Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6654

Search results for: kinetic energy

6654 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords: erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity

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6653 Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Abrasive Parameters on Wall Shear Stress and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy

Authors: D. Deepak, N. Yagnesh Sharma


Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) machining is a relatively new nontraditional machine tool used in machining of fiber reinforced composite. The quality of machined surface depends on jet exit kinetic energy which depends on various operating and material parameters. In the present work the effect abrasive parameters such as its size, concentration and type on jet kinetic energy is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the effect of these parameters on wall shear stress developed inside the nozzle is also investigated. It is found that for the same operating parameters, increase in the abrasive volume fraction (concentration) results in significant decrease in the wall shear stress as well as the jet exit kinetic energy. Increase in the abrasive particle size results in marginal decrease in the jet exit kinetic energy. Numerical simulation also indicates that garnet abrasives produce better jet exit kinetic energy than aluminium oxide and silicon carbide.

Keywords: abrasive water jet machining, jet kinetic energy, operating pressure, wall shear stress, Garnet abrasive

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6652 The Potential of Braking Energy Recuperation in a City Bus Diesel Engine in the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Grzegorz Baranski, Piotr Kacejko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Mariusz Duk


This paper discusses a model of a bus-driving scheme. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the mechanical energy recuperation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass. The research results show that fuel economy is impacted by kinetic energy recuperation.

Keywords: heavy duty vehicle, city bus, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy, simulations

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6651 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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6650 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, V. Matei, N. Nicolae


The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.

Keywords: hydrofining, kinetic, modeling, optimization

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6649 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li


The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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6648 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva


The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: activation energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters, waste

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6647 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin


Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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6646 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk


This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy

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6645 A Biomimetic Approach for the Multi-Objective Optimization of Kinetic Façade Design

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim


A kinetic façade responds to user requirements and environmental conditions.  In designing a kinetic façade, kinetic patterns play a key role in determining its performance. This paper proposes a biomimetic method for the multi-objective optimization for kinetic façade design. The autonomous decentralized control system is combined with flocking algorithm. The flocking agents are autonomously reacting to sensor values and bring about kinetic patterns changing over time. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the potential and limitations of the flocking based decentralized control. As a result, it could show the highest performance balancing multiple objectives such as solar radiation and openness among the comparison group.

Keywords: biomimicry, flocking algorithm, autonomous decentralized control, multi-objective optimization

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6644 Prediction of Pounding between Two SDOF Systems by Using Link Element Based On Mathematic Relations and Suggestion of New Equation for Impact Damping Ratio

Authors: Seyed M. Khatami, H. Naderpour, R. Vahdani, R. C. Barros


Many previous studies have been carried out to calculate the impact force and the dissipated energy between two neighboring buildings during seismic excitation, when they collide with each other. Numerical studies are an important part of impact, which several researchers have tried to simulate the impact by using different formulas. Estimation of the impact force and the dissipated energy depends significantly on some parameters of impact. Mass of bodies, stiffness of spring, coefficient of restitution, damping ratio of dashpot and impact velocity are some known and unknown parameters to simulate the impact and measure dissipated energy during collision. Collision is usually shown by force-displacement hysteresis curve. The enclosed area of the hysteresis loop explains the dissipated energy during impact. In this paper, the effect of using different types of impact models is investigated in order to calculate the impact force. To increase the accuracy of impact model and to optimize the results of simulations, a new damping equation is assumed and is validated to get the best results of impact force and dissipated energy, which can show the accuracy of suggested equation of motion in comparison with other formulas. This relation is called "n-m". Based on mathematical relation, an initial value is selected for the mentioned coefficients and kinetic energy loss is calculated. After each simulation, kinetic energy loss and energy dissipation are compared with each other. If they are equal, selected parameters are true and, if not, the constant of parameters are modified and a new analysis is performed. Finally, two unknown parameters are suggested to estimate the impact force and calculate the dissipated energy.

