Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: flammability

26 Effect of Bulk Density and Fiber Blend Content of Nonwoven Textiles on Flammability Properties

Authors: Klara Masnicova, Jiri Chaloupek

Abstract:

Flammability plays an important role in applications such as thermal and acoustic insulation and other technical nonwoven textiles. The study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the flammability behavior of nonwoven textiles in relation to their structural and material characteristics, with emphasis given to the blending ratios of flammable and non-flammable fibers or fibers with reduced flammability. Nonwoven structures made of blends of viscose/oxidized polyacrylonitrile (VS/oxidized PAN fibers and polyethylene terephthalate/oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PET/oxidized PAN) fibers in several bulk densities are evaluated. The VS/oxidized PAN blend is model material. The flammability was studied using a cone calorimeter. Reaction to fire was observed using the small flame test method. Interestingly, the results show some of the blending ratios do not react to the heat in linear response to bulk density. This outcome can have a huge impact on future product development in fire safety and for the general understanding of flammability behavior of nonwovens made of staple fibers.

Keywords: bulk density, cone calorimetry, flammability, nonwoven textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
25 Flammability of Banana Fibre Reinforced Epoxy/Sodium Bromate Blend: Investigation of Variation in Mechanical Properties

Authors: S. Badrinarayanan, R. Vimal, H. Sivaraman, P. Deepak, R. Vignesh Kumar, A. Ponshanmugakumar

Abstract:

In the present study, the flammability properties of banana fibre reinforced epoxy/ sodium bromate blended composites are studied. Two sets of composite material were prepared, one formed by blending sodium bromate with epoxy matrix and other with neat epoxy matrix. Epoxy resin was blended with various weight fractions of sodium bromate, 4%, 8% and 12%. The composite made with plain epoxy matrix was used as the standard reference material. The mechanical tests, heat deflection tests and flammability tests were carried out on all the composite samples. Flammability test shows the improved flammability properties of the sodium bromated banana-epoxy composite. The modification in flammability properties of the composites by the addition of sodium bromate results in the reduced mechanical properties. The fractured surfaces under various mechanical testing were analysed using morphological analysis done using scanning electron microscope.

Keywords: banana fibres, epoxy resin, sodium bromate, flammability test, heat deflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
24 Variation of Litter Chemistry under Intensified Drought: Consequences on Flammability

Authors: E. Ormeno, C. Gutigny, J. Ruffault, J. Madrigal, M. Guijarro, C. Lecareux, C. Ballini

Abstract:

Mediterranean plant species feature numerous metabolic and morpho-physiological responses crucial to survive under both, typical Mediterranean drought conditions and future aggravated drought expected by climate change. Whether these adaptive responses will, in turn, increase the ecosystem perturbation in terms of fire hazard, is an issue that needs to be addressed. The aim of this study was to test whether recurrent and aggravated drought in the Mediterranean area favors the accumulation of waxes in leaf litter, with an eventual increase of litter flammability. The study was conducted in 2017 in a garrigue in Southern France dominated by Quercus coccifera, where two drought treatments were used: a treatment with recurrent aggravated drought consisting of ten rain exclusion structures which withdraw part of the annual precipitation since January 2012, and a natural drought treatment where Q. coccifera stands are free of such structures and thus grow under natural precipitation. Waxes were extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS and litter flammability was assessed through measurements of the ignition delay, flame residence time and flame intensity (flame height) using an epiradiator as well as the heat of combustion using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Results show that after 5 years of rain restriction, wax content in the cuticle of leaf litter increases significantly compared to shrubs growing under natural precipitation, in accordance with the theoretical knowledge which expects increases of cuticle waxes in green leaves in order to limit water evapotranspiration. Wax concentrations were also linearly and positively correlated to litter flammability, a correlation that lies on the high flammability own to the long-chain alkanes (C25-C31) found in leaf litter waxes. This innovative investigation shows that climate change is likely to favor ecosystem fire hazard through accumulation of highly flammable waxes in litter. It also adds valuable information about the types of metabolites that are associated with increasing litter flammability, since so far, within the leaf metabolic profile, only terpene-like compounds had been related to plant flammability.

