Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1328

Search results for: unmanned aerial vehicle

1328 Dynamic Modeling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Petro-Engine

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

Abstract:

In the following article, we present the dynamic simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle with main fuel engine in the middle to carry most of the weight. This configuration will increase the flight time of the vehicle for a given payload size as opposed to the traditional quad rotor, where only DC motors are used. A parametric study to investigate the effect of the propellers ratio (main rotor propeller diameter to secondary rotor propeller diameter), the angle of incidence of the main rotor and the twist angle of the main rotor blades on selected performance criteria is presented.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), quadrotor, petrol quadcopter, flying robot

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1327 Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Vikram Prabhu, Mohammad Shikh Bahaei

Abstract:

This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.

Keywords: interlock protocol, Diffie-Hellman algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicles, control station, man-in-the-middle attack, Wireshark

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1326 Automatic Battery Charging for Rotor Wings Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Jeyeon Kim

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of the automatic battery charging device for the rotor wings type unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the positioning method that can be accurately landed on the charging device when landing. The developed automatic battery charging device is considered by simple maintenance, durability, cost and error of the positioning when landing. In order to for the UAV accurately land on the charging device, two kinds of markers (a color marker and a light marker) installed on the charging device is detected by the camera mounted on the UAV. And then, the UAV is controlled so that the detected marker becomes the center of the image and is landed on the device. We conduct the performance evaluation of the proposal positioning method by the outdoor experiments at day and night, and show the effectiveness of the system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, automatic battery charging, positioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1325 Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geohazard Mapping: Case Study Dominica

Authors: Michael Mickson

Abstract:

The recent development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been increasing the number of technical solutions that can be used to identify, map, and manage the effects of geohazards. UAVs are generally cheaper and more versatile than traditional remote-sensing techniques, and they can be therefore considered as a good alternative for the acquisition of imagery and other remote sensing data before, during and after a natural hazard event. This study aims to use UAV for investigating areas susceptible to high mobility flows such as debris flow in Dominica, especially after the 2017 Hurricane Maria. The use of UAVs in identifying, mapping and managing of natural hazards helps to mitigate the negative effects of natural hazards on livelihood, properties and the built environment.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), geohazards, remote sensing, mapping, Dominica

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1324 Risk Assessment for Aerial Package Delivery

Authors: Haluk Eren, Ümit Çelik

Abstract:

Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have begun to attract intense interest. UAVs started to use for many different applications from military to civilian use. Some online retailer and logistics companies are testing the UAV delivery. UAVs have great potentials to reduce cost and time of deliveries and responding to emergencies in a short time. Despite these great positive sides, just a few works have been done for routing of UAVs for package deliveries. As known, transportation of goods from one place to another may have many hazards on delivery route due to falling hazards that can be exemplified as ground objects or air obstacles. This situation refers to wide-range insurance concept. For this reason, deliveries that are made with drones get into the scope of shipping insurance. On the other hand, air traffic was taken into account in the absence of unmanned aerial vehicle. But now, it has been a reality for aerial fields. In this study, the main goal is to conduct risk analysis of package delivery services using drone, based on delivery routes.

Keywords: aerial package delivery, insurance estimation, territory risk map, unmanned aerial vehicle, route risk estimation, drone risk assessment, drone package delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1323 Brain-Computer Interface Based Real-Time Control of Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Ravi Vishwanath, Saumya Kumaar, S. N. Omkar

Abstract:

Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is a technology that is almost four decades old, and it was developed solely for the purpose of developing and enhancing the impact of neuroprosthetics. However, in the recent times, with the commercialization of non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, the technology has seen a wide variety of applications like home automation, wheelchair control, vehicle steering, etc. One of the latest developed applications is the mind-controlled quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. These applications, however, do not require a very high-speed response and give satisfactory results when standard classification methods like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLPC). Issues are faced when there is a requirement for high-speed control in the case of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles where such methods are rendered unreliable due to the low speed of classification. Such an application requires the system to classify data at high speeds in order to retain the controllability of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method of classification which uses a combination of Common Spatial Paradigm and Linear Discriminant Analysis that provides an improved classification accuracy in real time. A non-linear SVM based classification technique has also been discussed. Further, this paper discusses the implementation of the proposed method on a fixed-wing and VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, classification, machine learning, unmanned aerial vehicles

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1322 Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Lana Dalawr Jalal

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex three-dimensional environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.