Keywords: impact force, dissipated energy, kinetic energy loss, damping relation

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6643 Harvesting of Kinetic Energy of the Raindrops

Authors: K. C. R.Perera, V. P. C Dassanayake, B. M. Hapuwatte, B. G. Smapath


This paper presents a methodology to harvest the kinetic energy of the raindrops using piezoelectric devices. In the study 1m×1m PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric membrane, which is fixed by the four edges, is considered for the numerical simulation on deformation of the membrane due to the impact of the raindrops. Then according to the drop size of the rain, the simulation is performed classifying the rainfall types into three categories as light stratiform rain, moderate stratiform rain and heavy thundershower. The impact force of the raindrop is dependent on the terminal velocity of the raindrop, which is a function of raindrop diameter. The results were then analyzed to calculate the harvestable energy from the deformation of the piezoelectric membrane.

Keywords: raindrop, piezoelectricity, deformation, terminal velocity

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6642 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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6641 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick


Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

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6640 Batteryless DCM Boost Converter for Kinetic Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: Andrés Gomez-Casseres, Rubén Contreras


In this paper, a bidirectional boost converter operated in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) is presented as a suitable power conditioning circuit for tuning of kinetic energy harvesters without the need of a battery. A nonlinear control scheme, composed by two linear controllers, is used to control the average value of the input current, enabling the synthesization of complex loads. The converter, along with the control system, is validated through SPICE simulations using the LTspice tool. The converter model and the controller transfer functions are derived. From the simulation results, it was found that the input current distortion increases with the introduced phase shift and that, such distortion, is almost entirely present at the zero-crossing point of the input voltage.

Keywords: average current control, boost converter, electrical tuning, energy harvesting

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6639 Second Order MIMO Sliding Mode Controller for Nonlinear Modeled Wind Turbine

Authors: Alireza Toloei, Ahmad R. Saffary, Reza Ghasemi


Due to the growing need for energy and limited fossil resources, the use of renewable energy, particularly wind is strongly favored. We all wind energy can’t be saved. Betz law, 59% of the total kinetic energy of the wind turbine is extracting. Therefore turbine control to achieve maximum performance and maintain stable conditions seem necessary. In this article, we plan for a horizontal axis wind turbine variable-speed variable-pitch nonlinear controller to obtain maximum output power. The model presented in this article, including a wide range of wind turbines are horizontal axis. However, the parameters used in this model is from Vestas V29 225 kW wind turbine. We designed second order sliding mode controller, which was robust in the face of changes in wind speed and it eliminated chattering by using of super twisting algorithm. Finally, using MATLAB software to simulate the results we considered the accuracy of the simulation results.

Keywords: non linear controller, robust, sliding mode, kinetic energy

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6638 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Benachaiba


The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Algeria, renewable energies, wind, wind power, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

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6637 Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of ZnSe Homoepitaxial Growth and Characterization

Authors: Hamid Khachab, Yamani Abdelkafi, Mouna Barhmi


The epitaxial growth has great important in the fabricate of the new semi-conductors devices and upgrading many factors, such as the quality of crystallization and efficiency with their deferent types and the most effective epitaxial technique is the molecular beam epitaxial. The MBE growth modeling allows to confirm the experiments results out by atomic beam and to analyze the microscopic phenomena. In of our work, we determined the growth processes specially the ZnSe epitaxial technique by Kinetic Monte Carlo method and we also give observations that are made in real time at the growth temperature using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and photoemission current.

Keywords: molecular beam epitaxy, II-VI, morpholy, photoemission, RHEED, simulation, kinetic Monte Carlo, ZnSe

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6636 Fuel Economy of Electrical Energy in the City Bus during Japanese Test Procedure

Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Lukasz Grabowski, Zdzislaw Kaminski


This paper discusses a model of fuel consumption and on-board electricity generation. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the on-board electricity generation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show that driving dynamics has an impact on a consumption of fuel to drive alternators.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, power generation

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6635 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura


In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-cone

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6634 Kinetic Energy Recovery System Using Spring

