Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: truncated double-cone

59 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

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58 Nonparametric Truncated Spline Regression Model on the Data of Human Development Index in Indonesia

Authors: Kornelius Ronald Demu, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih

Abstract:

Human Development Index (HDI) is a standard measurement for a country's human development. Several factors may have influenced it, such as life expectancy, gross domestic product (GDP) based on the province's annual expenditure, the number of poor people, and the percentage of an illiterate people. The scatter plot between HDI and the influenced factors show that the plot does not follow a specific pattern or form. Therefore, the HDI's data in Indonesia can be applied with a nonparametric regression model. The estimation of the regression curve in the nonparametric regression model is flexible because it follows the shape of the data pattern. One of the nonparametric regression's method is a truncated spline. Truncated spline regression is one of the nonparametric approach, which is a modification of the segmented polynomial functions. The estimator of a truncated spline regression model was affected by the selection of the optimal knots point. Knot points is a focus point of spline truncated functions. The optimal knots point was determined by the minimum value of generalized cross validation (GCV). In this article were applied the data of Human Development Index with a truncated spline nonparametric regression model. The results of this research were obtained the best-truncated spline regression model to the HDI's data in Indonesia with the combination of optimal knots point 5-5-5-4. Life expectancy and the percentage of an illiterate people were the significant factors depend to the HDI in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination is 94.54%. This means the regression model is good enough to applied on the data of HDI in Indonesia.

Keywords: generalized cross validation (GCV), Human Development Index (HDI), knots point, nonparametric regression, truncated spline

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
57 Numerical Study of a Nanofluid in a Truncated Cone

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
56 Time Truncated Group Acceptance Sampling Plans for Exponentiated Half Logistic Distribution

Authors: Srinivasa Rao Gadde

Abstract:

In this article, we considered a group acceptance sampling plans for exponentiated half logistic distribution when the life-test is truncated at a pre-specified time. It is assumed that the index parameter of the exponentiated half logistic distribution is known. The design parameters such as the number of groups and the acceptance number are obtained by satisfying the producer’s and consumer’s risks at the specified quality levels in terms of medians and 10th percentiles under the assumption that the termination time and the number of items in each group are pre-fixed. Finally, an example is given to illustration the methodology.

Keywords: group acceptance sampling plan, operating characteristic, consumer and producer’s risks, truncated life-test

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
55 Passive Control of Elliptic Jet by Using Triangular and Truncated Tabs

Authors: Saif Akram, E. Rathakrishnan

Abstract:

The mixing promoting efficiency of two identical sharp and truncated vertex triangular tabs offering geometrical blockage of 2.5% each, placed at the exit of a Mach 1.5 elliptic nozzle was studied experimentally. The effectiveness of both the tabs in enhancing the mixing of jets with the ambient air are determined by measuring the Pitot pressure along the jet axis and the jet spread in both the minor and major axes of the elliptic nozzle, covering marginally overexpanded to moderately underexpanded levels at the nozzle exit. The results reveal that both the tabs enhance mixing characteristics of the uncontrolled elliptic jet when placed at minor axis. A core length reduction of 67% is achieved at NPR 3 which is the overexpanded state. Similarly, the core length is reduced by about 67%, 50% and 57% at NPRs of 4, 5 and 6 (underexpanded states) respectively. However, unlike the considerable increment in mixing promoting efficiency by the use of truncated vertex tabs for axisymmetric jets, the effect is not much pronounced for the case of supersonic elliptic jets. The CPD plots for both the cases almost overlap, especially when tabs are placed at minor axis, at all the pressure conditions. While, when the tabs are used at major axis, in the case of overexpanded condition, the sharp vertex triangular tabs act as a better mixing enhancer for the supersonic elliptic jets. For the jet controlled with truncated vertex triangular tabs, the core length reductions are of the same order as those for the sharp vertex triangular tabs. The jet mixing is hardly influenced by the tip effect in case of supersonic elliptic jet.

