Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2479

Search results for: heavy duty vehicle

2479 Evaluation of Bucket Utility Truck In-Use Driving Performance and Electrified Power Take-Off Operation

Authors: Robert Prohaska, Arnaud Konan, Kenneth Kelly, Adam Ragatz, Adam Duran

Abstract:

In an effort to evaluate the in-use performance of electrified Power Take-off (PTO) usage on bucket utility trucks operating under real-world conditions, data from 20 medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating in California, USA were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team. In this paper, duty-cycle statistical analyses of class 5, medium-duty quick response trucks and class 8, heavy-duty material handler trucks are performed to examine and characterize vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on collected in-use field data. With more than 100,000 kilometers of driving data collected over 880+ operating days, researchers have developed a robust methodology for identifying PTO operation from in-field vehicle data. Researchers apply this unique methodology to evaluate the performance and utilization of the conventional and electric PTO systems. Researchers also created custom representative drive-cycles for each vehicle configuration and performed modeling and simulation activities to evaluate the potential fuel and emissions savings for hybridization of the tractive driveline on these vehicles. The results of these analyses statistically and objectively define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle configuration as well as show the potential for further system optimization through driveline hybridization. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relates specifically to medium- and heavy-duty utility vehicles operating under real-world conditions.

Keywords: drive cycle, heavy-duty (HD), hybrid, medium-duty (MD), PTO, utility

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2478 Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: Victor Bodell, Lukas Ekstrom, Somayeh Aghanavesi

Abstract:

Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle. The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented, it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuel consumption, friedman test, machine learning, statistical hypothesis testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
2477 The Effect of Gross Vehicle Weight on the Stability of Heavy Vehicle during Cornering

Authors: Nurzaki Ikhsan, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah, Rahizar Ramli

Abstract:

One of the functions of the commercial heavy vehicle is to safely and efficiently transport goods and people. Due to its size and carrying capacity, it is important to study the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering. Study has shown that there are a number of overloaded heavy vehicles or permissible gross vehicle weight (GVW) violations recorded at selected areas in Malaysia assigned by its type and category. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the correlation and effect of the GVW on heavy vehicle stability during cornering event using simulation. Various selected heavy vehicle types and category are simulated using IPG/Truck Maker® with different GVW and road condition (coefficient of friction of road surface), while the speed, driver characteristic, center of gravity of load and road geometry are constant. Based on the analysis, the relationship between GVW and lateral acceleration were established. As expected, on the same value of coefficient of friction, the maximum lateral acceleration would be increased as the GVW increases.

Keywords: heavy vehicle, road safety, vehicle stability, lateral acceleration, gross vehicle weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
2476 Mechanistic Study of Composite Pavement Behavior in Heavy Duty Area

Authors: Makara Rith, Young Kyu Kim, Seung Woo Lee

Abstract:

In heavy duty areas, asphalt pavement constructed as entrance roadway may expose distresses such as cracking and rutting during service life. To mitigate these problems, composite pavement with a roller-compacted concrete base may be a good alternative; however, it should be initially investigated. Structural performances such as fatigue cracking and rut depth may be changed due to variation of some design factors. Therefore, this study focuses on the variation effect of material modulus, layer thickness and loading on composite pavement performances. Stress and strain at the critical location are determined and used as the input of transfer function for corresponding distresses to evaluate the pavement performance. Also, composite pavement satisfying the design criteria may be selected as a design section for heavy duty areas. Consequently, this investigation indicates that composite pavement has the ability to eliminate fatigue cracking in asphalt surfaces and significantly reduce rut depth. In addition, a thick or strong rigid base can significantly reduce rut depth and prolong fatigue life of this layer.

Keywords: composite pavement, ports, cracking, rutting

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2475 Heavy Vehicles Crash Injury Severity at T-Intersections

Authors: Sivanandan Balakrishnan, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay

Abstract:

Heavy vehicles make a significant contribution to many developed economies, including Australia, because they are a major means of transporting goods within these countries. With the increase in road freight, there will be an increase in the heavy vehicle traffic proportion, and consequently, an increase in the possibility of collisions involving heavy vehicles. Crashes involving heavy vehicles are a major road safety concern because of the higher likelihood of fatal and serious injury, especially to any small vehicle occupant involved. The primary objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing injury severity to occupants in vehicle collisions involving heavy vehicle at T- intersection using a binary logit model in Victoria, Australia. Our results show that the factors influencing injury severity include occupants' gender, age and restraint use. Also, vehicles' type, movement, point-of-impact and damage, time-of-day, day-of-week and season, higher percentage of trucks in traffic volume, hit pedestrians, number of occupants involved and type of collisions are associated with severe injury.