Keywords: cuticular waxes, drought, flammability, litter

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
23 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola

Abstract:

In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: building materials, flammability, phase change materials, thermal energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
22 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac

Abstract:

In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
21 Multifunctional Coating of Nylon Using Nano-Si, Nano-Ti and SiO2-TiO2 Nancomposite :Properties of Colorimetric and Flammability

Authors: E. Fereydouni, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

The present research, nylon fabric dyed by pressure method with nano-Si, nano-Ti particles and SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite. The influence of the amount of Si, Ti and SiO2-TiO2 on the performance of nylon fabric was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), horizontal flammability apparatus (HFA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), water contact angle tester (WCA) and CIE LAB colorimetric system. The possible interactions between particles and nylon fiber were elucidated by the FTIR spectroscopy. Results indicated that the stabilized nanoparticles and nanocomposite enhances flame retardancy of nylon fabrics. Also, the prominet features of nanoparticles and nanocomposite treatment can note increase of adsorption and fixation of dye.

Keywords: nano-Si, nano- Ti, SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite, nylon fabric, flame retardant nylon

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
20 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin

Abstract:

Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
19 Paraffin/Expanded Perlite Composite as a Novel Form-Stable Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Energy Storage

Authors: Awni Alkhazaleh

Abstract:

Latent heat storage using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has attracted growing attention recently in the renewable energy utilization and building energy efficiency. Paraffin (PA) of low melting temperature, which is close to human comfort temperature in the range of 24-28 °C has been considered to be used in building applications. A form-stable composite Paraffin/Expanded perlite (PA-EP) has been prepared by retaining PA into porous particles of EP. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) is used to measure the thermal properties of PA in the form-stable composite with/without building materials. TGA (Thermal gravimetric analysis) shows that the composite is thermally stable. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) demonstrates that the layer structure of the EP particles is uniformly absorbed by PA. The mechanical properties in flexural mode have been discussed. The thermal energy storage performance has been evaluated using a small test room (100 mm ×100 mm ×100 mm) with thickness 10 mm. The flammability test of modified sample has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results confirm that the form-stable composite PA has the function of reducing building energy consumption.

Keywords: flammability, latent heat storage, paraffin, plasterboard

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
18 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert

Abstract:

The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
17 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller

Abstract:

A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids, environmental engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
16 Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage

Authors: Dong Won Kim, Hye Ji Kim, Hyun Young Jung

Abstract:

Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.

Keywords: ionic liquid, silica nanoparticle, energy storage, electrochemical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
15 Physicochemical-Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties Analysis of Pili Tree (Canarium Ovatum) Resin as Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Sealant

Authors: Mark Kennedy, E. Bantugon, Noruane A. Daileg

Abstract:

Leaks arising from aircraft fuel tanks is a protracted problem for the aircraft manufacturers, operators, and maintenance crews. It principally arises from stress, structural defects, or degraded sealants as the aircraft age. It can be ignited by different sources, which can result in catastrophic flight and consequences, exhibiting a major drain both on time and budget. In order to mitigate and eliminate this kind of problem, the researcher produced an experimental sealant having a base material of natural tree resin, the Pili Tree Resin. Aside from producing an experimental sealant, the main objective of this research is to analyze its physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties, which is beneficial and effective for specific aircraft parts, particularly the integral fuel tank. The experimental method of research was utilized in this study since it is a product invention. This study comprises two parts, specifically the Optimization Process and the Characterization Process. In the Optimization Process, the experimental sealant was subjected to the Flammability Test, an important test and consideration according to 14 Code of Federal Regulation Appendix N, Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis, to get the most suitable formulation. Followed by the Characterization Process, where the formulated experimental sealant has undergone thirty-eight (38) different standard testing including Organoleptic, Instrumental Color Measurement Test, Smoothness of Appearance Test, Miscibility Test, Boiling Point Test, Flash Point Test, Curing Time, Adhesive Test, Toxicity Test, Shore A Hardness Test, Compressive Strength, Shear Strength, Static Bending Strength, Tensile Strength, Peel Strength Test, Knife Test, Adhesion by Tape Test, Leakage Test), Drip Test, Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Calorific Value, Viscosity Test, Creep Test, and Anti-Sag Resistance Test to determine and analyze the five (5) material properties of the sealant. The numerical values of the mentioned tests are determined using product application, testing, and calculation. These values are then used to calculate the efficiency of the experimental sealant. Accordingly, this efficiency is the means of comparison between the experimental and commercial sealant. Based on the results of the different standard testing conducted, the experimental sealant exceeded all the data results of the commercial sealant. This result shows that the physicochemical-mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of the experimental sealant are far more effective as an aircraft integral fuel tank sealant alternative in comparison to the commercial sealant. Therefore, Pili Tree possesses a new role and function: a source of ingredients in sealant production.

