Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 204

Search results for: refined cottonseed oil

204 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick

Abstract:

Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
203 Effect of Electron Beam Irradiated Cottonseed Meal on Carcass and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Somayyeh Salari, Marziyeh Nayefi, Mohsen Sari, Mehdi Behgar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam- irradiated cottonseed meal at a dose of 30 KGy on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Various levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) (0, 12, and 24%, radiation and no radiation) were used with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. At 42 d of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreatic, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p<0/05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and phosphorous concentrations increased and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p<0/05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve blood parameters of chickens.

Keywords: blood parameters, carcass characteristics, cottonseed meal, electron beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
202 Optimization of the Production Processes of Biodiesel from a Locally Sourced Gossypium herbaceum and Moringa oleifera

Authors: Ikechukwu Ejim

Abstract:

This research project addresses the optimization of biodiesel production from gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and moringa oleifera seeds. Soxhlet extractor method using n-hexane for gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and ethanol for moringa oleifera were used for solvent extraction. 1250 ml of oil was realized from both gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and moringa oleifera seeds before characterization. In transesterification process, a 4-factor-3-level experiment was conducted using an optimal design of Response Surface Methodology. The effects of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration (%), temperature (°C) and time (mins), on the yield of methyl ester for both cottonseed and moringa oleifera oils were determined. The design consisted of 25 experimental runs (5 lack of fit points, five replicate points, 0 additional center points and I optimality) and provided sufficient information to fit a second-degree polynomial model. The experimental results suggested that optimum conditions were as follows; cottonseed yield (96.231%), catalyst concentration (0.972%), temperature (55oC), time (60mins) and methanol/oil molar ratios (8/1) respectively while moringa oleifera optimum values were yield (80.811%), catalyst concentration (1.0%), temperature (54.7oC), time (30mins ) and methanol/oil molar ratios (8/1) respectively. This optimized conditions were validated with the actual biodiesel yield in experimental trials and literature.

Keywords: optimization, Gossypium herbaceum, Moringa oleifera, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
201 Variation in pH Values and Tenderness of Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipids

Authors: Erico Da Silva Lima, Tiago Neves Pereira Valente, Roberto De Oliveira Roça

Abstract:

Introduction: Over the last few years the market has increased its demand for high quality meat. Based on this premise some producers have continuously improved their efficiency in breeding beef cattle with the purpose to support this demand. It is well recognized that final quality of beef is intimately linked to animal’s diet. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of feeding animals with cottonseed and its lipids and the final results in terms of pH and shear forces of the meat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 h at 2°C. Using pH meter was determined post-mortem pH in Longissimus thoracis muscle between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. After, part of each animal was removed, and divided in three samples (steaks). Steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored individually in plastic bags under vacuum. Samples were frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The same samples cooked were refrigerated by 12 h the 4°C, and then cut into cylinders 1.10 Øcm with the support of a drill press avoiding fats and nerves. Shear force was calculated in these samples cut into cylinders through the Brookfield texture CT3 Texture Analyzer 25 k equipped with a set of blade Warner-Bratzler. Results and Discussion: No differences (P > 0.05) in pH 24 h after slaughter were observed in the meat of Nellore cattle fed different sources of fat, and mean value for this variable was 5.59. However, for the shear force differences (P < 0.05) were founded. For diet with 2,50% cottonseed the lowest value found 5.10 (kg) while for the treatment with 11.50% cottonseed the great value found was 6.30 (kg). High shear force values mean greater texture of meat that indicates less tenderness. The texture of the meat can be influenced by age, weight to the slaughter of animals. For cattle breed Nellore Bos taurus indicus more high value of shear force. Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected pH values in meat. The whole cottonseed does not contribute to the improvement of tenderness of the meat. Acknowledgments: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, shear force

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
200 Desirable Fatty Acids in Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipid-Based Diets

Authors: Tiago N. P. Valente, Erico S. Lima, Roberto O. Roça

Abstract:

