Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 78

Search results for: Ozlem Orhan

78 On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Teoman Ozer, Ozlem Orhan

Abstract:

This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.

Keywords: λ-symmetry, μ-symmetry, classification, invariant solution

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77 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Benzoxazole Derivatives as Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase / Butyrylcholinesterase and Tyrosinase

Authors: Ozlem Temiz-Arpaci, Meryem Tasci, Fatma Sezer Senol, İlkay Erdogan Orhan

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of memory and cognition, occurs more frequently in elderly people. Current treatment approaches in this disease with the major therapeutic strategy are based on the AChE and BChE inhibition. On the other hand, tyrosinase inhibition has become a target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) since this enzyme may play a role in neuromelanin formation in the human brain and could be critical in the formation of dopamine neurotoxicity associated with neurodegeneration linked to PD. Also benzoxazoles are structural isosteres of natural nucleotides that can interact with biopolymers so that benzoxazoles showed a lot of different biological activities. In this study, a series of 2,5-disubstituted-benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized and were evaluated as possible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) / butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. The results demonstrated that the compounds exhibited a weak spectrum of AChE / BChE inhibitory activity ranging between 3.92% - 54.32% except compound 8 which showed no activity against AChE and compound 4 which showed no activity against BChE at the specified molar concentrations. Also, the compounds indicated lower than tyrosinase inhibitory activity of ranging between 8.14% - 22.90% to that of reference (kojic acid).

Keywords: AChE and BChE inhibition, Alzheimer’s disease, benzoxazoles, tyrosinase inhibition

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76 Evaluation of the Relationship between Fluorosis and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification Detected on Panoramic Radiograph

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Umit Memis, Selma Demer, Hikmet Orhan

Abstract:

Stylohyoid ligament is a connective tissue extending from apex of the styloid process to small horn of the hyoid bone. The normal length of styloid process ranges from 20 to 30 mm and measurements more than 30 mm is named stylohyoid ligament calcification (SLC). Fluorosis is a health problem that arises in individuals who intake large amounts of fluor long periods of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorosis on SLC. This study has been conducted on 100 patients who had SLC detected on panoramic radiograph. The study group was consisted of 50 patients with dental fluorosis and control group was consisted of 50 patients without dental fluorosis. Length and thickness of SLC were measured and the type of SLC was determined on panoramic radiographs. There was no statistically significant differences between the study and control group for SLC length, thickness and type. The thickness of left and right SLC of severe dental fluorosis group was statistically significant higher than moderate dental fluorosis group (p < 0,05). Cervicopharyngeal trauma, tonsillectomy, endocrine disease in menopause, persistent mesenchymal tissue, mechanical stress have reported as etiology of SLC in the literature and studies are still ongoing. It was reported that fluorosis as a factor on calcification of some ligaments in body (posterior longitudunal ligament, ligamentum flavum and transverse atlantal ligament) previously but relationship between fluorosis with SLC was not investigated. Our study is unique because it is the first study on SLC thickness measurements on panoramic radiographs and the relationship between fluorosis and SLC to our knowledge. According to the obtained results, it is thought that fluorosis may have an effect on SLC in thickness due to the relationship between dental fluorosis severity with SLC thickness and this study will contribute to the progress of the future studies.

Keywords: calcification, fluorosis, ligament, stylohyoid

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75 Understanding Tacit Knowledge and Its Role in Military Organizations: Methods of Managing Tacit Knowledge

Authors: M. Erhan Orhan, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

Expansion of area of operation and increasing diversity of threats forced the military organizations to change in many ways. However, tacit knowledge still is the most fundamental component of organizational knowledge. Since it is human oriented and in warfare human stands at the core of the organization. Therefore, military organizations should find effective ways of systematically utilizing tacit knowledge. In this context, this article suggest some methods for turning tacit knowledge into explicit in military organizations.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, military, knowledge management, warfare, technology

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74 Effect of Serine/Threonine Kinases on Autophagy Mechanism