Keywords: Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank, Physicochemi-mechanical, Pili Tree Resin, Properties, Rheological, Sealant, Thermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
14 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Doustdar, Mohammad Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are as a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multi phase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
13 Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide as Reaction Medium for the Synthesis of Flavanones under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Cecilia Espindola, Juan Carlos Palacios

Abstract:

Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds which are found in many fruits and vegetables. A subgroup of these called flavanones display a wide range of biological activities, and they also have an important physiological role in plants. The ionic liquid (ILs) are compounds consisting of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic anion. Due to its unique properties such as high electrical conductivity, wide temperature range of the liquid state, thermal and electrochemical stability, high ionic density and low volatility and flammability, are considered as ecological solvents in organic synthesis, catalysis, electrolytes in accumulators, and electrochemistry, non-volatile plasticizers, and chemical separation. It was synthesized ionic liquid IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide free-solvent and used as reaction medium for flavanones synthesis, under several reaction conditions of temperature, time and production. The obtained compounds were analyzed by melting point, elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy.

Keywords: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, flavonoids, free-solvent, IR spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
12 A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing

Authors: Mazyar Ahrari, Ramin Khajavi, Mehdi Kamali Dolatabadi, Tayebeh Toliyat, Abosaeed Rashidi

Abstract:

Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.

Keywords: thermoregulation, microencapsulation, phase change materials, thermal energy storage, nanoencapsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
11 Determination of Brominated Flame Retardants In Recycled Plastic Toys Using Thermal Desorption GC/MS

Authors: Athena Nguyen, Rojin Belganeh

Abstract:

In recycling plastics industries, waste plastics are converted into monomers and other useful molecules by chemical reactions. Thermal energy generated by incineration is recovered when waste plastics melt. During the process, Flame retardants containing products get in, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are often used to reduce the flammability of products. Some of the originally formulated brominated flame retardants additives are restricted by the RoHS Directive, such as PBDE and PBB. The determination of BFRs other than those restricted by the RoHS directive is required. Frontier Lab developed a pyrolyzer based on the vertical micro-furnace design. The multi-mode pyrolyzer with different modes of operations, including evolve gas analysis (EGA), flash pyrolysis, thermal desorption, heart cutting, allows users to choose among the techniques for their analysis purposes. The method requires very little sample preparation. The first step is to perform an EGA using temperature programs. This technique provides information about the thermal temperature behaviors of the sample. The EGA thermogram is then used to determine the next steps in the analysis process. In this presentation, with an Optimal thermal temperature zone identified based on EGA thermogram, thermal desorption GC/MS is a chosen technique for the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled plastic toys. Five types of general-purpose brominated flame retardants other than those restricted by the RoHS Directive are determined by the standard addition method.

Keywords: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, pyrolyzer, thermal desorption-GC/MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
10 Effect of External Radiative Heat Flux on Combustion Characteristics of Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Piloted-Ignition and Radiative Auto-Ignition Modes

Authors: Jia-Jia He, Lin Jiang, Jin-Hua Sun

Abstract:

