Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3252

Search results for: cognitive science

3252 The Embodied World — A Redefinition of "Emptiness" in Heart Sutra from the Perspective of Cognitive Science

Authors: Ke Ma

Abstract:

Through the long course of history, Buddhism has captivated generations of brilliant minds with its enlightening but elusive discernment. Far from religious dogmas, Buddhism not only represents spiritual revelation, but also logical reasoning.Among all of Buddhism’s concepts, emptiness is the most famous, and abstruse one. This word resulted from an inaccurate translation confuses both Buddhists and religious scholars who understand Heart Sutra based on its English version. In this essay, the idea of “emptiness” will be reinterpreted as “information,” leading not only to a clarification of the ideology of Buddhism, but also to greater correspondence between Buddhism concepts and cognitive science.

Keywords: religion, cognitive science, psychology, Buddhism

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3251 Cognitive Theory and the Design of Integrate Curriculum

Authors: Bijan Gillani, Roya Gillani

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose a pedagogical model where engineering provides the interconnection to integrate the other topics of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The author(s) will first present a brief discussion of cognitive theory and then derive an integrated pedagogy to use engineering and technology, such as drones, sensors, camera, iPhone, radio waves as the nexus to an integrated curriculum development for the other topics of STEM. Based on this pedagogy, one example developed by the author(s) called “Drones and Environmental Science,” will be presented that uses a drone and related technology as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget’s cognitive theory to create environments that promote the integration of different STEM subjects that relate to environmental science.

Keywords: cogntive theories, drone, environmental science, pedagogy

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3250 A Critical Analysis of Cognitive Explanations of Afterlife Belief

Authors: Mahdi Biabanaki

Abstract:

Religion is present in all human societies and has been for tens of thousands of years. What is noteworthy is that although religious traditions vary in different societies, there are considerable similarities in their religious beliefs. In all human cultures, for example, there is a widespread belief in the afterlife. Cognitive science of Religion (CSR), an emerging branch of cognitive science, searches for the root of these widespread similarities and the widespread prevalence of beliefs such as beliefs in the afterlife in common mental structures among humans. Accordingly, the cognitive architecture of the human mind has evolved to produce such beliefs automatically and non-reflectively. For CSR researchers, belief in the afterlife is an intuitive belief resulting from the functioning of mental tools. Our purpose in this article is to extract and evaluate the cognitive explanations presented in the CSR field for explaining beliefs in the afterlife. Our research shows that there are two basic theories in this area of CSR, namely "intuitive dualism" and "simulation constraint" theory. We show that these two theories face four major challenges and limitations in explaining belief in the afterlife: inability to provide a causal explanation, inability to explain cultural/religious differences in afterlife belief, the lack of distinction between the natural and the rational foundations of belief in the afterlife and disregarding the supernatural foundations of the afterlife belief.

Keywords: afterlife, cognitive science of religion, intuitive dualism, simulation constraint

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3249 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr

Abstract:

Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the function that called carrier content: on the latter it arises that emotions give the material reasoning that later transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. In this paper I argue that science education should start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if it is to form citizens with scientific or cultural future scientists.

Keywords: epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists., philosophy of emotions

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3248 Engaging Girls in 'Learn Science by Doing' as Strategy for Enhanced Learning Outcome at the Junior High School Level in Nigeria

Authors: Stella Y. Erinosho

Abstract:

In an attempt to impact on girls’ interest in science, an instructional package on ‘Learn Science by Doing (LSD)’ was developed to support science teachers in teaching integrated science at the junior secondary level in Nigeria. LSD provides an instructional framework aimed at actively engaging girls in beginners’ science through activities that are discovery-oriented and allow for experiential learning. The goal of this study was to show the impact of application of LSD on girls’ performance and interest in science. The major hypothesis that was tested in the study was that students would exhibit higher learning outcomes (achievement and attitude) in science as effect of exposure to LSD instructional package. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, incorporating four all-girls schools. Three of the schools (comprising six classes) were randomly designated as experimental and one as the control. The sample comprised 357 girls (275 experimental and 82 control) and nine science teachers drawn from the experimental schools. The questionnaire was designed to gather data on students’ background characteristics and their attitude toward science while the cognitive outcomes were measured using tests, both within a group and between groups, the girls who had exposure to LSD exhibited improved cognitive outcomes and more positive attitude towards science compared with those who had conventional teaching. The data are consistent with previous studies indicating that interactive learning activities increase student performance and interest.