Introduction: Research has stimulated animal production studies on solutions to decrease the level of saturated fatty acids and increase unsaturated in foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the dietary inclusion of lipid-based diets on the fatty acid profiles from finishing cattle. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months, and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After 63 days mean final live weight was 577.01 kg ± 11.34. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 hours at 2°C. Then, part of the M. longissimus thoracis of each animal was removed between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. The samples steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids was carried out in a gas chromatograph. Desirable fatty acids (FADes) were determined by the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid (C18:0). Results and Discussion: No differences (P>0.05) between the diets for the proportion of FADes in the meat of the animals in this study, according to the lipid sources used. The inclusion of protected fat or cottonseed in the diet did not change the proportion of FADes in the meat. The proportion mean of FADes in meat in the present study were: as pentadecanoic acid (C15:1 = 0.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 = 4.26%), heptadecanoic acid (C17:1 = 0.07%), oleic acid (C18:1n9c = 37.32%), γ-linolenic acid (0.94%) and α-linolenic acid (1.04%), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t = 0.50%), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3 = 0.03%), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 = 0.04%), erucic acid (C22:1n9 = 0.89%), docosadienoic acid (C22:2 = 0.04%) and stearic acid (C18:0 = 21.53%). Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected fatty acids profiles the desirable fatty acids in meat. Acknowledgements: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, unsaturated fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
199 Correlation and Prediction of Biodiesel Density

Authors: Nieves M. C. Talavera-Prieto, Abel G. M. Ferreira, António T. G. Portugal, Rui J. Moreira, Jaime B. Santos

Abstract:

The knowledge of biodiesel density over large ranges of temperature and pressure is important for predicting the behavior of fuel injection and combustion systems in diesel engines, and for the optimization of such systems. In this study, cottonseed oil was transesterified into biodiesel and its density was measured at temperatures between 288 K and 358 K and pressures between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa, with expanded uncertainty estimated as ±1.6 kg.m^-3. Experimental pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) cottonseed data was used along with literature data relative to other 18 biodiesels, in order to build a database used to test the correlation of density with temperarure and pressure using the Goharshadi–Morsali–Abbaspour equation of state (GMA EoS). To our knowledge, this is the first that density measurements are presented for cottonseed biodiesel under such high pressures, and the GMA EoS used to model biodiesel density. The new tested EoS allowed correlations within 0.2 kg•m-3 corresponding to average relative deviations within 0.02%. The built database was used to develop and test a new full predictive model derived from the observed linear relation between density and degree of unsaturation (DU), which depended from biodiesel FAMEs profile. The average density deviation of this method was only about 3 kg.m-3 within the temperature and pressure limits of application. These results represent appreciable improvements in the context of density prediction at high pressure when compared with other equations of state.

Keywords: biodiesel density, correlation, equation of state, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
198 Development of a Process to Manufacture High Quality Refined Salt from Crude Solar Salt

Authors: Rathnayaka D. D. T. , Vidanage P. W. , Wasalathilake K. C. , Wickramasingha H. W. , Wijayarathne U. P. L. , Perera S. A. S.

Abstract:

This paper describes the research carried out to develop a process to increase the NaCl percentage of crude salt which is obtained from the conventional solar evaporation process. In this study refined salt was produced from crude solar salt by a chemico-physical method which consists of coagulation, precipitation and filtration. Initially crude salt crystals were crushed and dissolved in water. Optimum amounts of calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) were added to the solution respectively. Refined NaCl solution was separated out by a filtration process. The solution was tested for Total Suspended Solids, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+. With optimum dosage of reagents, the results showed that a level of 99.60% NaCl could be achieved. Further this paper discusses the economic viability of the proposed process. A 83% profit margin can be achieved by this process and it is an increase of 112.3% compared to the traditional process.

Keywords: chemico-physical, economic, optimum, refined, solar salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
197 Effect of Zirconium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti on its Resistance to Wear: A Three-Dimensional Approach

Authors: S. M. A. Al-Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their good and useful properties e.g. high strength to weight ratio, high thermal and electrical conductivities and good resistance to corrosion. However, against these favorable properties they have the disadvantage they solidifying large grain columnar structure which negatively affects their mechanical properties and surface quality. Aluminum alloys are normally grain refined by some alloying elements, such as Ti, Ti-B or Zr. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition to Al grain refined by Ti after extrusion on its wear resistance is investigated under different loads and sliding speeds namely at 5,10 and 20 N loads and sliding speeds ranging from m/min. and m/min. the results are presented in three-dimensional wear mode. To the best the authors' knowledge, the wear of aluminum in 3-dimensions has never been tackled before. In this work, the wear resistance of by presenting the results of wear are presented and discussed on the time, load and speed plots.