Keywords: obstacle avoidance, particle swarm optimization, three-dimensional path planning unmanned aerial vehicles

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1321 Unmanned Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Abdullah Beyazkurk, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

The evolution of warfare has been affected from technological developments to a large extent. Another important factor that affected the evolution of warfare is the space. Technological developments became cornerstones for the organization of the forces on the field, while space of the battlefield gained importance with the introduction of urban areas as 'battlefields'. The use of urban areas as battlefields increased the casualty, while technological developments began to play a remedial role. Thus, the unmanned systems drew attention as the remedy. Today's widely used unmanned aerial vehicles have great effects on the operations. On the other hand, with the increasing urbanization, and the wide use of urban areas as battlefields make it a necessity to benefit from unmanned systems on the ground as well. This study focuses on the use of unmanned aerial systems as well as unmanned ground systems in urban warfare, with regards to their performance and cost affectivity. The study defends that the use of unmanned vehicles will be remedial for increasing casualty rates, while their precision and superhuman capacity will manifest the performance advantage. The findings of this study will help modern armies focus on unmanned systems, especially for the urban, anti-terror, or counter insurgency operations.

Keywords: technology, warfare, urban warfare, unmanned systems, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles

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1320 Path Planning for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Adaptive Probabilistic Sampling Algorithm

Authors: Long Cheng, Tong He, Iraj Mantegh, Wen-Fang Xie

Abstract:

Path planning is essential for UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with autonomous navigation in unknown environments. In this paper, an adaptive probabilistic sampling algorithm is proposed for the GPS-denied environment, which can be utilized for autonomous navigation system of multiple UAVs in a dynamically-changing structured environment. This method can be used for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) solutions and in autonomous urban aerial mobility, where a number of platforms are expected to share the airspace. A path network is initially built off line based on available environment map, and on-board sensors systems on the flying UAVs are used for continuous situational awareness and to inform the changes in the path network. Simulation results based on MATLAB and Gazebo in different scenarios and algorithms performance measurement show the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed technique in unknown environments.

Keywords: path planning, adaptive probabilistic sampling, obstacle avoidance, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unknown environments

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1319 Skew Planar Wheel Antenna for First Person View of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Raymond Yudhi Purba, Levy Olivia Nur, Radial Anwar

Abstract:

This research presents the design and measurement of a skew planar wheel antenna that is used to visualize the first person view perspective of unmanned aerial vehicles. The antenna has been designed using CST Studio Suite 2019 to have voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) ≤ 2, return loss ≤ -10 dB, bandwidth ≥ 100 MHz to covering outdoor access point band from 5.725 to 5.825 GHz, omnidirectional radiation pattern, and elliptical polarization. Dimensions of skew planar wheel antenna have been modified using parameter sweep technique to provide good performances. The simulation results provide VSWR 1.231, return loss -19.693 dB, bandwidth 828.8 MHz, gain 3.292 dB, and axial ratio 9.229 dB. Meanwhile, the measurement results provide VSWR 1.237, return loss -19.476 dB, bandwidth 790.5 MHz, gain 3.2034 dB, and axial ratio 4.12 dB.

Keywords: skew planar wheel, cloverleaf, first-person view, unmanned aerial vehicle, parameter sweep

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1318 Registration of Multi-Temporal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Facility Monitoring

Authors: Dongyeob Han, Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Choonghyun Kang

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used for surveillance, monitoring, inspection, and mapping. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for automatic registration of UAV images for monitoring facilities such as building, green house, and civil structures. The two-step process is applied; 1) an image matching technique based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus), 2) bundle adjustment of multi-temporal images. Image matching to find corresponding points is one of the most important steps for the precise registration of multi-temporal images. We used the SURF algorithm to find a quick and effective matching points. RANSAC algorithm was used in the process of finding matching points between images and in the bundle adjustment process. Experimental results from UAV images showed that our approach has a good accuracy to be applied to the change detection of facility.

