Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1570

Search results for: cognitive linguistics

1570 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image

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1569 Contextual Senses of Ambiguous Words Based on Cognitive Semantics

Authors: Madhavi

Abstract:

All linguistic units are context-dependent. They occur in particular settings, from which they derive much of their import, and are recognized by speakers as distinct entities only through a process of abstraction. Most of the words have several concepts associated with them and convey a number of meanings in different contexts in any language. For instance, there are different uses of the word good as an adjective from English. The adjective good expresses many senses like (1) ‘high quality of someone or something’ (2) ‘efficient’ (3) ‘virtuous’ (4) ‘reliable’ etc. These senses will be analyzed by using cognitive semantics framework. The context has the power to insulate one meaning from all the other meanings in communication. This paper will provide a cognitive semantic analysis. The basic tenet of cognitive semantics is the sense of a word is the way we conceptualize it. Our conceptualization is based on the physical experience we go through. Cognitive semantics tries to capture this conceptualization in terms of some categories like schema, frame, and domain. Cognitive semantics is a subfield of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics studies the language creation, learning, and usage by the reference to human cognition. The semantic structure is conceptual structure which is related to the concepts which are the elements of reason and constitute the meanings of words and linguistic expressions. Cognitive semantics studies how our mind works for the meaning of any word and how it perceives meaning from the environment through senses and works to map with the knowledge which already exists in our mind through experience. In the present paper, the senses are further classified into some categories.

Keywords: cognitive, contexts, semantics, senses

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1568 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

Abstract:

This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Arabic language, applied linguistics, socio-linguistics, modern communications

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1567 Learner's Difficulties Acquiring English: The Case of Native Speakers of Rio de La Plata Spanish Towards Justifying the Need for Corpora

Authors: Maria Zinnia Bardas Hoffmann

Abstract:

Contrastive Analysis (CA) is the systematic comparison between two languages. It stems from the notion that errors are caused by interference of the L1 system in the acquisition process of an L2. CA represents a useful tool to understand the nature of learning and acquisition. Also, this particular method promises a path to un-derstand the nature of underlying cognitive processes, even when other factors such as intrinsic motivation and teaching strategies were found to best explain student’s problems in acquisition. CA study is justified not only from the need to get a deeper understanding of the nature of SLA, but as an invaluable source to provide clues, at a cognitive level, for those general processes involved in rule formation and abstract thought. It is relevant for cross disciplinary studies and the fields of Computational Thought, Natural Language processing, Applied Linguistics, Cognitive Linguistics and Math Theory. That being said, this paper intends to address here as well its own set of constraints and limitations. Finally, this paper: (a) aims at identifying some of the difficulties students may find in their learning process due to the nature of their specific variety of L1, Rio de la Plata Spanish (RPS), (b) represents an attempt to discuss the necessity for specific models to approach CA.

Keywords: second language acquisition, applied linguistics, contrastive analysis, applied contrastive analysis English language department, meta-linguistic rules, cross-linguistics studies, computational thought, natural language processing

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1566 Creative Application of Cognitive Linguistics and Communicative Methods to Eliminate Common Learners' Mistakes in Academic Essay Writing

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko

Abstract:

This article sums up a six-year experience of teaching English as a foreign language to over 900 university students at MGIMO (Moscow University of International Relations, Russia), all of them native speakers of Russian aged 16 to 23. By combining modern communicative approach to teaching with cognitive linguistics theories, one can deal more effectively with deeply rooted mistakes which particular students have of which conventional methods have failed to eliminate. If language items are understood as concepts and frames, and classroom activities as meaningful parts of language competence development, this might help to solve such problems as incorrect use of words, unsuitable register, and confused tenses - as well as logical or structural mistakes, and even certain psychological issues concerning essay writing. Along with classic teaching methods, such classroom practice includes plenty of interaction between students - playing special classroom games aimed at eliminating particular mistakes, working in pairs and groups, integrating all skills in one class. The main conclusions that the author of the experiment makes consist in an assumption that academic essay writing classes demand a balanced plan. This should not only include writing as such, but additionally feature elements of listening, reading, speaking activities specifically chosen according to the skills and language students will need to write the particular type of essay.