Keywords: aluminum grain refined, addition of titanium, wear resistance, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
196 Characteristics of Tremella fuciformis and Annulohypoxylon stygium for Optimal Cultivation Conditions

Authors: Eun-Ji Lee, Hye-Sung Park, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong

Abstract:

We analyzed the DNA sequence of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the 18S ribosomal gene and compared it with the gene sequence of T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. in the BLAST database. The sequences of collected T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. have over 99% homology in the T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. sequence BLAST database. In order to select the optimal medium for T. fuciformis, five kinds of a medium such as Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), Yeast extract (YM), and Compost Extract Dextrose Agar (CDA) were used. T. fuciformis showed the best growth on PDA medium, and Hypoxylon sp. showed the best growth on MCM. So as to investigate the optimum pH and temperature, the pH range was set to pH4 to pH8 and the temperature range was set to 15℃ to 35℃ (5℃ degree intervals). Optimum culture conditions for the T. fuciformis growth were pH5 at 25℃. Hypoxylon sp. were pH6 at 25°C. In order to confirm the most suitable carbon source, we used fructose, galactose, saccharose, soluble starch, inositol, glycerol, xylose, dextrose, lactose, dextrin, Na-CMC, adonitol. Mannitol, mannose, maltose, raffinose, cellobiose, ethanol, salicine, glucose, arabinose. In the optimum carbon source, T. fuciformis is xylose and Hypoxylon sp. is arabinose. Using the column test, we confirmed sawdust a suitable for T. fuciformis, since the composition of sawdust affects the growth of fruiting bodies of T. fuciformis. The sawdust we used is oak tree, pine tree, poplar, birch, cottonseed meal, cottonseed hull. In artificial cultivation of T. fuciformis with sawdust medium, T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. showed fast mycelial growth on mixture of oak tree sawdust, cottonseed hull, and wheat bran.

Keywords: cultivation, optimal condition, tremella fuciformis, nutritional source

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
195 Effect of Normal Deformation on the Stability of Sandwich Beams Simply Supported Using a Refined Four-Variable Beam Theory

Authors: R. Bennai, M. Nebab, H. Ait Atmane, B. Ayache, H. Fourn

Abstract:

In this work, a study of the stability of a functionally graduated sandwiches beam using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending on the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. In order to examine the present model, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as the material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness and thickness ratio –length on the buckling of FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: FGM materials, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, buckling, boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
194 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan

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In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
193 Effect of Zr Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti+B on Its Wear Resistance after Extrusion Condition

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Safwan M. A. Alqawabah

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Review of the available literature on grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys reveals that little work is published on the effect of refiners on mechanical characteristics and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zr to Al grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical, mechanical characteristics and wear resistance both in the as cast and after extrusion condition are presented and discussed. It was found that Addition of Zr to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical strength and hardness, whereas it resulted in improvement of both of them when added to Al grain refined by Ti+B. Furthermore it was found that the direct extrusion process resulted in further increase of the mechanical strength and hardness of Al and its micro-alloys. Also it resulted in increase of their work hardening index, n, i.e. improved their formability, hence it reduces the number of stages required for forming at large strains in excess of the plastic instability before Zr addition.

Keywords: aluminum, grain refinement, titanium + boron, zirconium, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance, direct extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
192 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: aluminum, fatigue, grain refinement, titanium, titanium+boron, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
191 Specific Emitter Identification Based on Refined Composite Multiscale Dispersion Entropy

Authors: Shaoying Guo, Yanyun Xu, Meng Zhang, Weiqing Huang

Abstract:

The wireless communication network is developing rapidly, thus the wireless security becomes more and more important. Specific emitter identification (SEI) is an vital part of wireless communication security as a technique to identify the unique transmitters. In this paper, a SEI method based on multiscale dispersion entropy (MDE) and refined composite multiscale dispersion entropy (RCMDE) is proposed. The algorithms of MDE and RCMDE are used to extract features for identification of five wireless devices and cross-validation support vector machine (CV-SVM) is used as the classifier. The experimental results show that the total identification accuracy is 99.3%, even at low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of 5dB, which proves that MDE and RCMDE can describe the communication signal series well. In addition, compared with other methods, the proposed method is effective and provides better accuracy and stability for SEI.