Keywords: elliptic jet, tabs, truncated, triangular

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54 Numerical Study on the Effects of Truncated Ribs on Film Cooling with Ribbed Cross-Flow Coolant Channel

Authors: Qijiao He, Lin Ye

Abstract:

To evaluate the effect of the ribs on internal structure in film hole and the film cooling performance on outer surface, the numerical study investigates on the effects of rib configuration on the film cooling performance with ribbed cross-flow coolant channel. The base smooth case and three ribbed cases, including the continuous rib case and two cross-truncated rib cases with different arrangement, are studied. The distributions of adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are obtained under the blowing ratios with the value of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. A commercial steady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) code with realizable k-ε turbulence model and enhanced wall treatment were performed for numerical simulations. The numerical model is validated against available experimental data. The two cross-truncated rib cases produce approximately identical cooling effectiveness compared with the smooth case under lower blowing ratio. The continuous rib case significantly outperforms the other cases. With the increase of blowing ratio, the cases with ribs are inferior to the smooth case, especially in the upstream region. The cross-truncated rib I case produces the highest cooling effectiveness among the studied the ribbed channel case. It is found that film cooling effectiveness deteriorates with the increase of spiral intensity of the cross-flow inside the film hole. Lower spiral intensity leads to a better film coverage and thus results in better cooling effectiveness. The distinct relative merits among the cases at different blowing ratios are explored based on the aforementioned dominant mechanism. With regard to the heat transfer coefficient, the smooth case has higher heat transfer intensity than the ribbed cases under the studied blowing ratios. The laterally-averaged heat transfer coefficient of the cross-truncated rib I case is higher than the cross-truncated rib II case.

Keywords: cross-flow, cross-truncated rib, film cooling, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
53 Population Size Estimation Based on the GPD

Authors: O. Anan, D. Böhning, A. Maruotti

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The purpose of the study is to estimate the elusive target population size under a truncated count model that accounts for heterogeneity. The purposed estimator is based on the generalized Poisson distribution (GPD), which extends the Poisson distribution by adding a dispersion parameter. Thus, it becomes an useful model for capture-recapture data where concurrent events are not homogeneous. In addition, it can account for over-dispersion and under-dispersion. The ratios of neighboring frequency counts are used as a tool for investigating the validity of whether generalized Poisson or Poisson distribution. Since capture-recapture approaches do not provide the zero counts, the estimated parameters can be achieved by modifying the EM-algorithm technique for the zero-truncated generalized Poisson distribution. The properties and the comparative performance of proposed estimator were investigated through simulation studies. Furthermore, some empirical examples are represented insights on the behavior of the estimators.

Keywords: capture, recapture methods, ratio plot, heterogeneous population, zero-truncated count

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
52 A Double Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Test Having Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution

Authors: A. D. Abdellatif, A. N. Ahmed, M. E. Abdelaziz

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The main purpose of this paper is to design a double acceptance sampling plan under the time truncated life test when the product lifetime follows an exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution. Here, the motive is to meet both the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk simultaneously at the specified quality levels, while the termination time is specified. A comparison between the results of the double and single acceptance sampling plans is conducted. We demonstrate the applicability of our results to real data sets.

Keywords: double sampling plan, single sampling plan, producer’s risk, consumer’s risk, exponentiated transmuted weibull distribution, time truncated experiment, single, double, Marshal-Olkin

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
51 Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Conical Container

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Ali Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
50 A Two-Pronged Truncated Deferred Sampling Plan for Log-Logistic Distribution

Authors: Braimah Joseph Odunayo, Jiju Gillariose

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at developing a sampling plan that uses information from precedent and successive lots for lot disposition with a pretention that the life-time of a particular product assumes a Log-logistic distribution. A Two-pronged Truncated Deferred Sampling Plan (TTDSP) for Log-logistic distribution is proposed when the testing is truncated at a precise time. The best possible sample sizes are obtained under a given Maximum Allowable Percent Defective (MAPD), Test Suspension Ratios (TSR), and acceptance numbers (c). A formula for calculating the operating characteristics of the proposed plan is also developed. The operating characteristics and mean-ratio values were used to measure the performance of the plan. The findings of the study show that: Log-logistic distribution has a decreasing failure rate; furthermore, as mean-life ratio increase, the failure rate reduces; the sample size increase as the acceptance number, test suspension ratios and maximum allowable percent defective increases. The study concludes that the minimum sample sizes were smaller, which makes the plan a more economical plan to adopt when cost and time of production are costly and the experiment being destructive.

