Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1917

Search results for: electrical tuning

1917 A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping

Authors: Shengbiao Wu, Weihua Cao, Min Wu, Can Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase. During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.

Keywords: microwave filter, scattering parameter, coupling matrix, intelligent tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1916 Improve Closed Loop Performance and Control Signal Using Evolutionary Algorithms Based PID Controller

Authors: Mehdi Shahbazian, Alireza Aarabi, Mohsen Hadiyan

Abstract:

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are the most widely used controllers in industry because of its simplicity and robustness. Different values of PID parameters make different step response, so an increasing amount of literature is devoted to proper tuning of PID controllers. The problem merits further investigation as traditional tuning methods make large control signal that can damages the system but using evolutionary algorithms based tuning methods improve the control signal and closed loop performance. In this paper three tuning methods for PID controllers have been studied namely Ziegler and Nichols, which is traditional tuning method and evolutionary algorithms based tuning methods, that are, Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. To examine the validity of PSO and GA tuning methods a comparative analysis of DC motor plant is studied. Simulation results reveal that evolutionary algorithms based tuning method have improved control signal amplitude and quality factors of the closed loop system such as rise time, integral absolute error (IAE) and maximum overshoot.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, PID controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1915 Parameter Tuning of Complex Systems Modeled in Agent Based Modeling and Simulation

Authors: Rabia Korkmaz Tan, Şebnem Bora

Abstract:

The major problem encountered when modeling complex systems with agent-based modeling and simulation techniques is the existence of large parameter spaces. A complex system model cannot be expected to reflect the whole of the real system, but by specifying the most appropriate parameters, the actual system can be represented by the model under certain conditions. When the studies conducted in recent years were reviewed, it has been observed that there are few studies for parameter tuning problem in agent based simulations, and these studies have focused on tuning parameters of a single model. In this study, an approach of parameter tuning is proposed by using metaheuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colonies (ABC), Firefly (FA) algorithms. With this hybrid structured study, the parameter tuning problems of the models in the different fields were solved. The new approach offered was tested in two different models, and its achievements in different problems were compared. The simulations and the results reveal that this proposed study is better than the existing parameter tuning studies.

Keywords: parameter tuning, agent based modeling and simulation, metaheuristic algorithms, complex systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
1914 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub

Abstract:

This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
1913 Suitable Tuning Method Selection for PID Controller Used in Digital Excitation System of Brushless Synchronous Generator

Authors: Deepak M. Sajnekar, S. B. Deshpande, R. M. Mohril

Abstract:

At present many rotary excitation control system are using analog type of Automatic Voltage Regulator which now started to replace with the digital automatic voltage regulator which is provided with PID controller and tuning of PID controller is a challenging task. The cases where digital excitation control system is used tuning of PID controller are still carried out by pole placement method. Tuning of PID controller used for static excitation control system is not challenging because it does not involve exciter time constant. This paper discusses two methods of tuning PID controller i.e. Pole placement method and pole zero cancellation method. GUI prepared for both the methods on the platform of MATLAB. Using this GUI, performance results and time required for tuning for both the methods are compared. Sensitivity of the methods is also presented with parameter variation like loop gain ‘K’ and exciter time constant ‘te’.

Keywords: digital excitation system, automatic voltage regulator, pole placement method, pole zero cancellation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
1912 Method for Tuning Level Control Loops Based on Internal Model Control and Closed Loop Step Test Data

Authors: Arnaud Nougues

Abstract:

This paper describes a two-stage methodology derived from internal model control (IMC) for tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for levels or other integrating processes in an industrial environment. Focus is the ease of use and implementation speed which are critical for an industrial application. Tuning can be done with minimum effort and without the need for time-consuming open-loop step tests on the plant. The first stage of the method applies to levels only: the vessel residence time is calculated from equipment dimensions and used to derive a set of preliminary proportional-integral (PI) settings with IMC. The second stage, re-tuning in closed-loop, applies to levels as well as other integrating processes: a tuning correction mechanism has been developed based on a series of closed-loop simulations with model errors. The tuning correction is done from a simple closed-loop step test and the application of a generic correlation between observed overshoot and integral time correction. A spin-off of the method is that an estimate of the vessel residence time (levels) or open-loop process gain (other integrating process) is obtained from the closed-loop data.