Keywords: active learning, school science, teaching and learning, Nigeria

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3247 Exploring the Contribution of Linguistic, Cognitive and Cultural Factors to the Didactics and Knowledge Building of Science with a Focus on Mathematics and Computer Science

Authors: Magdalini Kritikou, Dimitris Tsolis

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship of language with sciences as well as cognitive and cultural factors, regarding the difficulties faced by children with or without Learning Difficulties. Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders, which are manifested by significant difficulties in acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or math skills. "These disorders are inherent in the individual, are attributed to dysfunction of the central nervous system, and can exist throughout their life." More simply, learning disability is usually defined as a child's difficulty in understanding or using language, performing mathematical calculations, maintaining concentration and even coordinating body movements.

Keywords: special education, mathematics, computer science, dyslexia

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3246 Cognitive Science Based Scheduling in Grid Environment

Authors: N. D. Iswarya, M. A. Maluk Mohamed, N. Vijaya

Abstract:

Grid is infrastructure that allows the deployment of distributed data in large size from multiple locations to reach a common goal. Scheduling data intensive applications becomes challenging as the size of data sets are very huge in size. Only two solutions exist in order to tackle this challenging issue. First, computation which requires huge data sets to be processed can be transferred to the data site. Second, the required data sets can be transferred to the computation site. In the former scenario, the computation cannot be transferred since the servers are storage/data servers with little or no computational capability. Hence, the second scenario can be considered for further exploration. During scheduling, transferring huge data sets from one site to another site requires more network bandwidth. In order to mitigate this issue, this work focuses on incorporating cognitive science in scheduling. Cognitive Science is the study of human brain and its related activities. Current researches are mainly focused on to incorporate cognitive science in various computational modeling techniques. In this work, the problem solving approach of human brain is studied and incorporated during the data intensive scheduling in grid environments. Here, a cognitive engine is designed and deployed in various grid sites. The intelligent agents present in CE will help in analyzing the request and creating the knowledge base. Depending upon the link capacity, decision will be taken whether to transfer data sets or to partition the data sets. Prediction of next request is made by the agents to serve the requesting site with data sets in advance. This will reduce the data availability time and data transfer time. Replica catalog and Meta data catalog created by the agents assist in decision making process.

Keywords: data grid, grid workflow scheduling, cognitive artificial intelligence

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3245 Efficacy of Computer Mediated Power Point Presentations on Students' Learning Outcomes in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The lingering poor performance of students in basic science spells doom for a vibrant scientific and technological development which pivoted the economic, social and physical upliftment of any nation. This calls for identifying appropriate strategies for imparting basic science knowledge and attitudes to the teaming youths in secondary schools. This study, therefore, determined the impact of computer mediated power point presentations on students’ achievement in basic science in Oyo State, Nigeria. A pre-test, posttest, control group quazi-experimental design adopted for the study. Two hundred and five junior secondary two students selected using stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Two evaluative instruments – Students’ Basic Science Attitudes Scale (SBSAS, r = 0.91); Students’ Knowledge of Basic Science Test (SKBST, r = 0.82) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of ANCOVA, scheffe post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. The results indicated significant main effect of treatment on students cognitive (F(1,200)= 171.680; p < 0.05) and attitudinal (F(1,200)= 34.466; p < 0.05) achievement in Basic science with the experimental group having higher mean gain than the control group. Gender has significant main effect (F(1,200)= 23.382; p < 0.05) on students cognitive outcomes but not significant for attitudinal achievement in Basic science. The study therefore recommended among others that computer mediated power point presentations should be incorporated into curriculum methodology of Basic science in secondary schools.

Keywords: basic science, computer mediated power point presentations, gender, students’ achievement

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3244 Analysis of Computer Science Papers Conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education at Secondary Level

Authors: Ameema Mahroof, Muhammad Saeed

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the papers of computer science conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education with reference to Bloom’s taxonomy. The present study has two parts. First, the analysis is done on the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate of Secondary Education on the basis of basic rules of item construction especially Bloom’s (1956). And the item analysis is done to improve the psychometric properties of a test. The sample included the question papers of computer science of higher secondary classes (XI-XII) for the years 2011 and 2012. For item analysis, the data was collected from 60 students through convenient sampling. Findings of the study revealed that in the papers by Board of intermediate and secondary education the maximum focus was on knowledge and understanding level and very less focus was on the application, analysis, and synthesis. Furthermore, the item analysis on the question paper reveals that item difficulty of most of the questions did not show a balanced paper, the items were either very difficult while most of the items were too easy (measuring knowledge and understanding abilities). Likewise, most of the items were not truly discriminating the high and low achievers; four items were even negatively discriminating. The researchers also analyzed the items of the paper through software Conquest. These results show that the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education were not well constructed. It was recommended that paper setters should be trained in developing the question papers that can measure various cognitive abilities of students so that a good paper in computer science should assess all cognitive abilities of students.