Keywords: cross-validation support vector machine, refined com- posite multiscale dispersion entropy, specific emitter identification, transient signal, wireless communication device

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
190 A Modified Refined Higher Order Zigzag Theory for Stress Analysis of Hybrid Composite Laminates

Authors: Dhiraj Biswas, Chaitali Ray

Abstract:

A modified refined higher order zigzag theory has been developed in this paper in order to compute the accurate interlaminar stresses within hybrid laminates. Warping has significant effect on the mechanical behaviour of the laminates. To the best of author(s)’ knowledge the stress analysis of hybrid laminates is not reported in the published literature. The present paper aims to develop a new C0 continuous element based on the refined higher order zigzag theories considering warping effect in the formulation of hybrid laminates. The eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is used for the flexural analysis of laminated composite plates to study the performance of the proposed model. The transverse shear stresses are computed by using the differential equations of stress equilibrium in a simplified manner. A computer code has been developed using MATLAB software package. Several numerical examples are solved to assess the performance of the present finite element model based on the proposed higher order zigzag theory by comparing the present results with three-dimensional elasticity solutions. The present formulation is validated by comparing the results obtained from the relevant literature. An extensive parametric study has been carried out on the hybrid laminates with varying percentage of materials and angle of orientation of fibre content.

Keywords: hybrid laminate, Interlaminar stress, refined higher order zigzag theory, warping effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
189 Comparative Analysis of Oil Extracts from Cotton and Watermelon Seeds

Authors: S. A. Jumare, A. O. Tijani, M. F. Siraj, B. V. Babatunde

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This research investigated the comparative analysis of oil extracted from cotton and watermelon seeds using solvent extraction process. Normal ethyl-ether was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the physiochemical properties of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined include specific gravity, refractive index, colour, odour, taste and pH. The value obtained for cottonseed oil are saponification value (187mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (5.64mgKOH/g), iodine value (95.2g/100), peroxide value (9.33meq/kg), acid value (11.22mg/KOH/g), pH value (4.62), refractive index (1.46), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a bland odour, a reddish brown colour and a mild taste. The values obtained for watermelon seed oil are saponification value (83.3mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (6.58mg/KOH/g), iodine value (122.6g/100), peroxide value (5.3meq/kg), acid value (3.74mgKOH/g), pH value (6.3), refractive index (1.47), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a nutty flavour, a golden yellow colour and a mild taste. From the result obtained, it shows that cottonseed oil has high acid value which shows the stability of the oil and its stability to rancidity. Consequently, watermelon seed oil is order wise.

Keywords: extraction, solvent, cotton seeds, watermelon seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
188 Comparative Rumen Degradable and Rumen Undegradable Fractions in Untreated, Formaldehyde and Heat Treated Vegetable Protein Sources of Pakistan

Authors: Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani, Nasrullah, Masood Ul Haq Kakar, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso, Behram Chacher

Abstract:

Protein sources are the major part of ration fed to dairy buffaloes in Pakistan however, the limited availability and lack of judicious use of protein resources are further aggravating the conditions to enhance milk and meat production. In order to gain maximum production from limited protein source availability, it is necessary to balance feed for rumen degradable and rumen undegradable protein fractions. This study planned to know the rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions in all vegetable protein sources with (formaldehyde and heat treatment) and without treatments. Samples of soybean meal, corn gluten meal 60%, maize gluten feed, guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, canola meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed meal, coconut cake, coconut meal, palm kernel cake, almond cake and sesame cake were collected from ten different geographical locations of Pakistan. These samples were also subjected to formaldehyde (1% /100g CP of test feed) and heat treatments (1 hr at 15 lb psi/100 g CP of test feed). In situ technique was used to know the ruminal degradability characteristics. Data obtained were fitted to Orskove equation. Results showed that both treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased ruminal degradability in all vegetable protein sources than untreated vegetable protein sources, however, of both treatments, heat treatment was more effective than formaldehyde treatment in decreasing ruminal degradability in most of the studied vegetable protein sources.