Authors: Ozlem Oral, Seval Kilic, Ozlem Yedier, Serap Dokmeci, Devrim Gozuacik

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Autophagy is a degradation pathway, activating under stress conditions. It digests macromolecules, such as abnormal proteins and long-lived organelles by engulfing them and by subsequent delivery of the cargo to lysosomes. The members of the phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases, involved in many signaling pathways, which are necessary for the regulation of cellular metabolic activation. Previous studies implicate that, serine/threonine kinases have crucial roles in the mechanism of many diseases depend on the activated and/or inactivated signaling pathway. Data indicates, the signaling pathways activated by serine/threonine kinases are also involved in activation of autophagy mechanism. However, the information about the effect of serine/threonine kinases on autophagy mechanism and the roles of these effects in disease formation is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of activated serine/threonine kinases on autophagic pathway. We performed a commonly used autophagy technique, GFP-LC3 dot formation and by using microscopy analyses, we evaluated promotion and/or inhibition of autophagy in serine/threonine kinase-overexpressed fibroblasts as well as cancer cells. In addition, we carried out confocal microscopy analyses and examined autophagic flux by utilizing the differential pH sensitivities of RFP and GFP in mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe. Based on the shRNA-library based screening, we identified autophagy-related proteins affected by serine/threonine kinases. We further studied the involvement of serine/threonine kinases on the molecular mechanism of newly identified autophagy proteins and found that, autophagic pathway is indirectly controlled by serine/threonine kinases via specific autophagic proteins. Our data indicate the molecular connection between two critical cellular mechanisms, which have important roles in the formation of many disease pathologies, particularly cancer. This project is supported by TUBITAK-1001-Scientific and Technological Research Projects Funding Program, Project No: 114Z836.

Keywords: autophagy, GFP-LC3 dot formation assay, serine/threonine kinases, shRNA-library screening

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73 Analysis of Changes Being Done of the Mine Legislation of Turkey: Mining Operation Activity Process

Authors: Taşkın Deniz Yıldız, Mustafa Topaloğlu, Orhan Kural

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The right to operate a fairly long periods of prior periods and after the 3213 Mining Law has been observed to be shortened in Turkey. Permit the realization of business activities (or concession) requested the purchase of the mine operated "found mine" position, as well as the financial and technical capability to have the owner of the right to operate the mines as well as the principle of equality is important in terms of assessing the best way be. In particular, in this context, license fields "negligence" (downsizing) have noted that the current arrangement for all periods. However, in the period after 3213 Mining Act and a permit to operate more effectively within the framework of implementation of negligence is laid down.

Keywords: mining legislation, operation, permit, Turkey

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72 Relation of Mean Platelet Volume with Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity and Brachial Artery Diameter and Intima Media Thickness in Diabetic Patients with Respect to Obesity and Diabetic Complications

Authors: Pınar Karakaya, Meral Mert, Yildiz Okuturlar, Didem Acarer, Asuman Gedikbasi, Filiz Islim, Teslime Ayaz, Ozlem Soyluk, Ozlem Harmankaya, Abdulbaki Kumbasar

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the relation of mean platelet volume (MPV) levels with serum paraoxonase-1 activity and brachial artery diameter and intima media thickness in diabetic patients with respect to obesity and diabetic complications. Methods: A total of 201 diabetic patients grouped with respect to obesity [obese (n=89) and non-obese (n=112) and diabetic complications [with (n=50) or without (n=150) microvascular complications and with (n=91) or without (n=108) macrovascular complications] groups were included. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics of patients, anthropometric measurements, diabetes related microvascular and macrovascular complications, serum levels for MPV, bBrachial artery diameter and intima media thickness (IMT) and serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were recorded. Correlation of MPV values to paraoxonase and arylesterase activities as well as to brachial artery diameter and IMT was evaluated in study groups. Results: Mean(SD) paraoxonase and arylesterase values were 119.8(37.5) U/L and 149.0(39.9) U/L, respectively in the overall population with no significant difference with respect to obesity and macrovascular diabetic complications, whereas significantly lower values for paraoxonase (107.5(30.7) vs. 123.9(38.8) U/L, p=0.007) and arylesterase (132.1(30.2) vs. 154.7(41.2) U/L, p=0.001) were noted in patients with than without diabetic microvascular complications. Mean(SD) MPV values were 9.10 (0.87) fL in the overall population with no significant difference with respect to obesity and diabetic complications. No significant correlation of MPV values to paraoxonase, arylesterase activities, to brachial artery diameter and IMT was noted in the overall study population as well as in study groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings revealed a significant decrease I PON-1 activity in diabetic patients with microvascular rather than macrovascular complications, whereas regardless of obesity and diabetic complications, no increase in thrombogenic activity and no relation of thrombogenic activity with PON-1 activity and brachial artery diameter and IMK.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, microvascular complications, macrovascular complications, obesity, paraoxonase