Keywords: academic essay writing, creative teaching, cognitive linguistics, competency-based approach, communicative language teaching, frame, concept

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1565 Investigating the Associative Network of Color Terms among Turkish University Students: A Cognitive-Based Study

Authors: R. Güçlü, E. Küçüksakarya

Abstract:

Word association (WA) gives the broadest information on how knowledge is structured in the human mind. Cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and applied linguistics are the disciplines that consider WA tests as substantial in gaining insights into the very nature of the human cognitive system and semantic knowledge. In this study, Berlin and Kay’s basic 11 color terms (1969) are presented as the stimuli words to a total number of 300 Turkish university students. The responses are analyzed according to Fitzpatrick’s model (2007), including four categories, namely meaning-based responses, position-based responses, form-based responses, and erratic responses. In line with the findings, the responses to free association tests are expected to give much information about Turkish university students’ psychological structuring of vocabulary, especially morpho-syntactic and semantic relationships among words. To conclude, theoretical and practical implications are discussed to make an in-depth evaluation of how associations of basic color terms are represented in the mental lexicon of Turkish university students.

Keywords: color term, gender, mental lexicon, word association task

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1564 Modeling False Statements in Texts

Authors: Francielle A. Vargas, Thiago A. S. Pardo

Abstract:

According to the standard philosophical definition, lying is saying something that you believe to be false with the intent to deceive. For deception detection, the FBI trains its agents in a technique named statement analysis, which attempts to detect deception based on parts of speech (i.e., linguistics style). This method is employed in interrogations, where the suspects are first asked to make a written statement. In this poster, we model false statements using linguistics style. In order to achieve this, we methodically analyze linguistic features in a corpus of fake news in the Portuguese language. The results show that they present substantial lexical, syntactic and semantic variations, as well as punctuation and emotion distinctions.

Keywords: deception detection, linguistics style, computational linguistics, natural language processing

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1563 A Comparative Analysis of Body Idioms in Two Romance Languages and in English Aiming at Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino

Abstract:

Before the advent of Cognitive Linguistics, metaphor was considered a stylistic issue, but now it is viewed as a critical component of everyday language and a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. It means that human beings' conceptual system (the way we think and act) is metaphorical in nature. Another interesting hypothesis in Cognitive Linguistics is that cognition is embodied, that is, our cognition is influenced by our experiences in the physical world: the mind is connected to the body and the body influences the mind. In this sense, it is believed that many conceptual metaphors appear to be potentially universal or near-universal, because people across the world share certain bodily experiences. In these terms, many metaphors may be identical or very similar in several languages. Thus, in this study, we analyzed some somatic (also called body) idioms of Italian and Portuguese languages, in order to investigate the proportion in which their metaphors are the same, similar or different in both languages. It was selected hundreds of Italian idioms in dictionaries and indicated their corresponding idioms in Portuguese. The analysis allowed to conclude that much of the studied expressions are really structurally, semantically and metaphorically identical or similar in both languages. We also contrasted some Portuguese and Italian somatic expressions to their corresponding English idioms to have a multilingual perspective of the issue, and it also led to the conclusion that the most common idioms based on metaphors are probably those that have to do with the human body. Although this is mere speculation and needs more study, the results found incite relevant discussions on issues that matter Foreign and Second Language Teaching and Learning, including the retention of vocabulary. The teaching of the metaphorically different body idioms also plays an important role in language learning and teaching as it will be shown in this paper. Acknowledgments: FAPESP – São Paulo State Research Support Foundation –the financial support offered (proc. n° 2017/02064-7).

Keywords: body idioms, cognitive linguistics, metaphor, vocabulary teaching and learning

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1562 Atwood's Canadianisms and Neologisms: A Cognitive Approach to Literature

Authors: Eleonora Sasso

Abstract:

This paper takes as its starting point the notions of cognitive linguistics and lexical blending, and uses both these theoretical concepts to advance a new reading of Margaret Atwood’s latest writings, one which sees them as paramount literary examples of norm and usage in bilingual Canadian lexicography. Atwood’s prose seems to be imbued with Canadianisms and neologisms, lexical blends of zoomorphic forms, a kind of meeting-point between two conceptual structures which follow the principles of lexical economy and asyntactic relation. Atwood’s neologisms also attest to the undeniable impact on language exerted by Canada’s aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to track through these references and with the aid of the Eskimo-English dictionary look at the linguistic issues – attitudes to contaminations and hybridisations, questions of lexical blending in literary examples, etc – which they raise. Atwood’s fiction, whose cognitive linguistic strategy employs ‘the virtues of scissors and matches’, always strives to achieve isomorphism between word form and concept.