Keywords: closed-loop model identification, IMC-PID tuning method, integrating process control, on-line PID tuning adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1911 Tuning of Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles Using Tethered Setup

Authors: Shoeb Ahmed Adeel, Vivek Paul, K. Prajwal, Michael Fenelon

Abstract:

Techniques have been used to tether and stabilize a multi-rotor MAV but carrying out the same process to a fixed wing MAV is a novel method which can be utilized in order to reduce damage occurring to the fixed wing MAVs while conducting flight test trials and PID tuning. A few sensors and on board controller is required to carry out this experiment in horizontal and vertical plane of the vehicle. Here we will be discussing issues such as sensitivity of the air vehicle, endurance and external load of the string acting on the vehicle.

Keywords: MAV, PID tuning, tethered flight, UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
1910 Self-Tuning Robot Control Based on Subspace Identification

Authors: Mathias Marquardt, Peter Dünow, Sandra Baßler

Abstract:

The paper describes the use of subspace based identification methods for auto tuning of a state space control system. The plant is an unstable but self balancing transport robot. Because of the unstable character of the process it has to be identified from closed loop input-output data. Based on the identified model a state space controller combined with an observer is calculated. The subspace identification algorithm and the controller design procedure is combined to a auto tuning method. The capability of the approach was verified in a simulation experiments under different process conditions.

Keywords: auto tuning, balanced robot, closed loop identification, subspace identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
1909 Tuning of the Thermal Capacity of an Envelope for Peak Demand Reduction

Authors: Isha Rathore, Peeyush Jain, Elangovan Rajasekar

Abstract:

The thermal capacity of the envelope impacts the cooling and heating demand of a building and modulates the peak electricity demand. This paper presents the thermal capacity tuning of a building envelope to minimize peak electricity demand for space cooling. We consider a 40 m² residential testbed located in Hyderabad, India (Composite Climate). An EnergyPlus model is validated using real-time data. A Parametric simulation framework for thermal capacity tuning is created using the Honeybee plugin. Diffusivity, Thickness, layer position, orientation and fenestration size of the exterior envelope are parametrized considering a five-layered wall system. A total of 1824 parametric runs are performed and the optimum wall configuration leading to minimum peak cooling demand is presented.

Keywords: thermal capacity, tuning, peak demand reduction, parametric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
1908 Parameters Tuning of a PID Controller on a DC Motor Using Honey Bee and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh

Abstract:

PID controllers are widely used to control the industrial plants because of their robustness and simple structures. Tuning of the controller's parameters to get a desired response is difficult and time consuming. With the development of computer technology and artificial intelligence in automatic control field, all kinds of parameters tuning methods of PID controller have emerged in endlessly, which bring much energy for the study of PID controller, but many advanced tuning methods behave not so perfect as to be expected. Honey Bee algorithm (HBA) and genetic algorithm (GA) are extensively used for real parameter optimization in diverse fields of study. This paper describes an application of HBA and GA to the problem of designing a PID controller whose parameters comprise proportionality constant, integral constant and derivative constant. Presence of three parameters to optimize makes the task of designing a PID controller more challenging than conventional P, PI, and PD controllers design. The suitability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through computer simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Keywords: controller, GA, optimization, PID, PSO

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
1907 Optimum Tuning Capacitors for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles Considering Variation in Coil Distances

Authors: Muhammad Abdullah Arafat, Nahrin Nowrose

Abstract:

Wireless charging of electric vehicles is becoming more and more attractive as large amount of power can now be transferred to a reasonable distance using magnetic resonance coupling method. However, proper tuning of the compensation network is required to achieve maximum power transmission. Due to the variation of coil distance from the nominal value as a result of change in tire condition, change in weight or uneven road condition, the tuning of the compensation network has become challenging. In this paper, a tuning method has been described to determine the optimum values of the compensation network in order to maximize the average output power. The simulation results show that 5.2 percent increase in average output power is obtained for 10 percent variation in coupling coefficient using the optimum values without the need of additional space and electro-mechanical components. The proposed method is applicable to both static and dynamic charging of electric vehicles.

Keywords: coupling coefficient, electric vehicles, magnetic resonance coupling, tuning capacitor, wireless power transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
1906 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution

Authors: Kiamran Radjabli

Abstract:

State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.