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71 On Kantorovich-Stancu Type Operators with the Variation Detracting Property

Authors: Özlem Öksüzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce variation detracting property of Kantorovich-Stancu type operators in the space of functions of bounded variation. These problems are studied with respect to the variation seminorm.

Keywords: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators, variation seminorm, variation detracting property, absolutely continuous function

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70 Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management

Authors: Özlem Küçükakça

Abstract:

The world population is rapidly growing. In the last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. Therefore, a wide literature and also the UK festivals database have been investigated. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.

Keywords: ecological footprint, environmental sustainability, events, sustainability

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69 Health Expenditure and its Place in Economy: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Ayşe Coban, Orhan Coban, Haldun Soydal, Sükrü Sürücü

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While health is a source of prosperity for individuals, it is also one of the most important determinants of economic growth for a country. Health, by increasing the productivity of labor, contributes to economic growth. Therefore, countries should give the necessary emphasis to health services. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the changes occurring in health services in Turkey by examining the developments in the sector. In this scope, the second aim of the study is to reveal the place of health expenditures in the Turkish economy. As a result of the analysis in the dataset, in which the 1999-2013 periods is considered, it was determined that some increase in health expenditures took place and that the increase in the share of health expenditures in GDP was too small. Furthermore, analysis of the results points out that in financing health expenditures, the public sector is prominent compared to the private sector.

Keywords: health, health service, health expenditures, Turkey

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68 Increasing Performance of Autopilot Guided Small Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mustafa Soylak, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Orhan Kizilkaya

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In this paper, autonomous performance of a small manufactured unmanned helicopter is tried to be increased. For this purpose, a small unmanned helicopter is manufactured in Erciyes University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is called as ZANKA-Heli-I. For performance maximization, autopilot parameters are determined via minimizing a cost function consisting of flight performance parameters such as settling time, rise time, overshoot during trajectory tracking. For this purpose, a stochastic optimization method named as simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation is benefited. Using this approach, considerable autonomous performance increase (around %23) is obtained.

Keywords: small helicopters, hierarchical control, stochastic optimization, autonomous performance maximization, autopilots

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67 An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Kerime Özkay, Ahmet Yıldırım

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In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

Keywords: agarose gel, DNA staining, organic dye, N-719

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66 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Asim Olgun, Ali Kara, Vural Butun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek

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In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeta potential, adsorption, Orange 16, isotherms

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65 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

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The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

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64 Exploring the Relationship between the Concepts of Organization Culture and Organizational Justice

Authors: Orhan Sezgin, Mehmet Kursad Ordu

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In today’s business world, among a number of forces, employees are seen as the most important components in order to survive and achieve organizational goals successfully. Improving the performance and effectiveness of the employees that also are called the “human capital” is one of the most important responsibilities of today’s managers. Managers are expected to provide a workplace to improve the employee’s performance and commitment. Improving the performance and effectiveness of the employees is one of the most significant responsibilities of managers. They are expected to provide a workplace to improve employee’s performance and commitment. This study has concentrated on the exploring of the associations among the basic concepts of organizational behavior science including organizational culture, organizational justice behavior. These concepts play significant roles both on the improvement of employees and the organizations.