Keywords: consumers risk, mean life, minimum sample size, operating characteristics, producers risk

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49 Fourier Galerkin Approach to Wave Equation with Absorbing Boundary Conditions

Authors: Alexandra Leukauf, Alexander Schirrer, Emir Talic

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Numerical computation of wave propagation in a large domain usually requires significant computational effort. Hence, the considered domain must be truncated to a smaller domain of interest. In addition, special boundary conditions, which absorb the outward travelling waves, need to be implemented in order to describe the system domains correctly. In this work, the linear one dimensional wave equation is approximated by utilizing the Fourier Galerkin approach. Furthermore, the artificial boundaries are realized with absorbing boundary conditions. Within this work, a systematic work flow for setting up the wave problem, including the absorbing boundary conditions, is proposed. As a result, a convenient modal system description with an effective absorbing boundary formulation is established. Moreover, the truncated model shows high accuracy compared to the global domain.

Keywords: absorbing boundary conditions, boundary control, Fourier Galerkin approach, modal approach, wave equation

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48 Frictional Effects on the Dynamics of a Truncated Double-Cone Gravitational Motor

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this work, effects of the friction and truncation on the dynamics of a double-cone gravitational motor, self-propelled on a straight V-shaped horizontal rail, are evaluated. Such mechanism has a variable radius of contact, and, on one hand, it is similar to a pulley mechanism that changes the potential energy into the kinetic energy of rotation, but on the other hand, it is similar to a pendulum mechanism that converts the potential energy of the suspended body into the kinetic energy of translation along a circular path. Movies of the self- propelled double-cones, made of S45C carbon steel and wood, along rails made of aluminum alloy, were shot for various opening angles of the rails. Kinematical features of the double-cones were estimated through the slow-motion processing of the recorded movies. Then, a kinematical model is derived under assumption that the distance traveled by the contact points on the rectilinear rails is identical with the distance traveled by the contact points on the truncated conical surface. Additionally, a dynamic model, for this particular contact problem, was proposed and validated against the experimental results. Based on such model, the traction force and the traction torque acting on the double-cone are identified. One proved that the rolling traction force is always smaller than the sliding friction force; i.e., the double-cone is rolling without slipping. Results obtained in this work can be used to achieve the proper design of such gravitational motor.

Keywords: Truncated double-cone, friction, rolling and sliding, dynamic model, gravitational motor

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47 A Comparative Analysis of Geometric and Exponential Laws in Modelling the Distribution of the Duration of Daily Precipitation

Authors: Mounia El Hafyani, Khalid El Himdi

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Precipitation is one of the key variables in water resource planning. The importance of modeling wet and dry durations is a crucial pointer in engineering hydrology. The objective of this study is to model and analyze the distribution of wet and dry durations. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data from 1967 to 2017 of the Moroccan city of Kenitra’s station are used. Three models are implemented for the distribution of wet and dry durations, namely the first-order Markov chain, the second-order Markov chain, and the truncated negative binomial law. The adherence of the data to the proposed models is evaluated using Chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. The Akaike information criterion is applied to assess the most effective model distribution. We go further and study the law of the number of wet and dry days among k consecutive days. The calculation of this law is done through an algorithm that we have implemented based on conditional laws. We complete our work by comparing the observed moments of the numbers of wet/dry days among k consecutive days to the calculated moment of the three estimated models. The study shows the effectiveness of our approach in modeling wet and dry durations of daily precipitation.

