Vector PWM and Model Predictive Control for Voltage Source Inverter Control

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for two-level three phase (2L-3P) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). VSI with associated system is subjected to both control techniques and the results are compared. Matlab/Simulink was used to model, simulate and validate the control schemes. Findings of this study show that MPC is superior to SVPWM in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and implementation.

Keywords: voltage source inverter, space vector pulse width modulation, model predictive control, comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
6475 Derivation of Neutrino Mass Parameters from the Study of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

Authors: Sabin Stoica

Abstract:

In this paper the theoretical challenges in the study of neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. Then, new upper limits of the neutrino mass parameters in the case of three isotopes are derived; 48Ca, 76Ge, and 82Se, assuming two possible mechanisms of occurrence of this nuclear process, namely the exchange of i) light left-handed neutrinos and ii) heavy right-handed neutrinos, between two nucleons inside the nucleus. The derivation is based on accurate calculations of the phase space factors and nuclear matrix elements performed with new high-performance computer codes, which are described in more detail in recent publications. These results are useful both for a better understanding of the scale of neutrino absolute mass and for the planning of future double beta decay experiments.

Keywords: double beta decay, neutrino properties, nuclear matrix elements, phase space factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 538
6474 Information Society-Education Space

Authors: Monica Lia

Abstract:

This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. Second step was to identify how information space intersects the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school). Interrelationship between the above-mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support for the family space, education and institutional space. In addition, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. However, this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or be support systems if we know the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work for accomplish the educational objectives.

Keywords: informational space, education, educational tool, social diagram, information, information structure, lessons

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
6473 Dynamic Process Model for Designing Smart Spaces Based on Context-Awareness and Computational Methods Principles

Authors: Heba M. Jahin, Ali F. Bakr, Zeyad T. Elsayad

Abstract:

As smart spaces can be defined as any working environment which integrates embedded computers, information appliances and multi-modal sensors to remain focused on the interaction between the users, their activity, and their behavior in the space; hence, smart space must be aware of their contexts and automatically adapt to their changing context-awareness, by interacting with their physical environment through natural and multimodal interfaces. Also, by serving the information used proactively. This paper suggests a dynamic framework through the architectural design process of the space based on the principles of computational methods and context-awareness principles to help in creating a field of changes and modifications. It generates possibilities, concerns about the physical, structural and user contexts. This framework is concerned with five main processes: gathering and analyzing data to generate smart design scenarios, parameters, and attributes; which will be transformed by coding into four types of models. Furthmore, connecting those models together in the interaction model which will represent the context-awareness system. Then, transforming that model into a virtual and ambient environment which represents the physical and real environments, to act as a linkage phase between the users and their activities taking place in that smart space . Finally, the feedback phase from users of that environment to be sure that the design of that smart space fulfill their needs. Therefore, the generated design process will help in designing smarts spaces that can be adapted and controlled to answer the users’ defined goals, needs, and activity.

Keywords: computational methods, context-awareness, design process, smart spaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
6472 Analytical Description of Disordered Structures in Continuum Models of Pattern Formation

Authors: Gyula I. Tóth, Shaho Abdalla

Abstract:

Even though numerical simulations indeed have a significant precursory/supportive role in exploring the disordered phase displaying no long-range order in pattern formation models, studying the stability properties of this phase and determining the order of the ordered-disordered phase transition in these models necessitate an analytical description of the disordered phase. First, we will present the results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of a large number (1,000-10,000) of numerical simulations in the Swift-Hohenberg model, where the bulk disordered (or amorphous) phase is stable. We will show that the average free energy density (over configurations) converges, while the variance of the energy density vanishes with increasing system size in numerical simulations, which suggest that the disordered phase is a thermodynamic phase (i.e., its properties are independent of the configuration in the macroscopic limit). Furthermore, the structural analysis of this phase in the Fourier space suggests that the phase can be modeled by a colored isotropic Gaussian noise, where any instant of the noise describes a possible configuration. Based on these results, we developed the general mathematical framework of finding a pool of solutions to partial differential equations in the sense of continuous probability measure, which we will present briefly. Applying the general idea to the Swift-Hohenberg model we show, that the amorphous phase can be found, and its properties can be determined analytically. As the general mathematical framework is not restricted to continuum theories, we hope that the proposed methodology will open a new chapter in studying disordered phases.