Keywords: Atwood, Canadianisms, cognitive science, Eskimo/English dictionary

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1561 The Application of Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching EFL Students to Understand Spoken Coinages: Based on an Experiment with Speakers of Russian

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko

Abstract:

The present article addresses the nuances of teaching English vocabulary to Russian-speaking students. The experiment involving 39 participants aged 17 to 21 proves that the key to understanding spoken coinages is not only the knowledge of their constituents, but rather the understanding of the context and co-text. The volunteers who took part knew the constituents, but did not know the meaning of the words. The assumption of the authors consists in the fact that the structure of the concept has a direct relation with the form of the particular vocabulary unit, but its form is secondary to its meaning, if the word is a spoken coinage, which is partly proved by the fact that in modern slang words have multiple meanings, as well as one notion can have various embodiments that have virtually nothing in common. The choice of vocabulary items that youngsters use is not exactly arbitrary, but, even if complex nominals are taken into consideration, whose meaning seems clear, as it looks like a sum of their constituents’ meanings, they are still impossible to understand without any context or co-text, as a lot of them are idiomatic, non-transparent. It is further explained what methods might be effective in teaching students how to deal with new words they encounter in real-life situations and how student’s knowledge of vocabulary might be enhanced.

Keywords: spoken language, cognitive linguistics, complex nominals, nominals with the incorporated object, concept, EFL, communicative language teaching

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1560 The Emotional Implication of the Phraseological Fund Applied in Cognitive Business Negotiation

Authors: Kristine Dzagnidze

Abstract:

The paper equally centers on both the structural and cognitive linguistics in light of phraseologism and its emotional implication. Accordingly, the methods elaborated within the framework of both the systematic-structural and linguo-cognitive theories are identically relevant to the research of mine. In other words, through studying the negotiation process, our attention is drawn upon defining negotiations’ peculiarities, emotion, style and specifics of cognition, motives, aims, contextual characterizations and the quality of cultural context and integration. Besides, the totality of the concepts and methods is also referred to, which is connected with the stage of the development of the emotional linguistic thinking. The latter contextually correlates with the dominance of anthropocentric–communicative paradigm. The synthesis of structuralistic and cognitive perspectives has turned out to be relevant to our research, carried out in the form of intellectual action, that is, on the one hand, the adequacy of the research purpose to the expected results. On the other hand, the validity of methodology for formulating the objective conclusions needed for emotional connotation beyond phraseologism. The mechanism mentioned does not make a claim about a discovery of a new truth. Though, it gives the possibility of a novel interpretation of the content in existence.

Keywords: cognitivism, communication, implication, negotiation

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1559 Parental Engagement with Their Preschoolers’ Cognitive Development Prior to Their Kindergarten Admission: Sharjah-Based Case Study

Authors: Nada Mohammad Eljeshi

Abstract:

In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), preschoolers can enroll in kindergarten after completing four years old by August 31 of their admission year. This study aims to better understand how Sharjah-based parents’ engagement with preschoolers contributes to their phonological awareness, literacy development, and print knowledge before their kindergarten admission considering cognitive development is addressed in the UAE national child care standards. More specifically, it will discuss the importance of cognitive development activities to preschoolers, the rationale behind defining the admission age to kindergarten and compare and benchmark the policy to other countries. To achieve this study's objectives, an online survey was conducted and distributed. Respondents were asked 13 dichotomous questions related to activities that promote the preschooler’s linguistics literacy and cognitive development. The results suggested parents’ emphasis on phonological awareness, followed by developing their print knowledge. However, the majority of the surveyed parents did not engage in literacy development with their preschoolers. On this basis, it is clear parents’ awareness should occur by introducing various activities such as book reading, that there is a need to introduce and encourage parents to various activities such as reading a printed book and drawings to keep up with their children's cognitive development. The survey results suggested an emphasis on phonological awareness, followed by developing their print knowledge. However, the majority of the surveyed parents did not engage in literacy development with their preschoolers. On this basis, parental awareness of the importance of preschoolers' cognitive development should be developed and engage the parents in understanding their preschooler’s cognitive development before entering kindergarten.