Keywords: organization culture, organizational justice, procedural justice, distributive justice

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63 Real-Time Lane Marking Detection Using Weighted Filter

Authors: Ayhan Kucukmanisa, Orhan Akbulut, Oguzhan Urhan

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Nowadays, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have become popular, since they enable safe driving. Lane detection is a vital step for ADAS. The performance of the lane detection process is critical to obtain a high accuracy lane departure warning system (LDWS). Challenging factors such as road cracks, erosion of lane markings, weather conditions might affect the performance of a lane detection system. In this paper, 1-D weighted filter based on row filtering to detect lane marking is proposed. 2-D input image is filtered by 1-D weighted filter considering four-pixel values located symmetrically around the center of candidate pixel. Performance evaluation is carried out by two metrics which are true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides better lane marking detection accuracy compared to the previous methods while providing real-time processing performance.

Keywords: lane marking filter, lane detection, ADAS, LDWS

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62 Patterns Obtained by Using Knitting Technique in Textile Crafts

Authors: Özlem Erzurumlu, Nazan Oskay, Ece Melek

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Knitting which is one of the textile manufacturing techniques is manufactured by using the system of single yarn. Knitting wares consisting of loops structurally have flexible structures. Knitting can be shaped and given volume easily due to increasing or decreasing the number of loops, being manufactured in circular form and its flexible structure. While the knitting wares are basically being manufactured to meet the requirements, it takes its place in the art field overflowing outside of industrial production later. Textile artist ensures his ideas to convert into artistic product by using textiles and non-textiles with aesthetic concerns and creative impulses. When textile crafts are observed at the present time we see that knitting technique has an extensive area of use such as sculpture, panel, installation art and performing art. It is examined how the knitting technique is used in textile crafts observing patterns obtained by this technique in textile crafts in this study.

Keywords: art, textile, knitting art, textile crafts

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61 Evaluation of Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities of Some Biological Active Benzoxazoles in the Ames Test

Authors: Özlem Arpacı, Zeliha Soysal, Nuran Diril

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Benzoxazoles are heterocyclic compounds that have a fused benzene and an oxazole ring. These heterocyclic compounds are reported to have antibacterial, antitubercular, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, some benzoxazole derivatives that have broad antimicrobial and potent antitumoral activities, are investigated their mutagenic activities with using the Ames Test. The Ames test was conducted using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 tester strains in the standard plate incorporation assay in the absence of liver S9 fraction. The results are evaluated using SPSS and none of the benzoxazole derivatives showed mutagenic activity using the Ames test in the absence of S9 liver fraction.

Keywords: benzoxazoles, ames test, mutagenic activity, antimutagenic activity, antitumoral activity

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60 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan

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About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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59 Experimental Analysis of Electrical Energy Producing Using the Waste Heat of Exhaust Gas by the Help of Thermoelectric Generator

Authors: Dilek Ozlem Esen, Mesut Kaya

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The focus of this study is to analyse the results of heat recovery from exhaust gas which is produced by an internal combustion engine (ICE). To obtain a small amount of energy, an exhaust system which is suitable for recovery waste heat has been constructed. Totally 27 TEGs have been used to convert from the heat to electric energy. By producing a small amount of this energy by the help of thermoelectric generators can reduce engine loads thus decreasing pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and CO2. This case study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. As a result of this study, 0,45 A averaged current rate, 13,02 V averaged voltage rate and 5,8 W averaged electrical energy have been produced in a five hours operation time.

Keywords: thermoelectric, peltier, thermoelectric generator (TEG), exhaust, cogeneration

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58 A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome: Career Barriers of Women Academics

Authors: Serdar Öge, Alpay Karasoy, Özlem Kara

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Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher education institutions. To this end, our study was performed on female academics working at Selcuk University, Konya / Turkey. Our study's main aim can be expressed as to determine whether there are glass ceiling obstacles for female academics working at the higher education institution in question, to measure their glass ceiling perceptions and, thus, to identify what the glass ceiling barrier components for them to promotion to senior management positions are.