Keywords: building, image matching, temperature, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1317 Hazardous Vegetation Detection in Right-Of-Way Power Transmission Lines in Brazil Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Light Detection and Ranging

Authors: Mauricio George Miguel Jardini, Jose Antonio Jardini

Abstract:

Transmission power utilities participate with kilometers of circuits, many with particularities in terms of vegetation growth. To control these rights-of-way, maintenance teams perform ground, and air inspections, and the identification method is subjective (indirect). On a ground inspection, when identifying an irregularity, for example, high vegetation threatening contact with the conductor cable, pruning or suppression is performed immediately. In an aerial inspection, the suppression team is mobilized to the identified point. This work investigates the use of 3D modeling of a transmission line segment using RGB (red, blue, and green) images and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensor data. Both sensors are coupled to unmanned aerial vehicle. The goal is the accurate and timely detection of vegetation along the right-of-way that can cause shutdowns.

Keywords: 3D modeling, LiDAR, right-of-way, transmission lines, vegetation

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1316 Concept and Design of a Biomimetic Single-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV)

Authors: S. Thomas, D. Ho, A. Kerroux, L. Lixi, N. Rackham, S. Rosenfeld

Abstract:

In this first paper, the different concepts and designs to build a single-wing MAV are discussed. Six scratch-building prototypes using three different designs have been tested regarding sufficient lift and weight distribution, of which various configurations were explored. Samare prototypes achieved wireless control over the motor and flap whilst obtaining data from the IMU, though obtaining an increase in lift was the key issue due to insufficient thrust. The final prototype was able to demonstrate an improvement in weight distribution.

Keywords: SAMARE, micro aerial vehicle (MAV), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), mono-copter, single-wing, mono-wing, flight control, aerofoil, lift

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1315 Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Vertical Take-Off and Landing Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Configuration

Authors: Amir Abdelqodus, Mario Shehata

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to model and evaluate the aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives of a Vertical, Take-off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle configuration (VTOL UAV), which is a fixed wing UAV and a quad-copter hybrid capable of both vertical and conventional take-off and/or landing. The aerodynamic analysis of this configuration was carried out using CFD commercial package Ansys Fluent. Also, the aerodynamic coefficients for the case of the UAV without the quad-copter is carried out analytically using MATLAB programmed codes, and the resulting data is verified using Lifting Line Theory and potential method programs. The two results are then compared to understand the effect of adding the quad-copter on the aerodynamic performance of the UAV.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, potential flow, UAV, VTOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1314 Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Mengmeng Du, Noboru Noguchi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Noriko Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.

Keywords: land survey, light detection and ranging, post processing kinematic global positioning system, precision agriculture, topographic map, unmanned aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
1313 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan

Abstract:

This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), interference, Block Least Mean Square (Block LMS) Algorithm, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

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1312 Vision-Based Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai

Abstract:

Due to the sensor technology, video surveillance has become the main way for security control in every big city in the world. Surveillance is usually used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. Many surveillance systems based on computer vision technology have been developed in recent years. Moving target tracking is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track objects of interest in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications. The paper is focused on vision-based collision avoidance for UAVs by recurrent neural networks. First, images from cameras on UAV were fused based on deep convolutional neural network. Then, a recurrent neural network was constructed to obtain high-level image features for object tracking and extracting low-level image features for noise reducing. The system distributed the calculation of the whole system to local and cloud platform to efficiently perform object detection, tracking and collision avoidance based on multiple UAVs. The experiments on several challenging datasets showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, object tracking, deep learning, collision avoidance

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1311 Modeling and Optimal Control of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Wind Disturbance

Authors: Sunsoo Kim, Niladri Das, Raktim Bhattacharya

Abstract:

This paper addresses modeling and control of a six-degree-of-freedom unmanned aerial vehicle capable of vertical take-off and landing in the presence of wind disturbances. We design a hybrid vehicle that combines the benefits of both the fixed-wing and the rotary-wing UAVs. A non-linear model for the hybrid vehicle is rapidly built, combining rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics of wing, and dynamics of the motor and propeller. Further, we design a H₂ optimal controller to make the UAV robust to wind disturbances. We compare its results against that of proportional-integral-derivative and linear-quadratic regulator based control. Our proposed controller results in better performance in terms of root mean squared errors and time responses during two scenarios: hover and level- flight.