Keywords: Bloom’s taxonomy, question paper, item analysis, cognitive domain, computer science

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3243 Science Explorer Modules as a Communication Approach to Encourage High School Students to Pursue Science Careers

Authors: Mark Ivan Roblas

Abstract:

The Science Explorer is a mobile learning science facility in the Philippines. It is a bus that travels to different provinces in the country bringing interactive science modules facilitated by scientists from the industry and academe. The project aims to entice students to get into careers in science through interactive science modules and interaction with real-life scientists. This article looks into the effectiveness of its modules as a communication source and message to encourage high school students to get into careers in the future. The study revealed that as the Science Explorer modules are able to retain students to stay in science careers of their choice and even convert some to choose from non-science to a science degree, it still lacks in penetrating the belief system of the students and influencing them to take a scientific career path.

Keywords: informal science, mobile science, science careers, science education

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3242 Teaching Practices for Subverting Significant Retentive Learner Errors in Arithmetic

Authors: Michael Lousis

Abstract:

The systematic identification of the most conspicuous and significant errors made by learners during three-years of testing of their progress in learning Arithmetic throughout the development of the Kassel Project in England and Greece was accomplished. How much retentive these errors were over three-years in the officially provided school instruction of Arithmetic in these countries has also been shown. The learners’ errors in Arithmetic stemmed from a sample, which was comprised of two hundred (200) English students and one hundred and fifty (150) Greek students. The sample was purposefully selected according to the students’ participation in each testing session in the development of the three-year project, in both domains simultaneously in Arithmetic and Algebra. Specific teaching practices have been invented and are presented in this study for subverting these learners’ errors, which were found out to be retentive to the level of the nationally provided mathematical education of each country. The invention and the development of these proposed teaching practices were founded on the rationality of the theoretical accounts concerning the explanation, prediction and control of the errors, on the conceptual metaphor and on an analysis, which tried to identify the required cognitive components and skills of the specific tasks, in terms of Psychology and Cognitive Science as applied to information-processing. The aim of the implementation of these instructional practices is not only the subversion of these errors but the achievement of the mathematical competence, as this was defined to be constituted of three elements: appropriate representations - appropriate meaning - appropriately developed schemata. However, praxis is of paramount importance, because there is no independent of science ‘real-truth’ and because praxis serves as quality control when it takes the form of a cognitive method.

Keywords: arithmetic, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, information-processing paradigm, Kassel project, level of the nationally provided mathematical education, praxis, remedial mathematical teaching practices, retentiveness of errors

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3241 Psychological Biases as Obstacles to Environmental Communication

Authors: De Biase Ilaria, Della Rocca Mattia

Abstract:

Our work aims to highlight the role played by cognitive biases in the reception of environmental information, including scientific communication from expert to the lay public, especially in relationship with environmental data coming from biological and biotechnological recording. Some alternative strategies are suggested in order to maximize public awareness on environmental changes.

Keywords: science communication, environment and psychology, cognitive biases, environmental awareness

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3240 Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of Stroke; A Systematic Review

Authors: Zahra Hassani

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the complications of a stroke that reduces the patient's chance of recovery, becomes irritable, and changes personality. Cognitive rehabilitation is one of the non-pharmacological methods that improve deficits such as attention, memory, and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke. Method: In this study, a systematic review of the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier between the years 2015 and 2019 with the keywords cognitive rehabilitation therapy, post-stroke, depression Search is done. In this process, studies that examined the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke were included in the study. Results: Inclusion criteria were full-text availability, interventional study, and non-review articles. There was a significant difference between the articles in terms of the indices studied, sample number, method of implementation, and so on. A review of studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy has a significant role in reducing the symptoms of post-stroke depression. The use of these interventions is also effective in improving problem-solving skills, improving memory, and improving attention and concentration. Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the development of efficient and flexible adaptive skills through cognitive processes and its effect on reducing depression in patients after stroke.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, depression, stroke, rehabilitation