Authors: Mayuresh Thombre, Prajyot Borkar, Mangirish Bhobe


New advancement of technology and never satisfying demands of the civilization are putting huge pressure on the natural fuel resources and these resources are at a constant threat to its sustainability. To get the best out of the automobile, the optimum balance between performance and fuel economy is important. In the present state of art, either of the above two aspects are taken into mind while designing and development process which puts the other in the loss as increase in fuel economy leads to decrement in performance and vice-versa. In-depth observation of the vehicle dynamics apparently shows that large amount of energy is lost during braking and likewise large amount of fuel is consumed to reclaim the initial state, this leads to lower fuel efficiency to gain the same performance. Current use of Kinetic Energy Recovery System is only limited to sports vehicles only because of the higher cost of this system. They are also temporary in nature as power can be squeezed only during a small time duration and use of superior parts leads to high cost, which results on concentration on performance only and neglecting the fuel economy. In this paper Kinetic Energy Recovery System for storing the power and then using the same while accelerating has been discussed. The major storing element in this system is a Flat Spiral Spring that will store energy by compression and torsion. The use of spring ensure the permanent storage of energy until used by the driver unlike present mechanical regeneration system in which the energy stored decreases with time and is eventually lost. A combination of internal gears and spur gears will be used in order to make the energy release uniform which will lead to safe usage. The system can be used to improve the fuel efficiency by assisting in overcoming the vehicle’s inertia after braking or to provide instant acceleration whenever required by the driver. The performance characteristics of the system including response time, mechanical efficiency and overall increase in efficiency are demonstrated. This technology makes the KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System) more flexible and economical allowing specific application while at the same time increasing the time frame and ease of usage.

Keywords: electric control unit, energy, mechanical KERS, planetary gear system, power, smart braking, spiral spring

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6633 Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol


Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.

Keywords: aerodynamics, boundary layer, dimple, drag, kinetic energy, turbulence

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6632 Feasibility Study of Tidal Current of the Bay of Bengal to Generate Electricity as a Renewable Energy

Authors: Myisha Ahmad, G. M. Jahid Hasan


Electricity is the pinnacle of human civilization. At present, the growing concerns over significant climate change have intensified the importance of the use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. The interest is primarily due to better energy security, smaller environmental impact and providing a sustainable alternative compared to the conventional energy sources. Solar power, wind, biomass, tidal power, and wave power are some of the most reliable sources of renewable energy. Ocean approximately holds 2×10³ TW of energy and has the largest renewable energy resource on the planet. Ocean energy has many forms namely, encompassing tides, ocean circulation, surface waves, salinity and thermal gradients. Ocean tide in particular, associates both potential and kinetic energy. The study is focused on the latter concept that deals with tidal current energy conversion technologies. Tidal streams or marine currents generate kinetic energy that can be extracted by marine current energy devices and converted into transmittable energy form. The principle of technology development is very comparable to that of wind turbines. Conversion of marine tidal resources into substantial electrical power offers immense opportunities to countries endowed with such resources and this work is aimed at addressing such prospects of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the extracted current velocities from numerical model works at several locations in the Bay of Bengal. Based on current magnitudes, directions and available technologies the most fitted locations were adopted and possible annual generation capacity was estimated. The paper also examines the future prospects of tidal current energy along the Bay of Bengal and establishes a constructive approach that could be adopted in future project developments.

Keywords: bay of Bengal, energy potential, renewable energy, tidal current

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6631 Energy Budget Equation of Superfluid HVBK Model: LES Simulation

Authors: M. Bakhtaoui, L. Merahi


The reliability of the filtered HVBK model is now investigated via some large eddy simulations of freely decaying isotropic superfluid turbulence. For homogeneous turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, comparison of the terms in the spectral kinetic energy budget equation indicates, in the energy-containing range, that the production and energy transfer effects become significant except for dissipation. In the inertial range, where the two fluids are perfectly locked, the mutual friction maybe neglected with respect to other terms. Also the LES results for the other terms of the energy balance are presented.

Keywords: superfluid turbulence, HVBK, energy budget, Large Eddy Simulation

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6630 Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev


A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.

Keywords: irradiation, heat transfer, non-linear feed-back, self-oscillations

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6629 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan


In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

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6628 Feasibility Study of the Quadcopter Propeller Vibrations for the Energy Production

Authors: Nneka Osuchukwu, Leonid Shpanin


The concept of converting the kinetic energy of quadcopter propellers into electrical energy is considered in this contribution following the feasibility study of the propeller vibrations, theoretical energy conversion, and simulation techniques. Analysis of the propeller vibration performance is presented via graphical representation of calculated and simulated parameters, in order to demonstrate the possibility of recovering the harvested energy from the propeller vibrations of the quadcopter while the quadcopter is in operation. Consideration of using piezoelectric materials in such concept, converting the mechanical energy of the propeller into the electrical energy, is given. Photographic evidence of the propeller in operation is presented and discussed together with experimental results to validate the theoretical concept.