Keywords: hybrid UAVs, VTOL, aircraft modeling, H2 optimal control, wind disturbances

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1310 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Ahmed Elsayed Ahmed, Ashraf Hafez, A. N. Ouda, Hossam Eldin Hussein Ahmed, Hala Mohamed ABD-Elkader

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: UAV, equations of motion, modeling, linearization

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1309 Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Methodology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Authors: Pedro F. Albuquerque, Pedro V. Gamboa, Miguel A. Silvestre

Abstract:

The present work describes the implementation of the Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO) multilevel architecture with a gradient-based optimization algorithm with the aim of performing a multidisciplinary design optimization of a generic unmanned aerial vehicle with morphing technologies. The concepts of weighting coefficient and a dynamic compatibility parameter are presented for the ECO architecture. A routine that calculates the aircraft performance for the user defined mission profile and vehicle’s performance requirements has been implemented using low fidelity models for the aerodynamics, stability, propulsion, weight, balance and flight performance. A benchmarking case study for evaluating the advantage of using a variable span wing within the optimization methodology developed is presented.

Keywords: multidisciplinary, multilevel, morphing, enhanced collaborative optimization

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1308 Conceptual Design of Unmanned Aerial Targets

Authors: M. Adamski, J. Cwiklak

Abstract:

The contemporary battlefield creates a demand for more costly and highly advanced munitions. Training personnel responsible for operations, as well as an immediate execution of combat tasks, which engage real assets, is unrealistic and economically not feasible. Owing to a wide array of exploited simulators and various types of imitators, it is possible to reduce the costs. One of the effective elements of training, which can be applied in the training of all service branches, are imitators of aerial targets. This research serves as an introduction to the commencement of design analysis over a real aerial target imitator. Within the project, the basic aerodynamic calculations were made, which enabled to determine its geometry, design layout, performance, as well as the mass balance of individual components. The conducted calculations of the parameters of flight characteristics come closer to the real performance of such unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: aerial target, aerodynamics, imitator, performance

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1307 Autonomous Flight Performance Improvement of Load-Carrying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Active Morphing

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed, Murat Aydin, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Mustafa Soylak

Abstract:

In this paper, it is aimed to improve autonomous flight performance of a load-carrying (payload: 3 kg and total: 6kg) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through active wing and horizontal tail active morphing and also integrated autopilot system parameters (i.e. P, I, D gains) and UAV parameters (i.e. extension ratios of wing and horizontal tail during flight) design. For this purpose, a loadcarrying UAV (i.e. ZANKA-II) is manufactured in Erciyes University, College of Aviation, Model Aircraft Laboratory is benefited. Optimum values of UAV parameters and autopilot parameters are obtained using a stochastic optimization method. Using this approach autonomous flight performance of UAV is substantially improved and also in some adverse weather conditions an opportunity for safe flight is satisfied. Active morphing and integrated design approach gives confidence, high performance and easy-utility request of UAV users.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, morphing, autopilots, autonomous performance

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1306 Construction of Large Scale UAVs Using Homebuilt Composite Techniques

Authors: Brian J. Kozak, Joshua D. Shipman, Peng Hao Wang, Blake Shipp

Abstract:

The unmanned aerial system (UAS) industry is growing at a rapid pace. This growth has increased the demand for low cost, custom made and high strength unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The area of most growth is in the area of 25 kg to 200 kg vehicles. Vehicles this size are beyond the size and scope of simple wood and fabric designs commonly found in hobbyist aircraft. These high end vehicles require stronger materials to complete their mission. Traditional aircraft construction materials such as aluminum are difficult to use without machining or advanced computer controlled tooling. However, by using general aviation composite aircraft homebuilding techniques and materials, a large scale UAV can be constructed cheaply and easily. Furthermore, these techniques could be used to easily manufacture cost made composite shapes and airfoils that would be cost prohibitive when using metals. These homebuilt aircraft techniques are being demonstrated by the researchers in the construction of a 75 kg aircraft.

