Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Onukwuli D. Okechukwu

8 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick

Abstract:

Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

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7 Arts and Cultural Heritage Digitalization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Okechukwu Uzoma Nkwocha, Edward Uche Omeire

Abstract:

Information and communication technologies (ICT) undeniably, have expanded the sphere of arts and creativity. It proves to be an important tool for production, preservation, sharing and utilization of arts and cultural heritage. While art and heritage institutions around the globe are increasingly utilizing ICT for the promotion and sharing of their collections, the story seems different in most part of Africa. In this paper, we will examine the prospects and problems of utilizing ICT in promotion, preservation and sharing of arts and cultural heritage.

Keywords: arts, cultural heritage, digitalization, ICT

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6 Premarital Sex, HIV and Use of Condom among Youths in Nigeria

Authors: Okechukwu Odinaka Ajaegbu

Abstract:

In the recent past, discussing about sex among children and youths was frowned at by traditional norms and as such sexual discussions and behavior were approached with great respect. Things are actually falling apart with the increasing number of young people that engage in premarital sex. Due to lack of experience and sex education, many young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. In the light of the above, this study discussed premarital sex, HIV and use of condom among youths in Nigeria. Data for this study came from 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and other secondary data. The survey revealed that only 18.5 percent of young women that had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey used condom. Out of 3306 never-married sexually active men and women, 1728 representing 52 percent live in urban areas and 43 percent of them did not use condom during sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey. This study concludes that for there to be reduction in prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Nigerian youths, there is need for concerted effort to be made towards educating youths on the expedient of the use of condom during sexual intercourse.

Keywords: condom, HIV, Nigeria, premarital sex, youths

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5 Design, Analysis and Construction of a 250vac 8amps Arc Welding Machine

Authors: Anthony Okechukwu Ifediniru, Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Isidore Uche Uju

Abstract:

This article is centered on the design, analysis, construction, and test of a locally made arc welding machine that operates on 250vac with 8 amp output taps ranging from 60vac to 250vac at a fixed frequency, which is of benefit to urban areas; while considering its cost-effectiveness, strength, portability, and mobility. The welding machine uses a power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the metal at the welding point. A current selector coil needed for current selection is connected to the primary winding. Electric power is supplied to the primary winding of its transformer and is transferred to the secondary winding by induction. The voltage and current output of the secondary winding are connected to the output terminal, which is used to carry out welding work. The output current of the machine ranges from 110amps for low current welding to 250amps for high current welding. The machine uses a step-down transformer configuration for stepping down the voltage in order to obtain a high current level for effective welding. The welder can adjust the output current within a certain range. This allows the welder to properly set the output current for the type of welding that is being performed. The constructed arc welding machine was tested by connecting the work piece to it. Since there was no shock or spark from the transformer’s laminated core and was successfully used to join metals, it confirmed and validated the design.

Keywords: AC current, arc welding machine, DC current, transformer, welds

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4 Assessing Smallholder Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change and Coping Strategies Adopted in the Olifants Catchment of South Africa

Authors: Mary Funke Olabanji, Thando Ndarana, Nerhene Davis, Sylvester Okechukwu Ilo

Abstract:

Scientific evidence indicates that climate change is already being experienced by farmers, and its impacts are felt on agricultural and food systems. Understanding the perceptions of farmers on climate change and how they respond to this change is essential to the development and implementation of appropriate policies for agriculture and food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of farmers’ perceptions of climate change, adopted coping strategies, long-term implications of their adaptation choices, and barriers to their decisions to adapt. Data were randomly collected from 73 respondents in five districts located in the Olifants catchment of South Africa. A combination of descriptive statistics and Chi-Square statistical tests using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyse the data obtained from the survey. Results show that smallholder farmers have an in-depth perception of climate change. The most significant changes perceived by farmers were increased temperature and low rainfall. The results equally revealed that smallholder farmers in the Olifants catchment had adopted several adaptation strategies in response to the perceived climate change. The significant adaptation strategies from the results include changing cropping patterns and planting date, use of improved seed variety, and chemical fertilizers. The study, therefore, concludes that crop diversification and agroforestry were more effective and sustainable in mitigating the impact of climate change.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, perception, smallholder farmers