Keywords: formaldehyde and heat treatments, in situ technique, rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions, vegetable protein sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
187 Effect of Molybdenum Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Titanium Plus Boron on Its Grain Size and Mechanical Characteristics in the Cast and After Pressing by the Equal Channel Angular Pressing Conditions

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid, A. M. Attieh, S. M. A. Al Qawabah

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys solidify in columnar structure with large grain size which tends to reduce their mechanical strength and surface quality. They are, therefore, grain refined by addition of either titanium or titanium plus boron to their melt before solidification. Equal channel angular pressing, ECAP, process is a recent forming method for producing heavy plastic deformation in materials. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition to aluminum grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics are investigated in the as cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process. It was found that addition of Mo or Ti+B alone or together to aluminum resulted in grain refining of its microstructure in the as cast condition, as the average grain size was reduced from 139 micron to 46 micron when Mo and Ti+B are added together. Pressing by the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the microstructure where 32 micron of average grain size was achieved in Al and the Al-Mo microalloy. Regarding the mechanical strength, addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical behavior but resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behavior when added together, increase of 10% in flow stress was achieved at 20% strain. However, pressing by ECAP addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical strength but reduced its strength when added together.

Keywords: ECAP, aluminum, cast, mechanical characteristics, Mo grain refiner

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
186 Refined Edge Detection Network

Authors: Omar Elharrouss, Youssef Hmamouche, Assia Kamal Idrissi, Btissam El Khamlichi, Amal El Fallah-Seghrouchni

Abstract:

Edge detection is represented as one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision, due to the complexity of detecting the edges or boundaries in real-world images that contains objects of different types and scales like trees, building as well as various backgrounds. Edge detection is represented also as a key task for many computer vision applications. Using a set of backbones as well as attention modules, deep-learning-based methods improved the detection of edges compared with the traditional methods like Sobel and Canny. However, images of complex scenes still represent a challenge for these methods. Also, the detected edges using the existing approaches suffer from non-refined results while the image output contains many erroneous edges. To overcome this, n this paper, by using the mechanism of residual learning, a refined edge detection network is proposed (RED-Net). By maintaining the high resolution of edges during the training process, and conserving the resolution of the edge image during the network stage, we make the pooling outputs at each stage connected with the output of the previous layer. Also, after each layer, we use an affined batch normalization layer as an erosion operation for the homogeneous region in the image. The proposed methods are evaluated using the most challenging datasets including BSDS500, NYUD, and Multicue. The obtained results outperform the designed edge detection networks in terms of performance metrics and quality of output images.

Keywords: edge detection, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, scale-representation, backbone

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
185 Study of the Buckling of Sandwich Beams Consider Stretching Effect

Authors: R. Bennai, H. Ait Atmane, H. Fourne, B. Ayache

Abstract:

In this work, an analytical approach using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed to study the buckling of graduated sandwiches beams under different boundary conditions. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending on the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. The core layer is taken homogeneous and made of an isotropic material; while the banks layers consist of functionally graded materials with a homogeneous fraction compared to the middle layer. In the end, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as (material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness, boundary conditions and thickness ratio-length) on the vibration free of an FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: FGM materials, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
184 Refined Procedures for Second Order Asymptotic Theory

Authors: Gubhinder Kundhi, Paul Rilstone

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Refined procedures for higher-order asymptotic theory for non-linear models are developed. These include a new method for deriving stochastic expansions of arbitrary order, new methods for evaluating the moments of polynomials of sample averages, a new method for deriving the approximate moments of the stochastic expansions; an application of these techniques to gather improved inferences with the weak instruments problem is considered. It is well established that Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators in the presence of weak instruments can be poorly behaved, in particular, be quite biased in finite samples. In our application, finite sample approximations to the distributions of these estimators are obtained using Edgeworth and Saddlepoint expansions. Departures from normality of the distributions of these estimators are analyzed using higher order analytical corrections in these expansions. In a Monte-Carlo experiment, the performance of these expansions is compared to the first order approximation and other methods commonly used in finite samples such as the bootstrap.