Keywords: convergence, monitoring, state estimator, performance, troubleshooting, tuning, power systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1905 Fractional-Order PI Controller Tuning Rules for Cascade Control System

Authors: Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang, Le Linh

Abstract:

The fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller tuning rules based on the fractional calculus for the cascade control system are systematically proposed in this paper. Accordingly, the ideal controller is obtained by using internal model control (IMC) approach for both the inner and outer loops, which gives the desired closed-loop responses. On the basis of the fractional calculus, the analytical tuning rules of FOPI controller for the inner loop can be established in the frequency domain. Besides, the outer loop is tuned by using any integer PI/PID controller tuning rules in the literature. The simulation study is considered for the stable process model and the results demonstrate the simplicity, flexibility, and effectiveness of the proposed method for the cascade control system in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: Bode’s ideal transfer function, fractional calculus, fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller, cascade control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1904 Auto-Tuning of CNC Parameters According to the Machining Mode Selection

Authors: Jenq-Shyong Chen, Ben-Fong Yu

Abstract:

CNC(computer numerical control) machining centers have been widely used for machining different metal components for various industries. For a specific CNC machine, its everyday job is assigned to cut different products with quite different attributes such as material type, workpiece weight, geometry, tooling, and cutting conditions. Theoretically, the dynamic characteristics of the CNC machine should be properly tuned match each machining job in order to get the optimal machining performance. However, most of the CNC machines are set with only a standard set of CNC parameters. In this study, we have developed an auto-tuning system which can automatically change the CNC parameters and in hence change the machine dynamic characteristics according to the selection of machining modes which are set by the mixed combination of three machine performance indexes: the HO (high surface quality) index, HP (high precision) index and HS (high speed) index. The acceleration, jerk, corner error tolerance, oscillation and dynamic bandwidth of machine’s feed axes have been changed according to the selection of the machine performance indexes. The proposed auto-tuning system of the CNC parameters has been implemented on a PC-based CNC controller and a three-axis machining center. The measured experimental result have shown the promising of our proposed auto-tuning system.

Keywords: auto-tuning, CNC parameters, machining mode, high speed, high accuracy, high surface quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1903 Batteryless DCM Boost Converter for Kinetic Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: Andrés Gomez-Casseres, Rubén Contreras

Abstract:

In this paper, a bidirectional boost converter operated in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) is presented as a suitable power conditioning circuit for tuning of kinetic energy harvesters without the need of a battery. A nonlinear control scheme, composed by two linear controllers, is used to control the average value of the input current, enabling the synthesization of complex loads. The converter, along with the control system, is validated through SPICE simulations using the LTspice tool. The converter model and the controller transfer functions are derived. From the simulation results, it was found that the input current distortion increases with the introduced phase shift and that, such distortion, is almost entirely present at the zero-crossing point of the input voltage.

Keywords: average current control, boost converter, electrical tuning, energy harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1902 Real-Time Implementation of Self-Tuning Fuzzy-PID Controller for First Order Plus Dead Time System Base on Microcontroller STM32

Authors: Maitree Thamma, Witchupong Wiboonjaroen, Thanat Suknuan, Karan Homchat

Abstract:

First order plus dead time (FOPDT) is a high dynamic system. Therefore, the controller must be intelligent. This paper presents the development and implementation of self-tuning Fuzzy-PID controller for controlling the FOPDT system. The water level process used represented FOPDT system and the mathematical model of the system was approximated by using System Identification toolbox in Matlab. The control programming and Fuzzy-PID algorithm used Matlab/Simulink and run on Microcontroller STM32.

Keywords: real-time control, self-tuning fuzzy-PID, FOPDT system, the water lever process

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1901 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung

Abstract:

As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an "optimal" value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.

Keywords: cross validation, parameter averaging, parameter selection, regularization parameter search

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
1900 A Robust PID Load Frequency Controller of Interconnected Power System Using SDO Software

Authors: Pasala Gopi, P. Linga Reddy

Abstract:

The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected electrical power system is much more complex with increasing size, changing structure and increasing load. This paper deals with Load Frequency Control of three area interconnected Power system incorporating Reheat, Non-reheat and Reheat turbines in all areas respectively. The response of the load frequency control problem in an multi-area interconnected power system is improved by designing PID controller using different tuning techniques and proved that the PID controller which was designed by Simulink Design Optimization (SDO) Software gives the superior performance than other controllers for step perturbations. Finally the robustness of controller was checked against system parameter variations