Keywords: preschoolers, cognitive development, parental engagement, Sharjah-based case study

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1558 An International Curriculum Development for Languages and Technology

Authors: Miguel Nino

Abstract:

When considering the challenges of a changing and demanding globalizing world, it is important to reflect on how university students will be prepared for the realities of internationalization, marketization and intercultural conversation. The present study is an interdisciplinary program designed to respond to the needs of the global community. The proposal bridges the humanities and science through three different fields: Languages, graphic design and computer science, specifically, fundamentals of programming such as python, java script and software animation. Therefore, the goal of the four year program is twofold: First, enable students for intercultural communication between English and other languages such as Spanish, Mandarin, French or German. Second, students will acquire knowledge in practical software and relevant employable skills to collaborate in assisted computer projects that most probable will require essential programing background in interpreted or compiled languages. In order to become inclusive and constructivist, the cognitive linguistics approach is suggested for the three different fields, particularly for languages that rely on the traditional method of repetition. This methodology will help students develop their creativity and encourage them to become independent problem solving individuals, as languages enhance their common ground of interaction for culture and technology. Participants in this course of study will be evaluated in their second language acquisition at the Intermediate-High level. For graphic design and computer science students will apply their creative digital skills, as well as their critical thinking skills learned from the cognitive linguistics approach, to collaborate on a group project design to find solutions for media web design problems or marketing experimentation for a company or the community. It is understood that it will be necessary to apply programming knowledge and skills to deliver the final product. In conclusion, the program equips students with linguistics knowledge and skills to be competent in intercultural communication, where English, the lingua franca, remains the medium for marketing and product delivery. In addition to their employability, students can expand their knowledge and skills in digital humanities, computational linguistics, or increase their portfolio in advertising and marketing. These students will be the global human capital for the competitive globalizing community.

Keywords: curriculum, international, languages, technology

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1557 Vector-Based Analysis in Cognitive Linguistics

Authors: Chuluundorj Begz

Abstract:

This paper presents the dynamic, psycho-cognitive approach to study of human verbal thinking on the basis of typologically different languages /as a Mongolian, English and Russian/. Topological equivalence in verbal communication serves as a basis of Universality of mental structures and therefore deep structures. Mechanism of verbal thinking consisted at the deep level of basic concepts, rules for integration and classification, neural networks of vocabulary. In neuro cognitive study of language, neural architecture and neuro psychological mechanism of verbal cognition are basis of a vector-based modeling. Verbal perception and interpretation of the infinite set of meanings and propositions in mental continuum can be modeled by applying tensor methods. Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces are applied for a description of human semantic vocabulary and high order structures.

Keywords: Euclidean spaces, isomorphism and homomorphism, mental lexicon, mental mapping, semantic memory, verbal cognition, vector space

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1556 The Cognitive Perspective on Arabic Spatial Preposition ‘Ala

Authors: Zaqiatul Mardiah, Afdol Tharik Wastono, Abdul Muta'ali

Abstract:

In general, the Arabic preposition ‘ala encodes the sense of UP-DOWN schema. However, the use of the preposition ‘ala can has many extended schemas that still have relation to its primary sense. In this paper, we show how the framework of cognitive linguistics (CL) based on image schemas can be applied to analyze the spatial semantic of the use of preposition ‘ala in the horizontal and vertical axes. The preposition ‘ala is usually used in the locative sense in which one physical entity is UP-DOWN relation to another physical entity. In spite of that, the cognitive analysis of ‘ala justifies the use of this preposition in many situations to seemingly encode non-up down-related spatial relations, and non-physical relation. This uncovers some of the unsolved issues concerning prepositions in general and the Arabic prepositions in particular the use of ‘ala as a sample. Using the Arabic corpus data, we reveal that in many cases and situations, the use of ‘ala is extended to depict relations other than the ones where the Trajector (TR) is actually in up-down relation to the Landmark (LM). The instances analyzed in this paper show that ‘ala encodes not only the spatial relations in which the TR and the LM are horizontally or vertically related to each other, but also non-spatial relations.