Keywords: fundamental theory, mathematical physics, continuum models, analytical description

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
6471 Modeling SET Effect on Charge Pump Phase Locked Loop

Authors: Varsha Prasad, S. Sandya

Abstract:

Cosmic Ray effects in microelectronics such as single event effect (SET) and total dose ionization (TID) have been of major concern in space electronics since 1970. Advanced CMOS technologies have demonstrated reduced sensitivity to TID effect. However, charge pump Phase Locked Loop is very much vulnerable to single event transient effect. This paper presents an SET analysis model, where the SET is modeled as a double exponential pulse. The time domain analysis reveals that the settling time of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) depends on the SET pulse strength, setting the time constant and the damping factor. The analysis of the proposed SET analysis model is confirmed by the simulation results.

Keywords: charge pump, phase locked loop, SET, VCO

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
6470 Effect of Sintering Time and Porosity on Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Ti6Al15Mo Alloy for Implant Applications

Authors: Jyotsna Gupta, S. Ghosh, S. Aravindan

Abstract:

The requirement of artificial prostheses (such as hip and knee joints) has increased with time. Many researchers are working to develop new implants with improved properties such as excellent biocompatibility with no tissue reactions, corrosion resistance in body fluid, high yield strength and low elastic modulus. Further, the morphological properties of the artificial implants should also match with that of the human bone so that cell adhesion, proliferation and transportation of the minerals and nutrition through body fluid can be obtained. Present study attempts to make porous Ti6Al15Mo alloys through powder metallurgy route using space holder technique. The alloy consists of 6wt% of Al which was taken as α phase stabilizer and 15wt% Mo was taken as β phase stabilizer with theoretical density 4.708. Ammonium hydrogen carbonate is used as a space holder in order to generate the porosity. The porosity of these fabricated porous alloys was controlled by adding the 0, 50, 70 vol.% of the space holder content. Three phases were found in the microstructure: α, α_2 and β phase of titanium. Kirkendall pores are observed to be decreased with increase of holding time during sintering and parallelly compressive strength and elastic modulus value increased slightly. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of porous Ti-6Al-15Mo alloy (1.17 g/cm3 density) is found to be suitable for cancellous bone. Released ions from Ti-6Al-15Mo alloy are far below from the permissible limits in human body.

Keywords: bone implant, powder metallurgy, sintering time, Ti-6Al-15Mo

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
6469 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
6468 A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping

Authors: Shengbiao Wu, Weihua Cao, Min Wu, Can Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase. During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.

Keywords: microwave filter, scattering parameter, coupling matrix, intelligent tuning

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6467 Structural Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x Ceramics

Authors: Mohammad Shariq, Davinder Kaur

Abstract:

A series of multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x [x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5] solid solution ceramics were synthesised by conventional solid-state reaction method. Well crystalline phase has been optimized at sintering temperature of 950°C for 2 hours. X rays diffraction studies of these ceramics revealed the existence of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region in this system, which exhibits co-existence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phase with a large tetragonality (c/a ratio) in the tetragonal phase region. The average grain size of samples was found to be between 1-1.5 µm. The M-H curve revealed the BiFeO3 (BFO) as antiferromanetic material whereas, induced weak ferromagnetism was observed for (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x composites with x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 at temperature of 5 K. The results evidenced the destruction of a space-modulated spin structure in bulk materials, via substituent effects, releasing a latent magnetization locked within the cycloid. Relative to unmodified BiFeO3, modified BiFeO3-PbTiO3 -based ceramics revealed enhancement in the electric-field-induced polarization.

Keywords: BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x ceramic, multiferroic, SQUID, magnetic properties

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