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3239 Science Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Ogbeta I. Joseph, Habiba B. A. Awwalu, Otokiti Jimoh

Abstract:

This paper entitled science education in Nigeria issues and challenges highlighted the role of science education to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Science embraces every attempt of human to explore and manage the natural world, the contribution of science education to the technological development of the nation, the role of science education in ICT development, the importance of mathematics in the development of science education, the paper also analyzed the challenges facing the development of science education to include corruption, insecurity, and political instability, the paper concluded by encouraging the government and other stakeholders in educational sector to pay more attention to the teaching and learning of science in our schools. Therefore recommended the development that emphasizes should be on the teaching and learning of science base subjects in the school.

Keywords: education, science, technology and national development, challenges

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3238 Bridging the Gap: Theoretical Challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies and the Language Industry

Authors: Alvaro Marin

Abstract:

This paper explores the challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS) conceptual development to accommodate professionals’ perceptions in the language industry into CTS established theoretical apparatus, empirical research projects, and university pedagogical proposals. A comparative conceptual assessment framework is developed from a pluralist epistemological stance that promotes interdisciplinary explorations of the translation process. The framework is used to review key notions such as expertise or feedback, as understood by language industry stakeholders. This review is followed by an analysis of how these notions can enrich research constructs to be applied in empirical investigations of translators’ cognitive processes from an embedded, situated cognition perspective. Thus, it will be proposed to apply the conceptual assessment framework as an effort towards strengthening the interpretative research tools and bridging the gap between industry and academia. The conclusions of this analysis will serve as a basis to further discuss how professional practices, combined with our current knowledge about expertise development in cognitive science and Expertise Studies, can enhance the learning experience of university translation students and help them better understand the processes and requirements of professional cross-linguistic mediation.

Keywords: language industry, cognitive translation studies, translation cognitive theory, translation teaching

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3237 A Reading Attempt of the Urban Memory of Jordan University of Science and Technology Campus by Cognitive Mapping

Authors: Bsma Adel Bany Mohammad

Abstract:

The University campuses are a small city containing basic city functions such as educational spaces, accommodations, services and transportation. They are spaces of functional and social life with different activities, different occupants. The campus designed and transformed like cities so both experienced and memorized in same way. Campus memory is the ability of individuals to maintain and reveal the spatial components of designed physical spaces, which form the understandings, experiences, sensations of the environment in all. ‘Cognitive mapping’ is used to decode the physical interaction and emotional relationship between individuals and the city; Cognitive maps are created graphically using geometric and verbal elements on paper by remembering the images of the Urban Environment. In this study, to determine the emotional urban identity belonging to Jordan University of science and technology Campus, architecture students Asked to identify the areas they interact with in the campus by drawing a cognitive map. ‘Campus memory items’ are identified by analyzing the cognitive maps of the campus, then the spatial identity result of such data. The analysis based on the five basic elements of Lynch: paths, districts, edges, nodes, and landmarks. As a result of this analysis, it found that Spatial Identity constructed by the shared elements of the maps. The memory of most students listed the gates structure- which is a large desirable structure, located at the main entrances within the campus defined as major landmarks, then the square spaces defined as nodes, in addition to both stairs and corridors defined as paths. Finally, the districts, edges of educational buildings and service spaces are listed correspondingly in cognitive maps. Findings suggest that the spatial identity of the campus design is related mainly to the gates structures, squares and stairs.

Keywords: cognitive maps, university campus, urban memory, identity

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3236 Assumption of Cognitive Goals in Science Learning