Keywords: Markov chain, rainfall, truncated negative binomial law, wet and dry durations

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46 Heteroscedastic Parametric and Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Stochastic Frontier Application to Technical Efficiency Measurement

Authors: Rebecca Owusu Coffie, Atakelty Hailu

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Variants of production frontier models have emerged, however, only a limited number of them are applied in empirical research. Hence the effects of these alternative frontier models are not well understood, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we apply recent advances in the production frontier to examine levels of technical efficiency and efficiency drivers. Specifically, we compare the heteroscedastic parametric and the semiparametric stochastic smooth coefficient (SPSC) models. Using rice production data from Ghana, our empirical estimates reveal that alternative specification of efficiency estimators results in either downward or upward bias in the technical efficiency estimates. Methodologically, we find that the SPSC model is more suitable and generates high-efficiency estimates. Within the parametric framework, we find that parameterization of both the mean and variance of the pre-truncated function is the best model. For the drivers of technical efficiency, we observed that longer farm distances increase inefficiency through a reduction in labor productivity. High soil quality, however, increases productivity through increased land productivity.

Keywords: pre-truncated, rice production, smooth coefficient, technical efficiency

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45 The Scattering in Flexible Reactive Silencer Containing Rigid Partitioning

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Junaid Uzair Satti

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The noise emanating from the ducting of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is often attenuated by using the dissipative silencers. Such devices work well for the high-frequency noise but are less operative in the low-frequency noise range. The present study analyzes a reactive silencer comprising expansion chamber of the elastic membranes partitioned symmetrically by a rigid plate. The Mode-Matching scheme has been developed to solve the governing boundary value problem. The orthogonal and non-orthogonal duct modes of acoustic pressures and normal velocities are matched at interfaces. It enables to recast the differential system into the infinite system of linear algebraic of equations, which is, then truncated and inverted for the solution. The truncated solution is validated through the conservation of energy and reconstruction of matching conditions. The results for scattering energy flux and transmission loss are shown against frequency and the dimensions of the chamber. It is seen that the stop-band of the silencer can be shifted to the broadband by changing the dimensions of the chamber and the properties of the elastic membranes. The modeled reactive silencer is more efficient in low frequency regime where the passive devices are least effective.

Keywords: acoustic scattering, elastic membranes mode-matching, reactive silencer

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
44 Fill Rate Window as a Criterion for Spares Allocation

Authors: Michael Dreyfuss, Yahel Giat

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Limited battery range and long recharging times are the greatest obstacles to the successful adoption of electric cars. One of the suggestions to overcome these problems is that carmakers retain ownership of batteries and provide battery swapping service so that customers exchange their depleted batteries for recharged batteries. Motivated by this example, we consider the problem of optimal spares allocation in an exchangeable-item, multi-location repair system. We generalize the standard service measures of fill rate and average waiting time to reflect the fact that customers penalize the service provider only if they have to wait more than a ‘tolerable’ time window. These measures are denoted as the window fill rate and the truncated waiting time, respectively. We find that the truncated waiting time is convex and therefore a greedy algorithm solves the spares allocation problem efficiently. We show that the window fill rate is generally S-shaped and describe an efficient algorithm to find a near-optimal solution and detail a priori and a posteriori upper bounds to the distance from optimum. The theory is complemented with a large scale numerical example demonstrating the spare battery allocation in battery swapping stations.

Keywords: convex-concave optimization, exchangeable item, M/G/infinity, multiple location, repair system, spares allocation, window fill rate

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43 Application of Nonparametric Geographically Weighted Regression to Evaluate the Unemployment Rate in East Java