Keywords: edgeworth expansions, higher order asymptotics, saddlepoint expansions, weak instruments

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
183 Finding the Optimal Meeting Point Based on Travel Plans in Road Networks

Authors: Mohammad H. Ahmadi, Vahid Haghighatdoost

Abstract:

Given a set of source locations for a group of friends, and a set of trip plans for each group member as a sequence of Categories-of-Interests (COIs) (e.g., restaurant), and finally a specific COI as a common destination that all group members will gather together, in Meeting Point Based on Trip Plans (MPTPs) queries our goal is to find a Point-of-Interest (POI) from different COIs, such that the aggregate travel distance for the group is minimized. In this work, we considered two cases for aggregate function as Sum and Max. For solving this query, we propose an efficient pruning technique for shrinking the search space. Our approach contains three steps. In the first step, it prunes the search space around the source locations. In the second step, it prunes the search space around the centroid of source locations. Finally, we compute the intersection of all pruned areas as the final refined search space. We prove that the POIs beyond the refined area cannot be part of optimal answer set. The paper also covers an extensive performance study of the proposed technique.

Keywords: meeting point, trip plans, road networks, spatial databases

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182 Candida antartica Lipase Assisted Enrichment of n-3 PUFA in Indian Sardine Oil

Authors: Prasanna Belur, P. R. Ashwini, Sampath Charanyaa, I. Regupathi

Abstract:

Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) are one of the richest and cheapest sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The health benefits conferred by n-3 PUFA upon consumption, in the prevention and treatment of coronary, neuromuscular, immunological disorders and allergic conditions are well documented. Natural refined Indian Sardine oil generally contain about 25% (w/w) n-3 PUFA along with various unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of mono, di, and triglycerides. Having high concentration of n-3 PUFA content in the glyceride form is most desirable for human consumption to avail maximum health benefits. Thus, enhancing the n-3 PUFA content while retaining it in the glyceride form with green technology is the need of the hour. In this study, refined Indian Sardine oil was subjected to selective hydrolysis by Candida antartica lipase to enhance n-3 PUFA content. The degree of hydrolysis and enhancement of n-3 PUFA content was estimated by determining acid value, Iodine value, EPA and DHA content (by Gas Chromatographic methods after derivitization) before and after hydrolysis. Various reaction parameters such as pH, temperature, enzyme load, lipid to aqueous phase volume ratio and incubation time were optimized by conducting trials with one parameter at a time approach. Incubating enzyme solution with refined sardine oil with a volume ratio of 1:1, at pH 7.0, for 60 minutes at 50 °C, with an enzyme load of 60 mg/ml was found to be optimum. After enzymatic treatment, the oil was subjected to refining to remove free fatty acids and moisture content using previously optimized refining technology. Enzymatic treatment at the optimal conditions resulted in 12.11 % enhancement in Degree of hydrolysis. Iodine number had increased by 9.7 % and n-3 PUFA content was enhanced by 112 % (w/w). Selective enhancement of n-3 PUFA glycerides, eliminating saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from the oil using enzyme is an interesting preposition as this technique is environment-friendly, cost effective and provide natural source of n-3 PUFA rich oil.

Keywords: Candida antartica, lipase, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, sardine oil

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181 Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil to Biodiesel in a Continuous Spinning Disc Reactor

Authors: Weerinda Appamana, Jirapong Keawkoon, Yamonporn Pacthong, Jirathiti Chitsanguansuk, Yanyong Sookklay

Abstract:

In the present work, spinning disc reactor has been used for the intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from refined palm oil (RPO) based on the transesterification reaction. Experiments have been performed using different spinning disc surface and under varying operating parameters viz. molar ratio of oil to methanol (over the range of 1:4.5–1:9), rotational speed (over the range of 500–2,000 rpm), total flow rate (over the range of 260-520 ml/min), and KOH catalyst loading of 1.50% by weight of oil. Maximum FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) yield (97.5 %) of biodiesel from RPO was obtained at oil to methanol ratio of 1:6, temperature of 60 °C, and rotational speed of 1500 rpm and flow rate of 520 mL/min using groove disc at KOH catalyst loading of 1.5 wt%. Also, higher yield efficiency (biodiesel produced per unit energy consumed) was obtained for using the spinning disc reactor based approach as compared to the ultrasound hydrodynamic cavitation and conventional mechanical stirrer reactors. It obviously offers a significant reduction in the reaction time for the transesterification, especially when compared with the reaction time of 90 minutes required for the conventional mechanical stirrer. It can be concluded that the spinning disk reactor is a promising alternative method for continuous biodiesel production.