Keywords: binary logit model, heavy vehicle, injury severity, T-intersections

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2474 Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Nuhu Dalhat Mu’azu, Abdullahi Usman, A. Bukhari, Muhammad Hussain Essa, Salihu Lukman

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.

Keywords: clay, bentonite, soil remediation, mixed contaminants, heavy metals, and electrokinetic-adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
2473 Comparison between LQR and ANN Active Anti-Roll Control of a Single Unit Heavy Vehicle

Authors: Babesse Saad, Ameddah Djemeleddine

Abstract:

In this paper, a learning algorithm using neuronal networks to improve the roll stability and prevent the rollover in a single unit heavy vehicle is proposed. First, LQR control to keep balanced normalized rollovers, between front and rear axles, below the unity, then a data collected from this controller is used as a training basis of a neuronal regulator. The ANN controller is thereafter applied for the nonlinear side force model, and gives satisfactory results than the LQR one.

Keywords: rollover, single unit heavy vehicle, neural networks, nonlinear side force

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2472 Empirical Roughness Progression Models of Heavy Duty Rural Pavements

Authors: Nahla H. Alaswadko, Rayya A. Hassan, Bayar N. Mohammed

Abstract:

Empirical deterministic models have been developed to predict roughness progression of heavy duty spray sealed pavements for a dataset representing rural arterial roads. The dataset provides a good representation of the relevant network and covers a wide range of operating and environmental conditions. A sample with a large size of historical time series data for many pavement sections has been collected and prepared for use in multilevel regression analysis. The modelling parameters include road roughness as performance parameter and traffic loading, time, initial pavement strength, reactivity level of subgrade soil, climate condition, and condition of drainage system as predictor parameters. The purpose of this paper is to report the approaches adopted for models development and validation. The study presents multilevel models that can account for the correlation among time series data of the same section and to capture the effect of unobserved variables. Study results show that the models fit the data very well. The contribution and significance of relevant influencing factors in predicting roughness progression are presented and explained. The paper concludes that the analysis approach used for developing the models confirmed their accuracy and reliability by well-fitting to the validation data.

Keywords: roughness progression, empirical model, pavement performance, heavy duty pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2471 Analysis of Wheel Lock up Effects on Skidding Distance for Heavy Vehicles

Authors: Mahdieh Zamzamzadeh, Ahmad Abdullah Saifizul, Rahizar Ramli

Abstract:

The road accidents involving heavy vehicles have been showing worrying trends and, year after year, have increased the concern and awareness levels on safety of roads and transportations especially in developing countries like Malaysia. Statistics of road crashes continue to show that there are many contributing factors on the capability of a heavy vehicle to stop on safe distance and ultimately prevent traffic crashes. However, changes in the road condition due to weather variations and the vehicle dynamic specifications such as loading conditions and speed are the main risk factors because they will affect a heavy vehicle’s braking performance due to losing control and not being able to stop the vehicle, and in many cases will cause wheel lock up and accordingly skidding. Predicting heavy vehicle skidding distance is crucial for accident reconstruction and roadside safety engineers. Despite this, formal tools to study heavy vehicle skidding distance before stopping completely are totally limited, and most researchers have only considered braking distance in their studies. As a possible new tool, this work presents the iterative use of vehicle dynamic simulations to study heavy vehicle-roadway interaction in order to predict wheel lock up effects on skidding distance and safety. This research addresses the influence of the vehicle and road conditions on skidding distance after wheel lock up and presents a precise analysis of skidding phenomenon. The vehicle speed, vehicle loading condition and road friction parameters were all varied in a simulation-based analysis. In order to simulate the wheel lock up situation, a heavy vehicle model was constructed and simulated using multibody vehicle dynamics simulation software, and careful analysis was made on the conditions which caused the skidding distance to increase or decrease through a method using to predict skidding distance as part of braking distance. By applying many simulations, the results were quite revealing relation between the heavy vehicles loading condition, various sets of speed and road coefficient of friction and their interaction effect on the skidding distance. A number of results are presented which illustrate how the heavy vehicle overloading can seriously affect the skidding distance. Moreover, the results of simulation give the skid mark length, which is a necessary input data during accident reconstruction involving emergency braking.

Keywords: accident reconstruction, Braking, heavy vehicle, skidding distance, skid mark, wheel lock up

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
2470 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2469 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

Abstract:

In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: green bean, soil tillage, yield, vegetative

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2468 Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion

Authors: Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst, Oivind Andersson

Abstract:

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.