Rigid polyurethane foam (RPU) has been extensively applied in building insulation system, yet with high flammability for being easily ignited by high temperature spark or radiative heat flux from other flaming materials or surrounding building facade. Using a cone calorimeter by Fire Testing Technology and thermal couple tree, this study systematically investigated the effect of radiative heat flux on the ignition time and characteristic temperature distribution during RPU combustion under different heat fluxes gradient (12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 kW/m²) with spark ignition/ignition by radiation. The ignition time decreases proportionally with increase of external heat flux, meanwhile increasing the external heat flux raises the peak heat release rate and impresses on the vertical temperature distribution greatly. The critical ignition heat flux is found to be 15 and 25 kW/m² for spark ignition and radiative ignition, respectively. Based on previous experienced ignition formula, a methodology to predict ignition times in both modes has been developed theoretically. By analyzing the heat transfer mechanism around the sample surroundings, both radiation from cone calorimeter and convection flow are considered and calculated theoretically. The experimental ignition times agree well with the theoretical ones in both radiative and convective conditions; however, the observed critical ignition heat flux is higher than the calculated one under piloted-ignition mode because the heat loss process, especially in lower heat flux radiation, is not considered in this developed methodology.

Keywords: rigid polyurethane foam, cone calorimeter, ignition time, external heat flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
9 Enhancing of Flame Retardancy and Hydrophobicity of Cotton by Coating a Phosphorous, Silica, Nitrogen Containing Bio-Flame Retardant Liquid for Upholstery Application

Authors: Li Maksym, Prabhakar M. N., Jung-Il Song

Abstract:

In this study, a flame retardant and hydrophobic cotton textile were prepared by utilizing a renewable halogen-free bio-based solution based on chitosan, urea, and phytic acid, named bio-flame retardant liquid (BFL), through facile dip-coating technology. Deposition of BFL on the surface of the cotton was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Thermal and flame retardant properties of the cottons were studied with thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vertical flame test, cone calorimeter test. Only with 8.8% of dry weight gain treaded cotton showed self-extinguish properties during fire test. Cone calorimeter test revealed a reduction of peak heat release rate from 203.2 to 21 kW/m2 and total heat release from 20.1 to 2.8 MJ/m2. Incidentally, BFL remarkably improved the thermal stability of flame retardant cotton from expressed in an enhanced amount of char at 700 °C (6.7 vs. 33.5%). BFL initiates the formation of phosphorous and silica contain char layer whichrestrains the propagation of heat and oxygen to unburned materialstrengthen by the liberation of non-combustible gases, which reduce the concentration of flammable volatiles and oxygen hence reducing the flammability of cotton. In addition, hydrophobicity and specific ignition test for upholstery application were performed. In conjunction, the proposed flame retardant cotton is potentially translatable to be utilized as upholstery materials in public transport.

Keywords: cotton farbic, flame retardancy, surface coating, intumescent mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
8 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang

Abstract:

Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluidized bed, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, slip flow, minimum fluidization velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
7 Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets

Authors: Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Corneliu Hamciuc

Abstract:

Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.

Keywords: condensed-phase mechanism, eco-friendly phosphorus flame retardant, epoxy resin, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
6 Nanotechnology for Flame Retardancy of Thermoset Resins

Authors: Ewa Kicko Walczak, Grazyna Rymarz

Abstract:

In recent years, nanotechnology has been successfully applied for flame retardancy of polymers, in particular for construction materials. The consumption of thermoset resins as a construction polymers materials is approximately over one million tone word wide. Excellent mechanical, relatively high heat and thermal stability of their type of polymers are proven for variety applications, e.g. transportation, electrical, electronic, building part industry. Above applications in addition to the strength and thermal properties also requires -referring to the legal regulation or recommendation - an adequate level of flammability of the materials. This publication present the evaluation was made of effectiveness of flame retardancy of halogen-free hybrid flame retardants(FR) as compounds nitric/phosphorus modifiers that act with nanofillers (nano carbons, organ modified montmorillonite, nano silica, microsphere) in relation to unsaturated polyester/epoxy resins and glass-reinforced on base this resins laminates(GRP) as a final products. The analysis of the fire properties provided proof of effective flame retardancy of the tested composites by defining oxygen indices values (LOI), with the use of thermogravimetric methods (TGA) and combustion head (CH). An analysis of the combustion process with Cone Calorimeter (CC) method included in the first place N/P units and nanofillers with the observed phenomenon of synergic action of compounds. The fine-plates, phase morphology and rheology of composites were assessed by SEM/ TEM analysis. Polymer-matrix glass reinforced laminates with modified resins meet LOI over 30%, reduced in a decrease by 70% HRR (according to CC analysis), positive description of the curves TGA and values CH; no adverse negative impact on mechanical properties. The main objective of our current project is to contribute to the general understanding of the flame retardants mechanism and to investigate the corresponding structure/properties relationships. We confirm that nanotechnology systems are successfully concept for commercialized forms for non-flammable GRP pipe, concrete composites, and flame retardant tunnels constructions.