Authors: Mihail Calalb

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to identify ways for achieving sustainable conceptual understanding within science lessons. For this purpose, a set of teaching and learning strategies, parts of the theory of visible teaching and learning (VTL), is studied. As a result, a new didactic approach named "learning by being" is proposed and its correlation with educational paradigms existing nowadays in science teaching domain is analysed. In the context of VTL the author describes the main strategies of "learning by being" such as guided self-scaffolding, structuring of information, and recurrent use of previous knowledge or help seeking. Due to the synergy effect of these learning strategies applied simultaneously in class, the impact factor of learning by being on cognitive achievement of students is up to 93 % (the benchmark level is equal to 40% when an experienced teacher applies permanently the same conventional strategy during two academic years). The key idea in "learning by being" is the assumption by the student of cognitive goals. From this perspective, the article discusses the role of student’s personal learning effort within several teaching strategies employed in VTL. The research results emphasize that three mandatory student – related moments are present in each constructivist teaching approach: a) students’ personal learning effort, b) student – teacher mutual feedback and c) metacognition. Thus, a successful educational strategy will target to achieve an involvement degree of students into the class process as high as possible in order to make them not only know the learning objectives but also to assume them. In this way, we come to the ownership of cognitive goals or students’ deep intrinsic motivation. A series of approaches are inherent to the students’ ownership of cognitive goals: independent research (with an impact factor on cognitive achievement equal to 83% according to the results of VTL); knowledge of success criteria (impact factor – 113%); ability to reveal similarities and patterns (impact factor – 132%). Although it is generally accepted that the school is a public service, nonetheless it does not belong to entertainment industry and in most of cases the education declared as student – centered actually hides the central role of the teacher. Even if there is a proliferation of constructivist concepts, mainly at the level of science education research, we have to underline that conventional or frontal teaching, would never disappear. Research results show that no modern method can replace an experienced teacher with strong pedagogical content knowledge. Such a teacher will inspire and motivate his/her students to love and learn physics. The teacher is precisely the condensation point for an efficient didactic strategy – be it constructivist or conventional. In this way, we could speak about "hybridized teaching" where both the student and the teacher have their share of responsibility. In conclusion, the core of "learning by being" approach is guided learning effort that corresponds to the notion of teacher–student harmonic oscillator, when both things – guidance from teacher and student’s effort – are equally important.

Keywords: conceptual understanding, learning by being, ownership of cognitive goals, science learning

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3235 Atwood's Canadianisms and Neologisms: A Cognitive Approach to Literature

Authors: Eleonora Sasso

Abstract:

This paper takes as its starting point the notions of cognitive linguistics and lexical blending, and uses both these theoretical concepts to advance a new reading of Margaret Atwood’s latest writings, one which sees them as paramount literary examples of norm and usage in bilingual Canadian lexicography. Atwood’s prose seems to be imbued with Canadianisms and neologisms, lexical blends of zoomorphic forms, a kind of meeting-point between two conceptual structures which follow the principles of lexical economy and asyntactic relation. Atwood’s neologisms also attest to the undeniable impact on language exerted by Canada’s aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to track through these references and with the aid of the Eskimo-English dictionary look at the linguistic issues – attitudes to contaminations and hybridisations, questions of lexical blending in literary examples, etc – which they raise. Atwood’s fiction, whose cognitive linguistic strategy employs ‘the virtues of scissors and matches’, always strives to achieve isomorphism between word form and concept.

Keywords: Atwood, Canadianisms, cognitive science, Eskimo/English dictionary

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3234 Association Between Swallowing Disorders and Cognitive Disorders in Adults: Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

Authors: Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani, Afsaneh Doosti, Morteza Zare

Abstract:

Background: There is no consensus regarding the association between dysphagia and cognition. Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the available evidence on the direction and strength of association between dysphagia and cognition. Methodology: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science were searched about the association between dysphagia and cognition. A random-effects model was used to determine weighted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of each individual study on the pooled results. Results: A total of 1427 participants showed that some cognitive disorders were significantly associated with dysphagia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 2.33–4.48). Conclusion: The association between cognition and swallowing disorders suggests that multiple neuroanatomical systems are involved in these two functions.

Keywords: adult, association, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, systematic review

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3233 Cognitive Model of Analogy Based on Operation of the Brain Cells: Glial, Axons and Neurons

Authors: Ozgu Hafizoglu

Abstract:

Analogy is an essential tool of human cognition that enables connecting diffuse and diverse systems with attributional, deep structural, casual relations that are essential to learning, to innovation in artificial worlds, and to discovery in science. Cognitive Model of Analogy (CMA) leads and creates information pattern transfer within and between domains and disciplines in science. This paper demonstrates the Cognitive Model of Analogy (CMA) as an evolutionary approach to scientific research. The model puts forward the challenges of deep uncertainty about the future, emphasizing the need for flexibility of the system in order to enable reasoning methodology to adapt to changing conditions. In this paper, the model of analogical reasoning is created based on brain cells, their fractal, and operational forms within the system itself. Visualization techniques are used to show correspondences. Distinct phases of the problem-solving processes are divided thusly: encoding, mapping, inference, and response. The system is revealed relevant to brain activation considering each of these phases with an emphasis on achieving a better visualization of the brain cells: glial cells, axons, axon terminals, and neurons, relative to matching conditions of analogical reasoning and relational information. It’s found that encoding, mapping, inference, and response processes in four-term analogical reasoning are corresponding with the fractal and operational forms of brain cells: glial, axons, and neurons.