Keywords: energy harvesting, piezoelectric material, propeller vibration, unmanned aerial vehicle

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6627 Removal of Basic Yellow 28 Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Plastic Wastes

Authors: Nadjib Dahdouh, Samira Amokrane, Elhadj Mekatel, Djamel Nibou


The removal of Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) from aqueous solutions by plastic wastes PMMA was investigated. The characteristics of plastic wastes PMMA were determined by SEM, FTIR and chemical composition analysis. The effects of solution pH, initial Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) concentration C, solid/liquid ratio R, and temperature T were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models have been applied to the adsorption process, and it was found that the equilibrium followed well Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of BY28 on the PMMA was evaluated for the pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that used models were correlated with the experimental data. Intraparticle diffusion model was also used in these experiments. The thermodynamic parameters namely the enthalpy ∆H°, entropy ∆S° and free energy ∆G° of adsorption of BY28 on PMMA were determined. From the obtained results, the negative values of Gibbs free energy ∆G° indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of BY28 by PMMA. The negative values of ∆H° revealed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative values of ∆S° suggest the stability of BY28 on the surface of SW PMMA.

Keywords: removal, Waste PMMA, BY28 dye, equilibrium, kinetic study, thermodynamic study

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6626 Micro-Oculi Facades as a Sustainable Urban Facade

Authors: Ok-Kyun Im, Kyoung Hee Kim


We live in an era that faces global challenges of climate changes and resource depletion. With the rapid urbanization and growing energy consumption in the built environment, building facades become ever more important in architectural practice and environmental stewardship. Furthermore, building facade undergoes complex dynamics of social, cultural, environmental and technological changes. Kinetic facades have drawn attention of architects, designers, and engineers in the field of adaptable, responsive and interactive architecture since 1980’s. Materials and building technologies have gradually evolved to address the technical implications of kinetic facades. The kinetic façade is becoming an independent system of the building, transforming the design methodology to sustainable building solutions. Accordingly, there is a need for a new design methodology to guide the design of a kinetic façade and evaluate its sustainable performance. The research objectives are two-fold: First, to establish a new design methodology for kinetic facades and second, to develop a micro-oculi façade system and assess its performance using the established design method. The design approach to the micro-oculi facade is comprised of 1) façade geometry optimization and 2) dynamic building energy simulation. The façade geometry optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization process, aiming to balance the quantitative and qualitative performances to address the sustainability of the built environment. The dynamic building energy simulation was carried out using EnergyPlus and Radiance simulation engines with scripted interfaces. The micro-oculi office was compared with an office tower with a glass façade in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1 2013 to understand its energy efficiency. The micro-oculi facade is constructed with an array of circular frames attached to a pair of micro-shades called a micro-oculus. The micro-oculi are encapsulated between two glass panes to protect kinetic mechanisms with longevity. The micro-oculus incorporates rotating gears that transmit the power to adjacent micro-oculi to minimize the number of mechanical parts. The micro-oculus rotates around its center axis with a step size of 15deg depending on the sun’s position while maximizing daylighting potentials and view-outs. A 2 ft by 2ft prototyping was undertaken to identify operational challenges and material implications of the micro-oculi facade. In this research, a systematic design methodology was proposed, that integrates multi-objectives of kinetic façade design criteria and whole building energy performance simulation within a holistic design process. This design methodology is expected to encourage multidisciplinary collaborations between designers and engineers to collaborate issues of the energy efficiency, daylighting performance and user experience during design phases. The preliminary energy simulation indicated that compared to a glass façade, the micro-oculi façade showed energy savings due to its improved thermal properties, daylighting attributes, and dynamic solar performance across the day and seasons. It is expected that the micro oculi façade provides a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing alternative to glass facades. Recommendations for future studies include lab testing to validate the simulated data of energy and optical properties of the micro-oculi façade. A 1:1 performance mock-up of the micro-oculi façade can suggest in-depth understanding of long-term operability and new development opportunities applicable for urban façade applications.

Keywords: energy efficiency, kinetic facades, sustainable architecture, urban facades

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6625 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava


The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

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