Keywords: E85, partially premixed combustion, injection strategy, performance and emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2467 The Potential of Braking Energy Recuperation in a City Bus Diesel Engine in the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Grzegorz Baranski, Piotr Kacejko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Mariusz Duk

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of a bus-driving scheme. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the mechanical energy recuperation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass. The research results show that fuel economy is impacted by kinetic energy recuperation.

Keywords: heavy duty vehicle, city bus, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy, simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2466 Fuel Economy of Electrical Energy in the City Bus during Japanese Test Procedure

Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Lukasz Grabowski, Zdzislaw Kaminski

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of fuel consumption and on-board electricity generation. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the on-board electricity generation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show that driving dynamics has an impact on a consumption of fuel to drive alternators.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
2465 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2464 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari

Abstract:

Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycles present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.

Keywords: current density, duty cycle, microstructure, nickel, pulse frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2463 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai

Abstract:

This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2462 Development of an Advanced Power Ultrasonic-Assisted Drilling System

Authors: M. A. Moghaddas, M. Short, N. Wiley, A. Y. Yi, K. F. Graff

Abstract:

The application of ultrasonic vibrations to machining processes has a long history, ranging from slurry-based systems able to drill brittle materials, to more recent developments involving low power ultrasonics for high precision machining, with many of these at the research and laboratory stages. The focus of this development is the application of high levels of ultrasonic power (1,000’s of watts) to standard, heavy duty machine tools – drilling being the immediate focus, with developments in milling in progress – with the objective of dramatically increasing system productivity through faster feed rates, this benefit arising from the thrust force reductions obtained by power ultrasonic vibrations. The presentation will describe development of an advanced drilling system based on a special, acoustically designed, rugged drill module capable of functioning under heavy duty production conditions, and making use of standard tool holder means, and able to obtain thrust force reductions while maintaining or improving surface finish and drilling accuracy. The characterization of the system performance will be described, and results obtained in drilling several materials (Aluminum, Stainless steel, Titanium) presented.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy, machine tool, productivity, surface roughness, thrust force, ultrasonic vibrations, ultrasonic-assisted drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2461 Willingness to Adopt "Green Steel" Products: A Case Study from the Automotive Sector

Authors: Hasan Muslemani, Jeffrey Wilson, Xi Liang, Francisco Ascui, Katharina Kaesehage

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine consumer behaviour towards, and the willingness to adopt, green steel use in the automotive sector, in order to identify potential barriers and opportunities for its widespread adoption. Semi-structured interviews were held with experts from global, regional and country-specific industry associations and automakers. The analysis shows there is a new shift towards lifecycle thinking in the sector, although these efforts have been voluntary and driven by customer and employee pressures rather than regulation. The paper further appraises possible demand for green steel within different vehicle types (based on size and powertrain), and shows that manufacturers of electric heavy-duty vehicles are most likely to adopt green steel in the first instance, given the amount of incorporated steel in the vehicles and the fact that lifecycle emissions lie predominantly in their manufacturing phase. A case for green advanced higher-strength steels (AHSS) can also be made in light-duty passenger vehicles, which may mitigate competition from light-weight alternative materials in terms of cost and greenness (depending on source and utilisation zones). This work builds on a wide sustainability-related literature in the automotive sector and highlights areas in need of urgent action if the sector as a whole were to meet its Paris Agreement climate targets, in particular a need to revisit current CO2 performance regulations to include Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, engage in educational green marketing campaigns, and explore innovative market-based mechanisms to bridge the gap between relatively-low carbon abatement costs of steelmaking and high abatement costs of vehicle manufacturing.

Keywords: Green steel, Consumer behaviour, Automotive industry, Environmental sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
2460 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

Abstract:

A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.

Keywords: heavy metal, orchard, pollution and monitoring, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2459 Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ

Abstract:

This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, OC/EC, PAHs, vehicular emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
2458 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai, L. U. S. Ezeanyika

Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: heavy metals, female, adolescents, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
2457 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway in Liaoning Province, China

Authors: Zhang Hui, Wu Caiqiu, Yuan Xuyin, Qiu Jie, Zhang Hanpei

Abstract:

The heavy metal contaminations were determined with a detailed soil survey in roadside soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway of Liaoning Province (China) and Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn in roadside soils was determined to be 43.8, 26.5, 0.119, 32.1, 71.3 mg/kg respectively, and all of the heavy metal contents were higher than the background values. Different heavy metal distribution regularity was found in different land use type of roadside soil, there was an obvious peak of heavy concentration at 25m from road edge in the farmland, while in the forest and orchard soil, all heavy metals gradually decreased with the increase of distance from road edge and conformed to the exponential model. Furthermore, the heavy metal contents of heavy metals except Cd were markedly increased compared with those in 1999 and 2007, and the heavy metals concentrations of Shenyang- Dalian Highway were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities around the world. The assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils illustrated a common low pollution for all heavy metal and recommended that more attention should be paid to Pb contamination in roadside soils in Shenyang-Dalian Highway.