Keywords: analogy, analogical reasoning, cognitive model, brain and glials

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3232 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje

Abstract:

Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: acquisition, education, self-dependence, science, technology

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3231 Supernatural Beliefs Impact Pattern Perception

Authors: Silvia Boschetti, Jakub Binter, Robin Kopecký, Lenka PříPlatová, Jaroslav Flegr

Abstract:

A strict dichotomy was present between religion and science, but recently, cognitive science focusses on the impact of supernatural beliefs on cognitive processes such as pattern recognition. It has been hypothesized that cognitive and perceptual processes have been under evolutionary pressures that ensured amplified perception of patterns, especially when in stressful and harsh conditions. The pattern detection in religious and non-religious individuals after induction of negative, anxious mood shall constitute a cornerstone of the general role of anxiety, cognitive bias, leading towards or against the by-product hypothesis, one of the main theories on the evolutionary studies of religion. The apophenia (tendencies to perceive connection and meaning on unrelated events) and perception of visual patterns (or pateidolia) are of utmost interest. To capture the impact of culture and upbringing, a comparative study of two European countries, the Czech Republic (low organized religion participation, high esoteric belief) and Italy (high organized religion participation, low esoteric belief), are currently in the data collection phase. Outcomes will be presented at the conference. A battery of standardized questionnaires followed by pattern recognition tasks (the patterns involve color, shape, and are of artificial and natural origin) using an experimental method involving the conditioning of (controlled, laboratory-induced) stress is taking place. We hypothesize to find a difference between organized religious belief and personal (esoteric) belief that will be alike in both of the cultural environments.

Keywords: culture, esoteric belief, pattern perception, religiosity

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3230 Cognitive Based Approach to Organizational Development

Authors: Tatiana V. Korsakova

Abstract:

The cognitive methodology in management is considered: Cognitive structuring - the formation of ideas about the functioning of a developing organization; Cognitive modeling - heuristic construction of existing actions (zone of successful actions); and Cognitive construct - the formation of filters for converting external information into specific events of managerial reality. The major findings of the study are the identification of areas of successful actions in the organization, harmonization of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of company management, and the frame-description that indicates the connection of environmental elements with the elements of the organization. It is stated the development of specific events of managerial reality in the direction of the further development of the organization depends on the personal cognitive construct of the development-subjects when it is used in the zone of successful actions.

Keywords: cognitive construct, focus of applicability, knowledge corporate culture, zones of successful actions

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3229 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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3228 Differences in Cognitive Functioning over the Course of Chemotherapy in Patients Suffering from Multiple Myeloma and the Possibility to Predict Their Cognitive State on the Basis of Biological Factors

Authors: Magdalena Bury-Kaminska, Aneta Szudy-Szczyrek, Aleksandra Nowaczynska, Olga Jankowska-Lecka, Marek Hus, Klaudia Kot

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of the research was to determine the changes in cognitive functioning in patients with plasma cell myeloma by comparing patients’ state before the treatment and during chemotherapy as well as to determine the biological factors that can be used to predict patients’ cognitive state. Methods: The patients underwent the research procedure twice: before chemotherapy and after 4-6 treatment cycles. A psychological test and measurement of the following biological variables were carried out: TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-10 (interleukin 10), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). The following research methods were implemented: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Battery of Tests for Assessing Cognitive Functions PU1, experimental and clinical trials based on the Choynowski’s Memory Scale, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), depression measurement questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the research showed better cognitive functions of patients during chemotherapy in comparison to the phase before it. Moreover, neurotrophin BDNF allows to predict the level of selected cognitive functions (semantic fluency and execution control) already at the diagnosis stage. After 4-6 cycles, it is also possible to draw conclusions concerning the extent of working memory based on the level of BDNF. Cytokine TNF-α allows us to predict the level of letter fluency during anti-cancer treatment. Conclusions: It is possible to presume that BDNF has a protective influence on patients’ cognitive functions and working memory and that cytokine TNF-α co-occurs with a diminished execution control and better material grouping in terms of phonological fluency. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the National Science Center in Poland [grant no. 2017/27/N/HS6/02057.