Keywords: spinning disc reactor, biodiesel, process intensification, yield efficiency

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180 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
179 A Higher Order Shear and Normal Deformation Theory for Functionally Graded Sandwich Beam

Authors: R. Bennai, H. Ait Atmane, Jr., A. Tounsi

Abstract:

In this work, a new analytical approach using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed to study the free vibration of graduated sandwiches beams under different boundary conditions. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. The core layer is taken homogeneous and made of an isotropic material; while the banks layers consist of FGM materials with a homogeneous fraction compared to the middle layer. Movement equations are obtained by the energy minimization principle. Analytical solutions of free vibration and buckling are obtained for sandwich beams under different support conditions; these conditions are taken into account by incorporating new form functions. In the end, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as (material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness, boundary conditions and thickness ratio - length) on the vibration free and buckling of an FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: functionally graded sandwich beam, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, free vibration

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178 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Donglian Sun, Yu Li, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan

Abstract:

California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
177 Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibrils from Pulp Using Enzymatic Pretreatment and Evaluation of Their Papermaking Potential

Authors: Ajay Kumar Singh, Arvind Kumar, S. P. Singh

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Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have shown potential of their extensive use in various fields, including papermaking, due to their unique characteristics. In this study, CNF’s were prepared by fibrillating the pulp obtained from raw materials e.g. bagasse, hardwood and softwood using enzymatic pretreatment followed by mechanical refining. These nanofibrils, when examined under FE-SEM, show that partial fibrillation on fiber surface has resulted in production of nanofibers. Mixing these nanofibers with the unrefined and normally refined fibers show their reinforcing effect. This effect is manifested in observing the improvement in the physical and mechanical properties e.g. tensile index and burst index of paper. Tear index, however, was observed to decrease on blending with nanofibers. The optical properties of paper sheets made from blended fibers showed no significant change in comparison to those made from only mechanically refined pulp. Mixing of normal pulp fibers with nanofibers show increase in ºSR and consequent decrease in drainage rate. These changes observed in mechanical, optical and other physical properties of the paper sheets made from nanofibrils blended pulp have been tried to explain considering the distribution of the nanofibrils alongside microfibrils in the fibrous network. Since usually, paper/boards with higher strength are observed to have diminished optical properties which is a drawback in their quality, the present work has the potential for developing paper/boards having improved strength alongwith undiminished optical properties utilising the concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Keywords: enzymatic pretreatment, mechanical refining, nanofibrils, paper properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
176 Investigating the Use of Rigid-Foundation Impedance Function for Time-Domain Substructure Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Taha, Niloofar Malekghaini, Hamed Ebrahimian, Ramin Motamed

Abstract:

This paper compares the substructure and direct methods for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis in the time domain. In the substructure SSI method, the soil domain is replaced by a set of springs and dashpots, also referred to as the impedance function, derived through the study of the behavior of a massless rigid foundation. The impedance function is inherently frequency dependent, i.e., it varies as a function of the frequency content of the structural response. To use the frequency-dependent impedance function for time-domain SSI analysis, the impedance function is approximated at the fundamental frequency of the structure-soil system. To explore the potential limitations of the substructure modeling process, a two-dimensional reinforced concrete frame structure is modeled using substructure and direct methods in this study. The results show discrepancies between the simulated responses of the substructure and the direct approaches. To isolate the effects of higher modal responses, the same study is repeated using a harmonic input motion, in which a similar discrepancy is still observed between the substructure and direct approaches. It is concluded that the main source of discrepancy between the substructure and direct SSI approaches is likely attributed to the way the impedance functions are calculated, i.e., assuming a massless rigid foundation without considering the presence of the superstructure. Hence, a refined impedance function, considering the presence of the superstructure, shall be developed. This refined impedance function is expected to significantly improve the simulation accuracy of the substructure approach for structural systems whose behavior is dominated by the fundamental mode response.

Keywords: direct approach, impedance function, soil-structure interaction, substructure approach

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175 The Impact of Introspective Models on Software Engineering

Authors: Rajneekant Bachan, Dhanush Vijay

Abstract:

The visualization of operating systems has refined the Turing machine, and current trends suggest that the emulation of 32 bit architectures will soon emerge. After years of technical research into Web services, we demonstrate the synthesis of gigabit switches, which embodies the robust principles of theory. Loam, our new algorithm for forward-error correction, is the solution to all of these challenges.

Keywords: software engineering, architectures, introspective models, operating systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 454