Keywords: career, career barriers, glass ceiling syndrome, academics

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57 Clinical and Radiological Features of Radicular Cysts: Case Series

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Elif Bilgir, Derya Yildirim, Ozlem Gormez

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Radicular cysts develop in the root apex of tooth that is devitalized. Cysts are pathologic lesions with an epithelial lining encapsulated by connective tissue. Radicular cysts originate from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament in the root apex as a result of inflammation. They are most commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region, among men and in the third decade of life. Radiographically, they are seen as ovoid radiolucent lesions surrounded by a thin radioopaque margin. In this case, series was carried out in 15 radicular cysts of the jaws diagnosed in individuals. The cysts were evaluated age, sex, and localization. 12 of the cysts were localized in the maxillae, 3 of them were localised in the mandible. The female/male ratio of the lesions was 1/2. In conclusion, we evaluated age, localization and sex distribution of radicular cysts in this study. The knowledge of the features of the jaw cysts is a basic aspect to achieve diagnosis, complications and proper treatment.

Keywords: radicular cyst, jaws, CBCT, treatment

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56 Examining the Modular End of Line Control Unit Design Criteria for Vehicle Sliding Door System Slide Profile

Authors: Orhan Kurtuluş, Cüneyt Yavuz

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The end of the line controls of the finished products in the automotive industry is important. The control that has been conducted with the manual methods for the sliding doors tracks is not sufficient and faulty products cannot be identified. As a result, the customer has the faulty products. In the scope of this study, the design criteria of the PLC integrated modular end of line control unit has been examined, designed and manufactured to make the control of the 10 different track profile to 2 different vehicles with an objective to minimize the salvage costs by obtaining more sensitive, certain and accurate measurement results. In the study that started with literature and patent review, the design inputs have been specified, the technical concept has been developed, computer supported mechanic design, control system and automation design, design review and design improvement have been made. Laser analog sensors at high sensitivity, probes and modular blocks have been used in the unit. The measurement has been conducted in the system and it is observed that measurement results are more sensitive than the previous methods.

Keywords: control unit design, end of line, modular design, sliding door system

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55 Polarity Classification of Social Media Comments in Turkish

Authors: Migena Ceyhan, Zeynep Orhan, Dimitrios Karras

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People in modern societies are continuously sharing their experiences, emotions, and thoughts in different areas of life. The information reaches almost everyone in real-time and can have an important impact in shaping people’s way of living. This phenomenon is very well recognized and advantageously used by the market representatives, trying to earn the most from this means. Given the abundance of information, people and organizations are looking for efficient tools that filter the countless data into important information, ready to analyze. This paper is a modest contribution in this field, describing the process of automatically classifying social media comments in the Turkish language into positive or negative. Once data is gathered and preprocessed, feature sets of selected single words or groups of words are build according to the characteristics of language used in the texts. These features are used later to train, and test a system according to different machine learning algorithms (Naïve Bayes, Sequential Minimal Optimization, J48, and Bayesian Linear Regression). The resultant high accuracies can be important feedback for decision-makers to improve the business strategies accordingly.

Keywords: feature selection, machine learning, natural language processing, sentiment analysis, social media reviews

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54 The Impact of Using Technology Tools on Preparing English Language Learners for the 21st Century

Authors: Ozlem Kaya

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21st-century learners are energetic and tech-savvy, and the skills and the knowledge required in this century are complex and challenging. Therefore, teachers need to find new ways to appeal to the needs and interests of their students and meet the demands of the 21st century at the same time. One way to do so in English language learning has been to incorporate various technology tools into classroom practices. Although teachers think these practices are effective and their students enjoy them, students may have different perceptions. To find out what students think about the use of technology tools in terms of developing 21st-century skills and knowledge, this study was conducted at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages. A questionnaire was administered to 40 students at elementary level. Afterward, semi-structured interviews were held with 8 students to provide deeper insight into their perceptions. The details of the findings of the study will be presented and discussed during the presentation.