Keywords: composite aircraft, homebuilding, unmanned aerial system industry, UAS, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV

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1305 Using Structured Analysis and Design Technique Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Components

Authors: Najeh Lakhoua

Abstract:

Introduction: Scientific developments and techniques for the systemic approach generate several names to the systemic approach: systems analysis, systems analysis, structural analysis. The main purpose of these reflections is to find a multi-disciplinary approach which organizes knowledge, creates universal language design and controls complex sets. In fact, system analysis is structured sequentially by steps: the observation of the system by various observers in various aspects, the analysis of interactions and regulatory chains, the modeling that takes into account the evolution of the system, the simulation and the real tests in order to obtain the consensus. Thus the system approach allows two types of analysis according to the structure and the function of the system. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of system analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) components in order to represent the architecture of this system. Method: There are various analysis methods which are proposed, in the literature, in to carry out actions of global analysis and different points of view as SADT method (Structured Analysis and Design Technique), Petri Network. The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the system analysis of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle has been proposed in this paper and it is based on the use of SADT. In fact, we present a functional analysis based on the SADT method of UAV components Body, power supply and platform, computing, sensors, actuators, software, loop principles, flight controls and communications). Results: In this part, we present the application of SADT method for the functional analysis of the UAV components. This SADT model will be composed exclusively of actigrams. It starts with the main function ‘To analysis of the UAV components’. Then, this function is broken into sub-functions and this process is developed until the last decomposition level has been reached (levels A1, A2, A3 and A4). Recall that SADT techniques are semi-formal; however, for the same subject, different correct models can be built without having to know with certitude which model is the good or, at least, the best. In fact, this kind of model allows users a sufficient freedom in its construction and so the subjective factor introduces a supplementary dimension for its validation. That is why the validation step on the whole necessitates the confrontation of different points of views. Conclusion: In this paper, we presented an application of system analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle components. In fact, this application of system analysis is based on SADT method (Structured Analysis Design Technique). This functional analysis proved the useful use of SADT method and its ability of describing complex dynamic systems.

Keywords: system analysis, unmanned aerial vehicle, functional analysis, architecture

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1304 Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Urban Rail Transit Intelligent Inspection

Authors: Xinglu Nie, Feifei Tang, Chuntao Wei, Zhimin Ruan, Qianhong Zhu

Abstract:

Current method of manual-style inspection can not fully meet the requirement of the urban rail transit security in China. In this paper, an intelligent inspection method using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is utilized. A series of orthophoto of rail transit monitored area was collected by UAV, image correction and registration were operated among multi-phase images, then the change detection was used to detect the changes, judging the engineering activities and human activities that may become potential threats to the security of urban rail. Not only qualitative judgment, but also quantitative judgment of changes in the security control area can be provided by this method, which improves the objectives and efficiency of the patrol results. The No.6 line of Chongqing Municipality was taken as an example to verify the validation of this method.