Authors: Sifriyani Sifriyani, I Nyoman Budiantara, Sri Haryatmi, Gunardi Gunardi

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East Java Province has a first rank as a province that has the most counties and cities in Indonesia and has the largest population. In 2015, the population reached 38.847.561 million, this figure showed a very high population growth. High population growth is feared to lead to increase the levels of unemployment. In this study, the researchers mapped and modeled the unemployment rate with 6 variables that were supposed to influence. Modeling was done by nonparametric geographically weighted regression methods with truncated spline approach. This method was chosen because spline method is a flexible method, these models tend to look for its own estimation. In this modeling, there were point knots, the point that showed the changes of data. The selection of the optimum point knots was done by selecting the most minimun value of Generalized Cross Validation (GCV). Based on the research, 6 variables were declared to affect the level of unemployment in eastern Java. They were the percentage of population that is educated above high school, the rate of economic growth, the population density, the investment ratio of total labor force, the regional minimum wage and the ratio of the number of big industry and medium scale industry from the work force. The nonparametric geographically weighted regression models with truncated spline approach had a coefficient of determination 98.95% and the value of MSE equal to 0.0047.

Keywords: East Java, nonparametric geographically weighted regression, spatial, spline approach, unemployed rate

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42 Assessing Effects of an Intervention on Bottle-Weaning and Reducing Daily Milk Intake from Bottles in Toddlers Using Two-Part Random Effects Models

Authors: Yungtai Lo

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Two-part random effects models have been used to fit semi-continuous longitudinal data where the response variable has a point mass at 0 and a continuous right-skewed distribution for positive values. We review methods proposed in the literature for analyzing data with excess zeros. A two-part logit-log-normal random effects model, a two-part logit-truncated normal random effects model, a two-part logit-gamma random effects model, and a two-part logit-skew normal random effects model were used to examine effects of a bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use and daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months in a randomized controlled trial. We show in all four two-part models that the intervention promoted bottle-weaning and reduced daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers drinking from a bottle. We also show that there are no differences in model fit using either the logit link function or the probit link function for modeling the probability of bottle-weaning in all four models. Furthermore, prediction accuracy of the logit or probit link function is not sensitive to the distribution assumption on daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, truncated normal, gamma regression, skew normal, Pearson residual, receiver operating characteristic curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
41 Theoretical-Experimental Investigations on Free Vibration of Glass Fiber/Polyester Composite Conical Shells Containing Fluid

Authors: Tran Ich Thinh, Nguyen Manh Cuong

Abstract:

Free vibrations of partial fluid-filled composite truncated conical shells are investigated using the Dynamic Stiffness Method (DSM) or Continuous Element Method (CEM) based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) and non-viscous incompressible fluid equations. Numerical examples are given for analyzing natural frequencies and harmonic responses of clamped-free conical shells partially and completely filled with fluid. To compare with the theoretical results, detailed experimental results have been obtained on the free vibration of a clamped-free conical shells partially filled with water by using a multi-vibration measuring machine (DEWEBOOK-DASYLab 5.61.10). Three glass fiber/polyester composite truncated cones with the radius of the larger end 285 mm, thickness 2 mm, and the cone lengths along the generators are 285 mm, 427.5 mm and 570 mm with the semi-vertex angles 27, 14 and 9 degrees respectively were used, and the filling ratio of the contained water was 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0. The results calculated by proposed computational model for studied composite conical shells are in good agreement with experiments. Obtained results indicate that the fluid filling can reduce significantly the natural frequencies of composite conical shells. Parametric studies including circumferential wave number, fluid depth and cone angles are carried out.

Keywords: dynamic stiffness method, experimental study, free vibration, fluid-shell interaction, glass fiber/polyester composite conical shell

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40 Effect of Joule Heating on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over Truncated Cone with Convective Boundary Condition Using Spectral Quasilinearization Method

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chetteti

Abstract:

This work emphasizes the effects of heat generation/absorption and Joule heating on chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow over a truncated cone with convective boundary condition. For this complex fluid flow problem, the similarity solution does not exist and hence using non-similarity transformations, the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions are transformed into a set of non-dimensional partial differential equations. Several authors have applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The influence of pertinent parameters namely Biot number, Joule heating, heat generation/absorption, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, spectral quasilinearization method

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
39 Influence of Convective Boundary Condition on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over a Truncated Cone Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chitteti