Keywords: load frequency control, pid controller tuning, step load perturbations, inter connected power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
1899 Power System Stability Enhancement Using Self Tuning Fuzzy PI Controller for TCSC

Authors: Salman Hameed

Abstract:

In this paper, a self-tuning fuzzy PI controller (STFPIC) is proposed for thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) to improve power system dynamic performance. In a STFPIC controller, the output scaling factor is adjusted on-line by an updating factor (α). The value of α is determined from a fuzzy rule-base defined on error (e) and change of error (Δe) of the controlled variable. The proposed self-tuning controller is designed using a very simple control rule-base and the most natural and unbiased membership functions (MFs) (symmetric triangles with equal base and 50% overlap with neighboring MFs). The comparative performances of the proposed STFPIC and the standard fuzzy PI controller (FPIC) have been investigated on a multi-machine power system (namely, 4 machine two area system) through detailed non-linear simulation studies using MATLAB/SIMULINK. From the simulation studies it has been found out that for damping oscillations, the performance of the proposed STFPIC is better than that obtained by the standard FPIC. Moreover, the proposed STFPIC as well as the FPIC have been found to be quite effective in damping oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions and are quite effective in enhancing the power carrying capability of the power system significantly.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, power system stability, self-tuning fuzzy controller, thyristor controlled series capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
1898 A Tool Tuning Approximation Method: Exploration of the System Dynamics and Its Impact on Milling Stability When Amending Tool Stickout

Authors: Nikolai Bertelsen, Robert A. Alphinas, Klaus B. Orskov

Abstract:

The shortest possible tool stickout has been the traditional go-to approach with expectations of increased stability and productivity. However, experimental studies at Danish Advanced Manufacturing Research Center (DAMRC) have proven that for some tool stickout lengths, there exist local productivity optimums when utilizing the Stability Lobe Diagrams for chatter avoidance. This contradicts with traditional logic and the best practices taught to machinists. This paper explores the vibrational characteristics and behaviour of a milling system over the tool stickout length. The experimental investigation has been conducted by tap testing multiple endmills where the tool stickout length has been varied. For each length, the modal parameters have been recorded and mapped to visualize behavioural tendencies. Furthermore, the paper explores the correlation between the modal parameters and the Stability Lobe Diagram to outline the influence and importance of each parameter in a multi-mode system. The insights are conceptualized into a tool tuning approximation solution. It builds on an almost linear change in the natural frequencies when amending tool stickout, which results in changed positions of the Chatter-free Stability Lobes. Furthermore, if the natural frequency of two modes become too close, it will onset of the dynamic absorber effect phenomenon. This phenomenon increases the critical stable depth of cut, allowing for a more stable milling process. Validation tests on the tool tuning approximation solution have shown varying success of the solution. This outlines the need for further research on the boundary conditions of the solution to understand at which conditions the tool tuning approximation solution is applicable. If the conditions get defined, the conceptualized tool tuning approximation solution outlines an approach for quick and roughly approximating tool stickouts with the potential for increased stiffness and optimized productivity.

Keywords: milling, modal parameters, stability lobes, tap testing, tool tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1897 Self-Tuning Dead-Beat PD Controller for Pitch Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter

Authors: H. Mansor, S.B. Mohd-Noor, N. I. Othman, N. Tazali, R. I. Boby

Abstract:

This paper presents an improved robust Proportional Derivative controller for a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) bench-top helicopter by using adaptive methodology. Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter used for experimental purposes which is widely used in teaching laboratory and research. Proportional Derivative controller has been developed for a 3-DOF bench-top helicopter by Quanser. Experiments showed that the transient response of designed PD controller has very large steady state error i.e., 50%, which is very serious. The objective of this research is to improve the performance of existing pitch angle control of PD controller on the bench-top helicopter by integration of PD controller with adaptive controller. Usually standard adaptive controller will produce zero steady state error; however response time to reach desired set point is large. Therefore, this paper proposed an adaptive with deadbeat algorithm to overcome the limitations. The output response that is fast, robust and updated online is expected. Performance comparisons have been performed between the proposed self-tuning deadbeat PD controller and standard PD controller. The efficiency of the self-tuning dead beat controller has been proven from the tests results in terms of faster settling time, zero steady state error and capability of the controller to be updated online.