Keywords: image schema, preposition, spatial semantic, up-down relation

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1555 Morphological Analysis of Manipuri Language: Wahei-Neinarol

Authors: Y. Bablu Singh, B. S. Purkayashtha, Chungkham Yashawanta Singh

Abstract:

Morphological analysis forms the basic foundation in NLP applications including syntax parsing Machine Translation (MT), Information Retrieval (IR) and automatic indexing in all languages. It is the field of the linguistics; it can provide valuable information for computer based linguistics task such as lemmatization and studies of internal structure of the words. Computational Morphology is the application of morphological rules in the field of computational linguistics, and it is the emerging area in AI, which studies the structure of words, which are formed by combining smaller units of linguistics information, called morphemes: the building blocks of words. Morphological analysis provides about semantic and syntactic role in a sentence. It analyzes the Manipuri word forms and produces several grammatical information associated with the words. The Morphological Analyzer for Manipuri has been tested on 3500 Manipuri words in Shakti Standard format (SSF) using Meitei Mayek as source; thereby an accuracy of 80% has been obtained on a manual check.

Keywords: morphological analysis, machine translation, computational morphology, information retrieval, SSF

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1554 Contrastive Linguistics as a Way to Improve Translation Equivalence in Interlingual Lexicography: The Case of Verbs

Authors: R. A. S. Zacarias

Abstract:

Interlingual is one of the most complex, and engaging one among the several perspectives in lexicography. This is because it involves contacts and contrasts between two or more languages. Considering the fact that translation equivalence goes beyond a mere fixed relation of correspondence, understanding the differences and similarities between linguistic categories by pairs of languages is the basis for effective translations. One of the theoretical approaches that have proved useful in finding improved solutions for enhance translation equivalents for bilingual dictionaries is contrastive linguistics. This paper presents an applied qualitative research based on exploratory and descriptive approaches. This is achieved through an error analysis of students’ errors as well as by a contrastive analysis of Portuguese and English verb systems.

Keywords: bilingual lexicography, contrastive linguistics, translation equivalent, Portuguese-English

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1553 Synaesthetic Metaphors in Persian: a Cognitive Corpus Based and Comparative Perspective

Authors: A. Afrashi

Abstract:

Introduction: Synaesthesia is a term denoting the perception or description of the perception of one sense modality in terms of another. In literature, synaesthesia refers to a technique adopted by writers to present ideas, characters or places in such a manner that they appeal to more than one sense like hearing, seeing, smell etc. at a given time. In everyday language too we find many examples of synaesthesia. We commonly hear phrases like ‘loud colors’, ‘frozen silence’ and ‘warm colors’, ‘bitter cold’ etc. Empirical cognitive studies have proved that synaesthetic representations both in literature and everyday languages are constrained ie. they do not map randomly among sensory domains. From the beginning of the 20th century Synaesthesia has been a research domain both in literature and structural linguistics. However the exploration of cognitive mechanisms motivating synaesthesia, have made it an important topic in 21st century cognitive linguistics and literary studies. Synaesthetic metaphors are linguistic representations of those mental mechanisms, the study of which reveals invaluable facts about perception, cognition and conceptualization. According to the main tenets of cognitive approach to language and literature, unified and similar cognitive mechanisms are active both in everyday language and literature, and synaesthesia is one of those cognitive mechanisms. Main objective of the present research is to answer the following questions: What types of sense transfers are accessible in Persian synaesthetic metaphors. How are these types of sense transfers cognitively explained. What are the results of cross-linguistic comparative study of synaestetic metaphors based on the existing observations? Methodology: The present research employs a cognitive - corpus based method, and the theoretical framework adopted to analyze linguistic synaesthesia is the contemporary theory of metaphor, where conceptual metaphor is the result of systemic mappings across cognitive domains. Persian Language Data- base (PLDB) in the Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies which consists mainly of Persian modern prose, is searched for synaesthetic metaphors. Then for each metaphorical structure, the source and target domains are determined. Then sense transfers are identified and the types of synaesthetic metaphors recognized. Findings: Persian synaesthetic metaphors conform to the hierarchical distribution principle, according to which transfers tend to go from touch to taste to smell to sound and to sight, not vice versa. In other words mapping from more accessible or basic concepts onto less accessible or less basic ones seems more natural. Furthermore the most frequent target domain in Persian synaesthetic metaphors is sound. Certain characteristics of Persian synaesthetic metaphors are comparable with existing related researches carried on English, French, Hungarian and Chinese synaesthetic metaphors. Conclusion: Cognitive corpus based approaches to linguistic synaesthesia, are applicable to stylistics and literary criticism and this recent research domain is an efficient approach to study cross linguistic variations to find out which of the five senses is dominant cross linguistically and cross culturally as the target domain in metaphorical mappings , and so forth receiving dominance in conceptualizations.