Keywords: 21st century skills, technology tools, perception, English Language Learning

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53 Reading Knowledge Development and Its Phases with Generation Z

Authors: Onur Özdemir, M.Erhan ORHAN

Abstract:

Knowledge Development (KD) is just one of the important phases of Knowledge Management (KM). KD is the phase in which intelligence is used to see the big picture. In order to understand whether information is important or not, we have to use the intelligence cycle that includes four main steps: aiming, collecting data, processing and utilizing. KD also needs these steps. To make a precise decision, the decision maker has to be aware of his subordinates’ ideas. If the decision maker ignores the ideas of his subordinates or participants of the organization, it is not possible for him to get the target. KD is a way of using wisdom to accumulate the puzzle. If the decision maker does not bring together the puzzle pieces, he cannot get the big picture, and this shows its effects on the battlefield. In order to understand the battlefield, the decision maker has to use the intelligence cycle. To convert information to knowledge, KD is the main means for the intelligence cycle. On the other hand, the “Z Generation” born after the millennium are really the game changers. They have different attitudes from their elders. Their understanding of life is different - the definition of freedom and independence have different meanings to them than others. Decision makers have to consider these factors and rethink their decisions accordingly. This article tries to explain the relation between KD and Generation Z. KD is the main method of target managing. But if leaders neglect their people, the world will be seeing much more movements like the Arab Spring and other insurgencies.

Keywords: knowledge development, knowledge management, generation Z, intelligence cycle

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52 Radio Frequency Identification System and Its Effect on Retailing Sector

Authors: Ayşe Çoban, Orhan Çoban, Murat Birekul

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In this study, the effects of radio frequency identification system on the retailing sector were theoretically analysed. The technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method enabling to identify the objects individually and automatically, using radio frequency. RFID generally consists of a tag and reader. RFID tags can be programmed to receive, store, and send the information of object such as Electronic Product Code (EPC). Having read the tags placed on product by the reader, the information associated with the management of supply chain can be automatically recorded and replaced. Recently, RFID technology used in many areas has particularly important effects on the businesses that are active in the retailing sector. The most important disadvantage of this technology is that the cost of installation and operation is higher compared to its alternatives. However, it provides important advantages to the business enterprises in the application process. At present, it is especially adopted by the large sized enterprises and with chain stores in the international areas. The application results point out that RFID technology provides business enterprises with the important competitive advantage.

Keywords: RFID, retailing sector, RFID technologies, electronic product code

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51 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Elif Ince, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone, oxidative stress

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50 Effect Mechanisms of Aromatic Plants: Effects on Intestinal Health and Broiler Feeding

Authors: Ozlem Durna Aydin, Gultekin Yildiz

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Antibiotics are microbial metabolites with low molecular weight produced by fungi and algae, inhibiting the development of other microorganisms even in low growth. Antibiotics have been used as growth factors in animal feeds for many years. They prohibited; because of increased residue problem and increased resistance to antibiotics in bacteria due to prolonged use. Aromatic plants and extracts have attracted the attention of scientists nowadays due to positive reasons such as confidence of the community to the products those are coming from nature, desire to consume, and no residue problems. Plant extracts are obtained from aromatic plants, and they come forward with antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. It has been stated that intestinal histomorphology and microbiosis are positively affected by the use of plant extract in feeds. In the present day, aromatic plants and extracts are a remarkable research field with intriguing unknowns in the field of animal nutrition, and they continue to exist in the journal in vitro and in vivo studies.

Keywords: aromatic plant, broilers, extract mechanism of action, intestinal health

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49 A Tagging Algorithm in Augmented Reality for Mobile Device Screens

Authors: Doga Erisik, Ahmet Karaman, Gulfem Alptekin, Ozlem Durmaz Incel

Abstract:

Augmented reality (AR) is a type of virtual reality aiming to duplicate real world’s environment on a computer’s video feed. The mobile application, which is built for this project (called SARAS), enables annotating real world point of interests (POIs) that are located near mobile user. In this paper, we aim at introducing a robust and simple algorithm for placing labels in an augmented reality system. The system places labels of the POIs on the mobile device screen whose GPS coordinates are given. The proposed algorithm is compared to an existing one in terms of energy consumption and accuracy. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives better results in energy consumption and accuracy while standing still, and acceptably accurate results when driving. The technique provides benefits to AR browsers with its open access algorithm. Going forward, the algorithm will be improved to more rapidly react to position changes while driving.

Keywords: accurate tagging algorithm, augmented reality, localization, location-based AR

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