Keywords: adaptive control, deadbeat control, bench-top helicopter, self-tuning control

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1896 A Clustering Algorithm for Massive Texts

Authors: Ming Liu, Chong Wu, Bingquan Liu, Lei Chen

Abstract:

Internet users have to face the massive amount of textual data every day. Organizing texts into categories can help users dig the useful information from large-scale text collection. Clustering, in fact, is one of the most promising tools for categorizing texts due to its unsupervised characteristic. Unfortunately, most of traditional clustering algorithms lose their high qualities on large-scale text collection. This situation mainly attributes to the high- dimensional vectors generated from texts. To effectively and efficiently cluster large-scale text collection, this paper proposes a vector reconstruction based clustering algorithm. Only the features that can represent the cluster are preserved in cluster’s representative vector. This algorithm alternately repeats two sub-processes until it converges. One process is partial tuning sub-process, where feature’s weight is fine-tuned by iterative process. To accelerate clustering velocity, an intersection based similarity measurement and its corresponding neuron adjustment function are proposed and implemented in this sub-process. The other process is overall tuning sub-process, where the features are reallocated among different clusters. In this sub-process, the features useless to represent the cluster are removed from cluster’s representative vector. Experimental results on the three text collections (including two small-scale and one large-scale text collections) demonstrate that our algorithm obtains high quality on both small-scale and large-scale text collections.

Keywords: vector reconstruction, large-scale text clustering, partial tuning sub-process, overall tuning sub-process

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
1895 Miniaturized and Compact Monopole Corner Antenna with a Periodic Slot Truncated and T-Inverted Stub-Tuning for Ultra Wideband Applications

Authors: R. Dakir, J. Zbitou, Ahmed Mouhsen, A. Errkik, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach

Abstract:

The design and analysis of a new compact and miniaturized monopole antenna structure for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless applications are presented and suggested in this paper. The proposed antenna structure is based on corner radiator patch with T-shaped slot and fed by mictostrip feed line with a partial ground plane combined a periodic rectangular slot and inverted T-stub tuning to increase the bandwidth. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are investigated by using 'CST Microwave Studio' and Advanced Design System. The final prototype of the proposed antenna operates from 3GHZ to 25GHz, corresponding to wide input impedance bandwidth around (157.14%) with a size of 16*24mm2 and can be easily integrated with radio-frequency or microwave circuits with low cost manufacturing. Details of the UWB antenna design and both simulated and measured results are described and discussed.

Keywords: UWB, T-shaped slots, improvement, bandwidth, stub tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1894 Self-Tuning-Filter and Fuzzy Logic Control for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Kaddari Faiza, Mazari Benyounes, Mihoub Youcef, Safa Ahmed

Abstract:

Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for reactive power and harmonic compensation caused by the proliferation of power electronics devices used for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. The aim of this study is to enhance the power quality by improving the performances of shunt active power filter in harmonic mitigation to obtain sinusoidal source currents with very weak ripples. A power circuit configuration and control scheme for shunt active power filter are described with an improved method for harmonics compensation using self-tuning-filter for harmonics identification and fuzzy logic control to generate reference current. Simulation results (using MATLAB/SIMULINK) illustrates the compensation characteristics of the proposed control strategy. Analysis of these results proves the feasibility and effectiveness of this method to improve the power quality and also show the performances of fuzzy logic control which provides flexibility, high precision and fast response. The total harmonic distortion (THD %) for the simulations found to be within the recommended imposed IEEE 519-1992 harmonic standard.

Keywords: Active Powers Filter (APF), Self-Tuning-Filter (STF), fuzzy logic control, hysteresis-band control

Procedia PDF Downloads 583
1893 A CMOS Capacitor Array for ESPAR with Fast Switching Time

Authors: Jin-Sup Kim, Se-Hwan Choi, Jae-Young Lee

Abstract:

A 8-bit CMOS capacitor array is designed for using in electrically steerable passive array radiator (ESPAR). The proposed capacitor array shows the fast response time in rising and falling characteristics. Compared to other works in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technologies, it shows a comparable tuning range and switching time with low power consumption. Using the 0.18um CMOS, the capacitor array features a tuning range of 1.5 to 12.9 pF at 2.4GHz. Including the 2X4 decoder for control interface, the Chip size is 350um X 145um. Current consumption is about 80 nA at 1.8 V operation.