Keywords: cognitive semantics, conceptual metaphor, synaesthesia, corpus based approach

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1552 A Cognitive Semantic Analysis of the Metaphorical Extensions of Come out and Take Over

Authors: Raquel Rossini, Edelvais Caldeira

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The aim of this work is to investigate the motivation for the metaphorical uses of two verb combinations: come out and take over. Drawing from cognitive semantics theories, image schemas and metaphors, it was attempted to demonstrate that: a) the metaphorical senses of both 'come out' and 'take over' extend from both the verbs and the particles central (spatial) senses in such verb combinations; and b) the particles 'out' and 'over' also contribute to the whole meaning of the verb combinations. In order to do so, a random selection of 579 concordance lines for come out and 1,412 for take over was obtained from the Corpus of Contemporary American English – COCA. One of the main procedures adopted in the present work was the establishment of verb and particle central senses. As per the research questions addressed in this study, they are as follows: a) how does the identification of trajector and landmark help reveal patterns that contribute for the identification of the semantic network of these two verb combinations?; b) what is the relationship between the schematic structures attributed to the particles and the metaphorical uses found in empirical data?; and c) what conceptual metaphors underlie the mappings from the source to the target domains? The results demonstrated that not only the lexical verbs come and take, but also the particles out and over play an important whole in the different meanings of come out and take over. Besides, image schemas and conceptual metaphors were found to be helpful in order to establish the motivations for the metaphorical uses of these linguistic structures.

Keywords: cognitive linguistics, English syntax, multi-word verbs, prepositions

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1551 Discourse Analysis: Where Cognition Meets Communication

Authors: Iryna Biskub

Abstract:

The interdisciplinary approach to modern linguistic studies is exemplified by the merge of various research methods, which sometimes causes complications related to the verification of the research results. This methodological confusion can be resolved by means of creating new techniques of linguistic analysis combining several scientific paradigms. Modern linguistics has developed really productive and efficient methods for the investigation of cognitive and communicative phenomena of which language is the central issue. In the field of discourse studies, one of the best examples of research methods is the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA can be viewed both as a method of investigation, as well as a critical multidisciplinary perspective. In CDA the position of the scholar is crucial from the point of view exemplifying his or her social and political convictions. The generally accepted approach to obtaining scientifically reliable results is to use a special well-defined scientific method for researching special types of language phenomena: cognitive methods applied to the exploration of cognitive aspects of language, whereas communicative methods are thought to be relevant only for the investigation of communicative nature of language. In the recent decades discourse as a sociocultural phenomenon has been the focus of careful linguistic research. The very concept of discourse represents an integral unity of cognitive and communicative aspects of human verbal activity. Since a human being is never able to discriminate between cognitive and communicative planes of discourse communication, it doesn’t make much sense to apply cognitive and communicative methods of research taken in isolation. It is possible to modify the classical CDA procedure by means of mapping human cognitive procedures onto the strategic communicative planning of discourse communication. The analysis of the electronic petition 'Block Donald J Trump from UK entry. The signatories believe Donald J Trump should be banned from UK entry' (584, 459 signatures) and the parliamentary debates on it has demonstrated the ability to map cognitive and communicative levels in the following way: the strategy of discourse modeling (communicative level) overlaps with the extraction of semantic macrostructures (cognitive level); the strategy of discourse management overlaps with the analysis of local meanings in discourse communication; the strategy of cognitive monitoring of the discourse overlaps with the formation of attitudes and ideologies at the cognitive level. Thus, the experimental data have shown that it is possible to develop a new complex methodology of discourse analysis, where cognition would meet communication, both metaphorically and literally. The same approach may appear to be productive for the creation of computational models of human-computer interaction, where the automatic generation of a particular type of a discourse could be based on the rules of strategic planning involving cognitive models of CDA.