Keywords: chemobrain, cognitive impairment, non−central nervous system cancers, hematologic diseases

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3227 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

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3226 Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation

Authors: Fariea Bakul, Chhanda Karmaker

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.

Keywords: cognitive emotion regulation, parental bonding, parental care, parental over-protection

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3225 Prevalence of Cognitive Decline in Major Depressive Illness

Authors: U. B. Zubair, A. Kiyani

Abstract:

Introduction: Depressive illness predispose individuals to a lot of physical and mental health issues. Anxiety and substance use disorders have been studied widely as comorbidity. Biological symptoms also now considered part of the depressive spectrum. Cognitive abilities also decline or get affected and need to be looked into in detail in depressed patients. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cognitive decline among patients with major depressive illness and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Methods: 190 patients of major depressive illness were included in our study to determine the presence of cognitive decline among them. Depression was diagnosed by a consultant psychiatrist by using the ICD-10 criteria for major depressive disorder. British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI) was the psychometric tool used to determine the cognitive decline. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and the relationship of various factors with cognitive decline was also ascertained. Findings: 70% of the patients suffering from depression included in this study showed the presence of some degree of cognitive decline, while 30% did not show any evidence of cognitive decline when screened through BCCCI. Statistical testing revealed that the female gender was the only socio-demographic parameter linked significantly with the presence of cognitive decline. Conclusion: Decline in cognitive abilities was found in a significant number of patients suffering from major depression in our sample population. Screening for this parameter f mental function should be done in depression clinics to pick it early.

Keywords: depression, cognitive decline, prevalence, socio-demographic factors

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3224 Applying Cognitive Psychology to Education: Translational Educational Science

Authors: Hammache Nadir

Abstract:

The scientific study of human learning and memory is now more than 125 years old. Psychologists have conducted thousands of experiments, correlational analyses, and field studies during this time, in addition to other research conducted by those from neighboring fields. A huge knowledge base has been carefully built up over the decades. Given this backdrop, we may ask ourselves: What great changes in education have resulted from this huge research base? How has the scientific study of learning and memory changed practices in education from those of, say, a century ago? Have we succeeded in building a translational educational science to rival medical science (in which biological knowledge is translated into medical practice) or types of engineering (in which, e.g., basic knowledge in chemistry is translated into products through chemical engineering)? The answer, I am afraid, is rather mixed. Psychologists and psychological research have influenced educational practice, but in fits and starts. After all, some of the great founders of American psychology—William James, Edward L. Thorndike, John Dewey, and others—are also revered as important figures in the history of education. And some psychological research and ideas have made their way into education—for instance, computer-based cognitive tutors for some specific topics have been developed in recent years—and in years past, such practices as teaching machines, programmed learning, and, in higher education, the Keller Plan were all important. These older practices have not been sustained. Was that because they failed or because of a lack of systematic research showing they were effective? At any rate, in 2012, we cannot point to a well-developed translational educational science in which research about learning and memory, thinking and reasoning, and related topics is moved from the lab into controlled field trials (like clinical trials in medicine) and the tested techniques, if they succeed, are introduced into broad educational practice. We are just not there yet, and one question that arises is how we could achieve a translational educational science.

Keywords: affective, education, cognition, pshychology

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3223 Effectiveness of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Improving Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rehabilitation

Authors: Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Azadeh Bashiri

Abstract:

Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in early childhood that in addition to its main symptoms provide significant deficits in the areas of educational, social and individual relationship. Considering the importance of rehabilitation in ADHD patients to control these problems, this study investigated the advantages of computer-based cognitive training in these patients. Methods: This review article has been conducted by searching articles since 2005 in scientific databases and e-Journals and by using keywords including computerized cognitive rehabilitation, computer-based training and ADHD. Results: Since drugs have short term effects and also they have many side effects in the rehabilitation of ADHD patients, using supplementary methods such as computer-based cognitive training is one of the best solutions. This approach has quick feedback and also has no side effects. So, it provides promising results in cognitive rehabilitation of ADHD especially on the working memory and attention. Conclusion: Considering different cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD patients, application of the computerized cognitive training has the potential to improve cognitive functions and consequently social, academic and behavioral performances in patients with this disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, computer-based cognitive training, cognitive functions, rehabilitation

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