Keywords: CMOS capacitor array, ESPAR, SOI, SOS, switching time

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
1892 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: dual-mode resonators, perturbation theory, reconfigurable filters, software defined radio, cognitine radio

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1891 Electrically Tuned Photoelectrochemical Properties of Ferroelectric PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ Photoanode

Authors: Simrjit Singh, Neeraj Khare

Abstract:

In recent years, photo-electrochemical (PEC) water splitting with an aim to generate hydrogen (H₂) as a clean and renewable fuel has been the subject of intense research interests. Ferroelectric semiconductors have been demonstrated to exhibit enhanced PEC properties as these can be polarized with the application of an external electric field resulting in a built-in potential which helps in separating out the photogenerated charge carriers. In addition to this, by changing the polarization direction, the energy band alignment at the electrode/electrolyte interface can be modulated in a way that it can help in the easy transfer of the charge carriers from the electrode to the electrolyte. In this paper, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of ferroelectric PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ PEC cell and demonstrated that PEC properties can be tuned with ferroelectric polarization and piezophototronic effect. Photocurrent density is enhanced from ~0.71 mA/cm² to 1.97 mA/cm² by changing the polarization direction. Furthermore, due to flexibility and piezoelectric properties of PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ PEC cell, a further ~26% enhancement in the photocurrent is obtained using the piezophototronic effect. A model depicting the modulation of band alignment between PVDF and NaNbO₃ with the electric field is proposed to explain the observed tuning of the PEC properties. Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy measurements support the validity of the proposed model.

Keywords: electrical tuning, H₂ generation, photoelectrochemical, NaNbO₃

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1890 Excitation Dependent Luminescence in Cr³+ Doped MgAl₂O₄ Nanocrystals

Authors: Savita, Pargam Vashishtha, Govind Gupta, Ankush Vij, Anup Thakur

Abstract:

The ligand field dependent visible as well as NIR emission of the Cr³+dopant in spinel hosts has attracted immense attention in tuning the color emitted by the material. In this research, Mg1-xCrxAl₂O₄(x=0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mol%) nanocrystals have been synthesizedby solution combustion method. The synthesized nanocrystals possessed a single phase cubic structure. The strong absorption by host lattice defects (antisite defects, F centres) andd-d transitions of Cr³+ ions lead to radiative emission in the visible and NIR region, respectively. The red-NIR emission in photoluminescence spectra inferred the octahedral symmetry of Cr³+ ions and anticipated the site distortion by the presence ofCr³+ clusters and antisite defects in the vicinity of Cr³+ ions. The thermoluminescence response of UV and γ-irradiated Cr doped MgAl2O4 samples revealed the formation of various shallow and deep defects with doping Cr³+ions. The induced structural cation disorder with an increase in doping concentration caused photoluminescence quenching beyond 3 mol% Cr³+ doping. The color tuning exhibited by Cr doped MgAl₂O₄ nanocrystals by varying Cr³+ ion concentration and excitation wavelength find its applicability in solid state lighting.

Keywords: antisite defects, cation disorder, color tuning, combustion synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1889 Self Tuning Controller for Reducing Cycle to Cycle Variations in SI Engine

Authors: Alirıza Kaleli, M. Akif Ceviz, Erdoğan Güner, Köksal Erentürk

Abstract:

The cyclic variations in spark ignition engines occurring especially under specific engine operating conditions make the maximum pressure variable for successive in-cylinder pressure cycles. Minimization of cyclic variations has a great importance in effectively operating near to lean limit, or at low speed and load. The cyclic variations may reduce the power output of the engine, lead to operational instabilities, and result in undesirable engine vibrations and noise. In this study, spark timing is controlled in order to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines. Firstly, an ARMAX model has developed between spark timing and maximum pressure using system identification techniques. By using this model, the maximum pressure of the next cycle has been predicted. Then, self-tuning minimum variance controller has been designed to change the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the first cylinder of test engine to regulate the in-cylinder maximum pressure. The performance of the proposed controller is illustrated in real time and experimental results show that the controller has a reliable effect on cycle to cycle variations of maximum cylinder pressure when the engine works under low speed conditions.

Keywords: cyclic variations, cylinder pressure, SI engines, self tuning controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1888 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based on Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M'Hamed Boulakroune, Mouloud Challal, Hassiba Louazene, Saida Fentiz

Abstract:

This paper presents a new ultra wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The second structure is a tunable bandpass filters using planar patch resonators based on diode varactor. This filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactors are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz, the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses, and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: defected ground structure, diode varactor, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator

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