Keywords: heavy metal contamination, roadside, highway, Nemerow Pollution Index

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
2456 Absence of Arbitrator Duty of Disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996

Authors: Qusai Alshahwan

Abstract:

The arbitrator’s duties of independence and impartiality play a significant role in delivering arbitral awards which legitimate the fundamental of arbitration concepts. For this reason, the international and national arbitration rules require arbitrators to be independent and impartial to solve the arbitration disputes fairly between the parties. However, solving the disputes fairly also requires arbitrators to disclose any existing conflicts of interest with the parties to avoid misunderstanding and late challenges. In contrary with the international and national arbitration rules, the English Arbitration Act 1996 does not include independence as a separate ground for arbitrator’s removal, and importantly the English Arbitration Act 1996 is deliberately silent to the arbitrator duty of disclosure. The absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure is an issue had generated uncertainty and concerns for the arbitration community under the English jurisdiction, particularly when the English courts rejected the IBA guidelines of arbitrator conflict of interest such as in case of Halliburton v Chubb for example. This article is highlighting on the legal consequences of the absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996 and the arbitrator's contractual obligations.

Keywords: arbitration, impartiality, independence, duty of disclosure, English Arbitration Act 1996

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2455 Wastewater Treatment from Heavy Metals by Nanofiltration and Ion Exchange

Authors: G. G. Kagramanov, E. N. Farnosova, Linn Maung Maung

Abstract:

The technologies of ion exchange and nanofiltration can be used for treatment of wastewater containing copper and other heavy metal ions to decrease the environmental risks. Nanofiltration characteristics under water treatment of heavy metals have been studied. The influence of main technical process parameters - pressure, temperature, concentration and pH value of the initial solution on flux and rejection of nanofiltration membranes has been considered. And ion exchange capacities of resins in removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater have been determined.

Keywords: exchange capacity, heavy metals, ion exchange, membrane separation, nanofiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2454 A Study of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in the Manganese Mining in Drama, Greece

Authors: A. Argiri, A. Molla, Tzouvalekas, E. Skoufogianni, N. Danalatos

Abstract:

The release of heavy metals into the environment has increased over the last years. In this study, 25 soil samples (0-15 cm) from the fields near the mining area in Drama region were selected. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physicochemical properties and for seven “pseudo-total’’ heavy metals content, namely Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn. The total metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in digests were determined by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. According to the results, the mean concentration of the listed heavy metals in 25 soil samples are Cd 1.1 mg/kg, Cr 15 mg/kg, Cu 21.7 mg/kg, Ni 30.1 mg/kg, Pd 50.8 mg/kg, Zn 99.5 mg/kg and Mn 815.3 mg/kg. The results show that the heavy metals remain in the soil even if the mining closed many years ago.

Keywords: Greece, heavy metals, mining, pollution

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2453 Scope of Heavy Oil as a Fuel of the Future

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi

Abstract:

Increasing imbalance between energy supply and demand has made nations and companies involved in the energy sector to boost up their research and find suitable solutions. With the high rates at which conventional oil and gas resources are depleting, efficient exploration and exploitation of heavy oil could just be the answer. Heavy oil may be defined as crude oil having API gravity value of less than 20⁰. They are highly viscous, have low hydrogen to carbon ratios and are known to produce high carbon residues. They have high contents of asphaltenes, heavy metals, sulphur and nitrogen in them. Due to these properties extraction, transportation and refining of crude oil have its share of challenges. Lack of suitable technology has hindered its production in the past, but now things are going in a more positive direction. The aim of this paper is to study the various advantages of heavy oil, associated limitations and its feasibility as a fuel of the future.