Keywords: cognition, communication, discourse, strategy

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1550 New Ways of Vocabulary Enlargement

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

Lexical invariants, being a sort of stereotypes within the frames of ordinary consciousness, are created by the members of a language community as a result of uniform division of reality. The invariant meaning is formed in person’s mind gradually in the course of different actualizations of secondary meanings in various contexts. We understand lexical the invariant as abstract language essence containing a set of semantic components. In one of its configurations it is the basis or all or a number of the meanings making up the semantic structure of the word.

Keywords: lexical invariant, invariant theories, polysemantic word, cognitive linguistics

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1549 Role of Speech Language Pathologists in Vocational Rehabilitation

Authors: Marlyn Mathew

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Communication is the key factor in any vocational /job set-up. However many persons with disabilities suffer a deficit in this very area in terms of comprehension, expression and cognitive skills making it difficult for them to get employed appropriately or stay employed. Vocational Rehabilitation is a continuous and coordinated process which involves the provision of vocational related services designed to enable a person with disability to obtain and maintain employment. Therefore the role of the speech language pathologist is crucial in assessing the communication deficits and needs of the individual at the various phases of employment- right from the time of seeking a job and attending interview with suitable employers and also at regular intervals of the employment. This article discusses the various communication deficits and the obstacles faced by individuals with special needs including but not limited to cognitive- linguistic deficits, execution function deficits, speech and language processing difficulties and strategies that can be introduced in the workplace to overcome these obstacles including use of visual cues, checklists, flow charts. The paper also throws light on the importance of educating colleagues and work partners about the communication difficulties faced by the individual. This would help to reduce the communication barriers in the workplace, help colleagues develop an empathetic approach and also reduce misunderstandings that can arise as a result of the communication impairment.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, disability, speech language pathologist, cognitive, linguistics

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1548 Semantic Preference across Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study of Adjectives in English

Authors: Valdênia Carvalho e Almeida

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The goal of the present study is to investigate the semantic preference of the most frequent adjectives in research articles through a corpus-based analysis of texts published in journals in Applied Linguistics (AL). The corpus used in this study contains texts published in the period from 2014 to 2018 in the three journals: Language Learning and Technology; English for Academic Purposes, and TESOL Quaterly, totaling more than one million words. A corpus-based analysis was carried out on the corpus to identify the most frequent adjectives that co-occurred in the three journals. By observing the concordance lines of the adjectives and analyzing the words they associated with, the semantic preferences of each adjective were determined. Later, the AL corpus analysis was compared to the investigation of the same adjectives in a corpus of Chemistry. This second part of the study aimed to identify possible differences and similarities between the two corpora in relation to the use of the adjectives in research articles from both areas. The results show that there are some preferences which seem to be closely related not only to the academic genre of the texts but also to the specific domain of the discipline and, to a lesser extent, to the context of research in each journal. This research illustrates a possible contribution of Corpus Linguistics to explore the concept of semantic preference in more detail, considering the complex nature of the phenomenon.

Keywords: applied linguistics, corpus linguistics, chemistry, research article, semantic preference

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1547 Cognitive Based Approach to Organizational Development

Authors: Tatiana V. Korsakova

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The cognitive methodology in management is considered: Cognitive structuring - the formation of ideas about the functioning of a developing organization; Cognitive modeling - heuristic construction of existing actions (zone of successful actions); and Cognitive construct - the formation of filters for converting external information into specific events of managerial reality. The major findings of the study are the identification of areas of successful actions in the organization, harmonization of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of company management, and the frame-description that indicates the connection of environmental elements with the elements of the organization. It is stated the development of specific events of managerial reality in the direction of the further development of the organization depends on the personal cognitive construct of the development-subjects when it is used in the zone of successful actions.