Abstract:

This article analyzes the mixed convection flow of chemically reacting micropolar fluid over a truncated cone embedded in non-Darcy porous medium with convective boundary condition. In addition, heat generation/absorption and Joule heating effects are taken into consideration. The similarity solution does not exist for this complex fluid flow problem, and hence non-similarity transformations are used to convert the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions into a set of nondimensional partial differential equations. Many authors have been applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters namely, Biot number, mixed convection parameter, heat generation/absorption, Joule heating, Forchheimer number, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, mixed convection, spectral quasi-linearization method

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
38 Analysis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous- Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov

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For optimal unbiased filter as mean-square and in the case of functioning anomalous noises in the observation memory channel, we have proved insensitivity of filter to inaccurate knowledge of the anomalous noise intensity matrix and its equivalence to truncated filter plotted only by non anomalous components of an observation vector.

Keywords: mathematical expectation, filtration, anomalous noise, memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
37 Efficient Modeling Technique for Microstrip Discontinuities

Authors: Nassim Ourabia, Malika Ourabia

Abstract:

A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions, and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: CAD analysis, contour integral approach, microwave circuits, s-parameters

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36 Characteization and Optimization of S-Parameters of Microwave Circuits

Authors: N. Ourabia, M. Boubaker Ourabia

Abstract:

An approach for modeling and numerical simulation of passive planar structures using the edge line concept is developed. With this method, we develop an efficient modeling technique for microstrip discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then, it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: optimization, CAD analysis, microwave circuits, S-parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
35 Internally Displaced Persons: Implication to National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Olasunkanmi G. Jeje, John G. Laah, Eunice S. A. Jeje

Abstract:

In recent times Nigeria has been bedeviled with political, religious and ethnic crises such as indigene/settler phenomena, Boko Haram etc. resulting in the emergence of internally displaced persons(IDPs), this has been a hunch on national development. Most states of the federation have had their share of one crisis or the other such as Jos, Yobe, Borno etc thereby affecting the economy of the country. These persons are uprooted from their residential locations of which they are active contributors to the national GDP. In addition, the attempt to rehabilitate them has gulped billions of naira for feeding, shelter and medicals etc., which is not adequate for such. However, the financing could have been used for projects such as capacity building and infrastructural development. Similarly, traumatic experience by this group of people is overwhelming as most of them are mainly the aged, women and children. Importantly, the active roles of youths that constitute the productive sector of the economy have also been truncated. Therefore, it is the prerogative of this research to examine the effect of IDP's on National Development and also to recommend solutions.

Keywords: development, implication, internally displaced persons, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
34 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-cone

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
33 Pricing European Continuous-Installment Options under Regime-Switching Models

Authors: Saghar Heidari

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In this paper, we study the valuation problem of European continuous-installment options under Markov-modulated models with a partial differential equation approach. Due to the opportunity for continuing or stopping to pay installments, the valuation problem under regime-switching models can be formulated as coupled partial differential equations (CPDE) with free boundary features. To value the installment options, we express the truncated CPDE as a linear complementarity problem (LCP), then a finite element method is proposed to solve the resulted variational inequality. Under some appropriate assumptions, we establish the stability of the method and illustrate some numerical results to examine the rate of convergence and accuracy of the proposed method for the pricing problem under the regime-switching model.

Keywords: continuous-installment option, European option, regime-switching model, finite element method

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32 Design Optimisation of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for Improved Performance

Authors: R. Abd-Rahman, M. M. Isa, H. H. Goh

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A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a well known non-imaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver (PV cell). One of disadvantage of CPC is has tall and narrow height compared to its diameter entry aperture area. Therefore, for economic reason, a truncation had been done by removed from the top of the full height CPC. This is also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2-D hollow compound parabolic trough concentrator (hCPTC) design is presented. The untruncated design has initial height, H=193.4mm with concentration ratio, C_(2-D)=4. This paper presents the optical simulation of compound parabolic trough concentrator using ray-tracing software TracePro. Results showed that, after the truncation, the height of CPC reduced 45% from initial height with the geometrical concentration ratio only decrease 10%. Thus, the cost of reflector and material dielectric usage can be saved especially at manufacturing site.