Keywords: energy, heavy oil, fuel, future

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2452 Effect of Fuel Injection Discharge Curve and Injection Pressure on Upgrading Power and Combustion Parameters in HD Diesel Engine with CFD Simulation

Authors: Saeed Chamehsara, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim, Mehdi Tajdari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of fuel injection discharge curve and injection pressure simultaneously for upgrading power of heavy duty diesel engine by simulation of combustion process in AVL-Fire software are discussed. Hence, the fuel injection discharge curve was changed from semi-triangular to rectangular which is usual in common rail fuel injection system. Injection pressure with respect to amount of injected fuel and nozzle hole diameter are changed. Injection pressure is calculated by an experimental equation which is for heavy duty diesel engines with common rail fuel injection system. Upgrading power for 1000 and 2000 bar injection pressure are discussed. For 1000 bar injection pressure with 188 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter in compare with first state which is semi-triangular discharge curve with 139 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter, upgrading power is about 19% whereas the special change has not been observed in cylinder pressure. On the other hand, both the NOX emission and the Soot emission decreased about 30% and 6% respectively. Compared with first state, for 2000 bar injection pressure that injected fuel and nozzle diameter are 196 mg and 2.6 mm respectively, upgrading power is about 22% whereas cylinder pressure has been fixed and NOX emission and the Soot emissions are decreased 36% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: CFD simulation, HD diesel engine, upgrading power, injection pressure, fuel injection discharge curve, combustion process

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2451 Expert System for Road Bridge Constructions

Authors: Michael Dimmer, Holger Flederer

Abstract:

The basis of realizing a construction project is a technically flawless concept which satisfies conditions regarding environment and costs, as well as static-constructional terms. The presented software system actively supports civil engineers during the setup of optimal designs, by giving advice regarding durability, life-cycle costs, sustainability and much more. A major part of the surrounding conditions of a design process is gathered and assimilated by experienced engineers subconsciously. It is a question about eligible building techniques and their practicability by considering emerging costs. Planning engineers have acquired many of this experience during their professional life and use them for their daily work. Occasionally, the planning engineer should disassociate himself from his experience to be open for new and better solutions which meet the functional demands, as well. The developed expert system gives planning engineers recommendations for preferred design options of new constructions as well as for existing bridge constructions. It is possible to analyze construction elements and techniques regarding sustainability and life-cycle costs. This way the software provides recommendations for future constructions. Furthermore, there is an option to design existing road bridges especially for heavy duty transport. This implies a route planning tool to get quick and reliable information as to whether the bridge support structures of a transport route have been measured sufficiently for a certain heavy duty transport. The use of this expert system in bridge planning companies and building authorities will save costs massively for new and existent bridge constructions. This is achieved by consequently considering parameters like life-cycle costs and sustainability for its planning recommendations.

Keywords: expert system, planning process, road bridges, software system

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2450 Investigating Effects of Vehicle Speed and Road PSDs on Response of a 35-Ton Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) Using Mathematical Modelling

Authors: Amal G. Kurian

Abstract:

The use of mathematical modeling has seen a considerable boost in recent times with the development of many advanced algorithms and mathematical modeling capabilities. The advantages this method has over other methods are that they are much closer to standard physics theories and thus represent a better theoretical model. They take lesser solving time and have the ability to change various parameters for optimization, which is a big advantage, especially in automotive industry. This thesis work focuses on a thorough investigation of the effects of vehicle speed and road roughness on a heavy commercial vehicle ride and structural dynamic responses. Since commercial vehicles are kept in operation continuously for longer periods of time, it is important to study effects of various physical conditions on the vehicle and its user. For this purpose, various experimental as well as simulation methodologies, are adopted ranging from experimental transfer path analysis to various road scenario simulations. To effectively investigate and eliminate several causes of unwanted responses, an efficient and robust technique is needed. Carrying forward this motivation, the present work focuses on the development of a mathematical model of a 4-axle configuration heavy commercial vehicle (HCV) capable of calculating responses of the vehicle on different road PSD inputs and vehicle speeds. Outputs from the model will include response transfer functions and PSDs and wheel forces experienced. A MATLAB code will be developed to implement the objectives in a robust and flexible manner which can be exploited further in a study of responses due to various suspension parameters, loading conditions as well as vehicle dimensions. The thesis work resulted in quantifying the effect of various physical conditions on ride comfort of the vehicle. An increase in discomfort is seen with velocity increase; also the effect of road profiles has a considerable effect on comfort of the driver. Details of dominant modes at each frequency are analysed and mentioned in work. The reduction in ride height or deflection of tire and suspension with loading along with load on each axle is analysed and it is seen that the front axle supports a greater portion of vehicle weight while more of payload weight comes on fourth and third axles. The deflection of the vehicle is seen to be well inside acceptable limits.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, HCV, suspension, ride analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 52