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3 Bulking Rate of Cassava Genotypes and Their Root Yield Relationship at Guinea Savannah and Forest Transition Agroecological Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Olusegun D. Badewa, E. K. Tsado, A. S. Gana, K. D. Tolorunse, R. U. Okechukwu, P. Iluebbey, S. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Farmers are faced with varying production challenges ranging from unstable weather due to climate change, low yield, malnutrition, cattle invasion, and bush fires that have always affected their livelihood. Research effort must therefore be centered on improving farmers’ livelihood, nutrition, and health by providing early bulking biofortified cassava varieties that could be harvested earlier with reasonable root yield and thereby preventing long stay of the crop on their farmland. This study evaluated cassava genotypes at different harvesting months of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after planting in order to evaluate their bulking rate at different agroecology of Mokwa and Ubiaja. Data were collected on fresh storage root yield, Harvest index, and Dry matter content. It was shown from the study that traits FSRY, HI, and DM were significant for genotype and months after planting and variable among the genotype while location had no effect on the yield traits. Early bulking genotypes were not high yielding and showed discontinuity at some point across the months. The retrogression in yield performance across months had no effect on the highest yielding. Also, for all the genotypes and across evaluated months, FSRY reduces at 9 MAP due to a reduction in dry matter content during the same month, and the best performing genotype was the genotype IBA90581, followed by IBA120036, IBA130896, and IBA980581 while the least performing was genotype IBA130818.

Keywords: early bulking, dry mater, harvest index, high yielding, root yield

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2 An Investigation into Nigerian Consumers' Preference for Certain Categories of Foreign Products

Authors: Nnedum Obiajuru Anthony Ugochukwu, Emmanuel Ezechukwu

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate into Nigerian consumers’ preference for foreign products. Studies have discovered that Nigerian consumers like their counterparts in most developing countries have an insatiable preference for foreign products especially those from more technologically advanced countries (Okechukwu & Onyema, 1999; Agbonifoh & Elimimian, 1999). This attitude of the Nigerian consumers has resulted in many problems which challenge the industrial sector in Nigeria – lack of patronage resulting to, non-performing firms, endemic unemployment, underdeveloped industries and general lack of industrial growth. The major objective of this study is to investigate the reasons behind such attitude, and the factors that drive consumer preference for foreign products among Nigerian consumers. The study investigated specifically the psychological dimensions (personal values, self-concept, lifestyle and prestige), and demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income and occupation) that impact consumers’ preference for imported products in Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional and used survey method to collect data from one hundred and eighty-six respondents among postgraduate and part-time students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and consumers from Awka metropolis. The results of the study indicated that all the psychological variables used to measure consumer preference for foreign products were largely positive and significant determinants of consumer preference for foreign products. Demographic variables of age, gender, and income were not significant determinants of preference for foreign products. The results of the study, however, showed that level of education and occupation has the significant effect on consumer preference for foreign products.

Keywords: country of origin, xenocentrism, Nigeria, ethnocentrism, foreign products, consumer preference

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1 The Politics of Disruption: Disrupting Polity to Influence Policy in Nigeria

Authors: Okechukwu B. C. Nwankwo

Abstract:

The surge of social protests sweeping through the globe is a contemporary phenomenon. Yet the phenomenon in itself is not new. Thus, various scholars have over the years developed conceptual frameworks for evaluating it. Adopting and adapting some of these frameworks this paper begins from a purely theoretical perspective exploring the concept and content of social protest within the specific context of Nigeria. It proceeds to build a typology of the phenomenon in terms of form, actors, origin, character, organisation, goal, dynamics, outcome and a whole lot of other variables that are context relevant for evaluating it in an operationally useful manner. The centrality of the context in which protest evolves is demonstrated. Adopting Easton’s systems theory, the paper builds on the assumption that protests emerge whenever and wherever political institutions and structures prove unable or unwilling to transform inputs in form of basic demands into outputs in form of responsive policies. It argues that protests in Nigeria are simply the crystallisation of opposition in the streets. Protests are thus extra-institutional politics. This is usually the case, as elsewhere, where there is no functional institutionalised opposition. Noting that protest, disruptive or otherwise, is an influence strategy, it argues that every single protest is a new opportunity for reform, for reorganisation of state capacities, for modifying rights and obligation of citizens and government to each other. Each reform outcome is, however, only a temporal antecedent. Its extensity gives signal for the next similar protest event. Through providing evidence on how protests in Nigeria create opportunity for reform, for more accountable, more effective governance, the paper shows the positive impact of protests and its importance even in the consolidation effort for the nation’s nascent democracy. Data on protest events will be based on media reports, especially print media.

Keywords: democracy, dialectics, social protest, reform

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