Keywords: cognitive construct, focus of applicability, knowledge corporate culture, zones of successful actions

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1546 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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1545 Lithuanian Sign Language Literature: Metaphors at the Phonological Level

Authors: Anželika Teresė

Abstract:

In order to solve issues in sign language linguistics, address matters pertaining to maintaining high quality of sign language (SL) translation, contribute to dispelling misconceptions about SL and deaf people, and raise awareness and understanding of the deaf community heritage, this presentation discusses literature in Lithuanian Sign Language (LSL) and inherent metaphors that are created by using the phonological parameter –handshape, location, movement, palm orientation and nonmanual features. The study covered in this presentation is twofold, involving both the micro-level analysis of metaphors in terms of phonological parameters as a sub-lexical feature and the macro-level analysis of the poetic context. Cognitive theories underlie research of metaphors in sign language literature in a range of SL. The study follows this practice. The presentation covers the qualitative analysis of 34 pieces of LSL literature. The analysis employs ELAN software widely used in SL research. The target is to examine how specific types of each phonological parameter are used for the creation of metaphors in LSL literature and what metaphors are created. The results of the study show that LSL literature employs a range of metaphors created by using classifier signs and by modifying the established signs. The study also reveals that LSL literature tends to create reference metaphors indicating status and power. As the study shows, LSL poets metaphorically encode status by encoding another meaning in the same sign, which results in creating double metaphors. The metaphor of identity has been determined. Notably, the poetic context has revealed that the latter metaphor can also be identified as a metaphor for life. The study goes on to note that deaf poets create metaphors related to the importance of various phenomena significance of the lyrical subject. Notably, the study has allowed detecting locations, nonmanual features and etc., never mentioned in previous SL research as used for the creation of metaphors.

Keywords: Lithuanian sign language, sign language literature, sign language metaphor, metaphor at the phonological level, cognitive linguistics

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1544 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

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1543 Syntactic Analyzer for Tamil Language

Authors: Franklin Thambi Jose.S

Abstract:

Computational Linguistics is a branch of linguistics, which deals with the computer and linguistic levels. It is also said, as a branch of language studies which applies computer techniques to linguistics field. In Computational Linguistics, Natural Language Processing plays an important role. This came to exist because of the invention of Information Technology. In computational syntax, the syntactic analyser breaks a sentence into phrases and clauses and identifies the sentence with the syntactic information. Tamil is one of the major Dravidian languages, which has a very long written history of more than 2000 years. It is mainly spoken in Tamilnadu (in India), Srilanka, Malaysia and Singapore. It is an official language in Tamilnadu (in India), Srilanka, Malaysia and Singapore. In Malaysia Tamil speaking people are considered as an ethnic group. In Tamil syntax, the sentences in Tamil are classified into four for this research, namely: 1. Main Sentence 2. Interrogative Sentence 3. Equational Sentence 4. Elliptical Sentence. In computational syntax, the first step is to provide required information regarding the head and its constituent of each sentence. This information will be incorporated to the system using programming languages. Now the system can easily analyse a given sentence with the criteria or mechanisms given to it. Providing needful criteria or mechanisms to the computer to identify the basic types of sentences using Syntactic parser in Tamil language is the major objective of this paper.

Keywords: tamil, syntax, criteria, sentences, parser

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1542 Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation

Authors: Fariea Bakul, Chhanda Karmaker

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.

Keywords: cognitive emotion regulation, parental bonding, parental care, parental over-protection

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1541 Investigating the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan

Abstract:

The paradigm of Modern Linguistics incorporates disciplines which allow to analyze both language and discourse units and to demonstrate the multi-layeredness of lingo-cultural consciousness. By implementing lingo-cognitive approach to discourse and communication studies, the present paper tries to create the integral linguistic picture of the concept of joy and to analyze the lexico-semantic groups and relevant lexico-semantic variants of its realization in the context of Modern English fiction.

Keywords: concept of joy, lexico-semantic variant, semantic sign, cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 194