Keywords: rail transit, control of protected areas, intelligent inspection, UAV, change detection

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1303 Object-Based Image Analysis for Gully-Affected Area Detection in the Hilly Loess Plateau Region of China Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Hu Ding, Kai Liu, Guoan Tang

Abstract:

The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers from serious gully erosion induced by natural and human causes. Gully features detection including gully-affected area and its two dimension parameters (length, width, area et al.), is a significant task not only for researchers but also for policy-makers. This study aims at gully-affected area detection in three catchments of Chinese Loess Plateau, which were selected in Changwu, Ansai, and Suide by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The methodology includes a sequence of UAV data generation, image segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and random forest classification. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of segmentation strategy and feature selection. Results showed that vertical and horizontal root-mean-square errors were below 0.5 and 0.2 m, respectively, which were ideal for the Loess Plateau region. The segmentation strategy adopted in this paper, which considers the topographic information, and optimal parameter combination can improve the segmentation results. Besides, the overall extraction accuracy in Changwu, Ansai, and Suide achieved was 84.62%, 86.46%, and 93.06%, respectively, which indicated that the proposed method for detecting gully-affected area is more objective and effective than traditional methods. This study demonstrated that UAV can bridge the gap between field measurement and satellite-based remote sensing, obtaining a balance in resolution and efficiency for catchment-scale gully erosion research.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), object-analysis image analysis, gully erosion, gully-affected area, Loess Plateau, random forest

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1302 A Low-Cost Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System for Extremely Low-Light GPS-Denied Navigation and Thermal Imaging

Authors: Chang Liu, John Nash, Stephen D. Prior

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation details of a complete unmanned aerial system (UAS) based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, focusing on safety, security, search and rescue scenarios in GPS-denied environments. In particular, the aerial platform is capable of semi-autonomously navigating through extremely low-light, GPS-denied indoor environments based on onboard sensors only, including a downward-facing optical flow camera. Besides, an additional low-cost payload camera system is developed to stream both infrared video and visible light video to a ground station in real-time, for the purpose of detecting sign of life and hidden humans. The total cost of the complete system is estimated to be $1150, and the effectiveness of the system has been tested and validated in practical scenarios.

Keywords: unmanned aerial system, commercial-off-the-shelf, extremely low-light, GPS-denied, optical flow, infrared video

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1301 Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Parametric Programming Based Cascade Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Do Trong Tan, Pham Tam Thanh, Le Duy Tung, Tran Hoang Anh

Abstract:

This paper considers the problem of cascade control system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Due to the complicated modelling technique of UAV, it is necessary to separate them into two subsystems. The proposed cascade control structure is a hierarchical scheme including a robust control for inner subsystem based on H infinity theory and trajectory generator using genetic algorithm (GA), outer loop control law based on multi-parametric programming (MPP) technique to overcome the disadvantage of a big amount of calculations. Simulation results are presented to show that the equivalent path has been found and obtained by proposed cascade control scheme.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, GA, H infinity, multi-parametric programming, MPP, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs

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1300 A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World

Authors: Ahmet Akdemir, Güzide Karakuş, Leyla Polat

Abstract:

Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.

Keywords: aviation, drone, drone in business, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1299 A Study of Fatigue Life Estimation of a Modular Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Developing a Structural Health Monitoring System

Authors: Zain Ul Hassan, Muhammad Zain Ul Abadin, Muhammad Zubair Khan

Abstract:

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have now become of predominant importance for various operations, and an immense amount of work is going on in this specific category. The structural stability and life of these UAVs is key factor that should be considered while deploying them to different intelligent operations as their failure leads to loss of sensitive real-time data and cost. This paper presents an applied research on the development of a structural health monitoring system for a UAV designed and fabricated by deploying modular approach. Firstly, a modular UAV has been designed which allows to dismantle and to reassemble the components of the UAV without effecting the whole assembly of UAV. This novel approach makes the vehicle very sustainable and decreases its maintenance cost to a significant value by making possible to replace only the part leading to failure. Then the SHM for the designed architecture of the UAV had been specified as a combination of wings integrated with strain gauges, on-board data logger, bridge circuitry and the ground station. For the research purpose sensors have only been attached to the wings being the most load bearing part and as per analysis was done on ANSYS. On the basis of analysis of the load time spectrum obtained by the data logger during flight, fatigue life of the respective component has been predicted using fracture mechanics techniques of Rain Flow Method and Miner’s Rule. Thus allowing us to monitor the health of a specified component time to time aiding to avoid any failure.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, rain flow method, structural health monitoring system, unmanned aerial vehicle

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