Keywords: compound parabolic trough concentrator, optical modelling, ray-tracing analysis, improved performance

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31 Gender Policy in Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development in the Fourth Republic

Authors: Adadu Yahaya, Abdullahi Erunke Canice

Abstract:

The study sets out to examine the interface that tends to exist in the relationship between gender policy and Nigeria’s socio-economic development. Despite Nigeria’s ratification of virtually all international instruments on the protection and promotion of gender rights and equality, it appears that the practice is honored in the breach than in observance; hence, these policies have not been adequately domesticated and implemented. The implication of this is that the women folks have generally been isolated from mainstream politics and their political rights and privileges truncated in the scheme of things. The paper observes that gender inequality and marginalization in Nigeria has practically occasioned the unwholesome subjugation of Nigerian women to the background, hence poses more critical questions and challenges to the national question. The consequence of this, to this paper, is that Nigeria’s development process will be adversely affected if this trend is not checked. The paper sums up with appropriate policy options which are believed to have the potentials of giving women the right pride of place in the socio-economic and political dynamics in the 21st century Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: development, equality, gender, policy

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30 Spin Rate Decaying Law of Projectile with Hemispherical Head in Exterior Trajectory

Authors: Quan Wen, Tianxiao Chang, Shaolu Shi, Yushi Wang, Guangyu Wang

Abstract:

As a kind of working environment of the fuze, the spin rate decaying law of projectile in exterior trajectory is of great value in the design of the rotation count fixed distance fuze. In addition, it is significant in the field of devices for simulation tests of fuze exterior ballistic environment, flight stability, and dispersion accuracy of gun projectile and opening and scattering design of submunition and illuminating cartridges. Besides, the self-destroying mechanism of the fuze in small-caliber projectile often works by utilizing the attenuation of centrifugal force. In the theory of projectile aerodynamics and fuze design, there are many formulas describing the change law of projectile angular velocity in external ballistic such as Roggla formula, exponential function formula, and power function formula. However, these formulas are mostly semi-empirical due to the poor test conditions and insufficient test data at that time. These formulas are difficult to meet the design requirements of modern fuze because they are not accurate enough and have a narrow range of applications now. In order to provide more accurate ballistic environment parameters for the design of a hemispherical head projectile fuze, the projectile’s spin rate decaying law in exterior trajectory under the effect of air resistance was studied. In the analysis, the projectile shape was simplified as hemisphere head, cylindrical part, rotating band part, and anti-truncated conical tail. The main assumptions are as follows: a) The shape and mass are symmetrical about the longitudinal axis, b) There is a smooth transition between the ball hea, c) The air flow on the outer surface is set as a flat plate flow with the same area as the expanded outer surface of the projectile, and the boundary layer is turbulent, d) The polar damping moment attributed to the wrench hole and rifling mark on the projectile is not considered, e) The groove of the rifle on the rotating band is uniform, smooth and regular. The impacts of the four parts on aerodynamic moment of the projectile rotation were obtained by aerodynamic theory. The surface friction stress of the projectile, the polar damping moment formed by the head of the projectile, the surface friction moment formed by the cylindrical part, the rotating band, and the anti-truncated conical tail were obtained by mathematical derivation. After that, the mathematical model of angular spin rate attenuation was established. In the whole trajectory with the maximum range angle (38°), the absolute error of the polar damping torque coefficient obtained by simulation and the coefficient calculated by the mathematical model established in this paper is not more than 7%. Therefore, the credibility of the mathematical model was verified. The mathematical model can be described as a first-order nonlinear differential equation, which has no analytical solution. The solution can be only gained as a numerical solution by connecting the model with projectile mass motion equations in exterior ballistics.

Keywords: ammunition engineering, fuze technology, spin rate, numerical simulation

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