Keywords: fire retardants, FR, halogen-free FR nanofillers, non-flammable pipe/concrete, thermoset resins

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
5 Self-Assembling Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on β-FeOOH Nanorods for Reducing Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

Authors: Wei Wang, Yuan Hu

Abstract:

Epoxy resins (EP), one of the most important thermosetting polymers, is widely applied in various fields due to its desirable properties, such as excellent electrical insulation, low shrinkage, outstanding mechanical stiffness, satisfactory adhesion and solvent resistance. However, like most of the polymeric materials, EP has the fatal drawbacks including inherent flammability and high yield of toxic smoke, which restricts its application in the fields requiring fire safety. So, it is still a challenge and an interesting subject to develop new flame retardants which can not only remarkably improve the flame retardancy, but also render modified resins low toxic gases generation. In recent work, polymer nanocomposites based on nanohybrids that contain two or more kinds of nanofillers have drawn intensive interest, which can realize performance enhancements. The realization of previous hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and molybdenum disulfide provides us a novel route to decorate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets on the surface of β-FeOOH nanorods; the deposited LDH nanosheets can fill the network and promote the work efficiency of β-FeOOH nanorods. Moreover, the synergistic effects between LDH and β-FeOOH can be anticipated to have potential applications in reducing fire hazards of EP composites for the combination of condense-phase and gas-phase mechanism. As reported, β-FeOOH nanorods can act as a core to prepare hybrid nanostructures combining with other nanoparticles through electrostatic attraction through layer-by-layer assembly technique. In this work, LDH nanosheets wrapped β-FeOOH nanorods (LDH-β-FeOOH) hybrids was synthesized by a facile method, with the purpose of combining the characteristics of one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D), to improve the fire resistance of epoxy resin. The hybrids showed a well dispersion in EP matrix and had no obvious aggregation. Thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter tests confirmed that LDH-β-FeOOH hybrids into EP matrix with a loading of 3% could obviously improve the fire safety of EP composites. The plausible flame retardancy mechanism was explored by thermogravimetric infrared (TG-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reasons were concluded: condense-phase and gas-phase. Nanofillers were transferred to the surface of matrix during combustion, which could not only shield EP matrix from external radiation and heat feedback from the fire zone, but also efficiently retard transport of oxygen and flammable pyrolysis.

Keywords: fire hazards, toxic gases, self-assembly, epoxy

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
4 Formulation and Invivo Evaluation of Salmeterol Xinafoate Loaded MDI for Asthma Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Paresh Patel, Priya Patel, Vaidehi Sorathiya, Navin Sheth

Abstract:

The aim of present work was to fabricate Salmeterol Xinafoate (SX) metered dose inhaler (MDI) for asthma and to evaluate the SX loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for pulmonary delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles can be used to deliver particles to the lungs via MDI. A modified solvent emulsification diffusion technique was used to prepare Salmeterol Xinafoate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by using compritol 888 ATO as lipid, tween 80 as surfactant, D-mannitol as cryoprotecting agent and L-leucine was used to improve aerosolization behaviour. Box-Behnken design was applied with 17 runs. 3-D surface response plots and contour plots were drawn and optimized formulation was selected based on minimum particle size and maximum % EE. % yield, in vitro diffusion study, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, DSC, FTIR also characterized. Particle size, zeta potential analyzed by Zetatrac particle size analyzer and aerodynamic properties was carried out by cascade impactor. Pre convulsion time was examined for control group, treatment group and compare with marketed group. MDI was evaluated for leakage test, flammability test, spray test and content per puff. By experimental design, particle size and % EE found to be in range between 119-337 nm and 62.04-76.77% by solvent emulsification diffusion technique. Morphologically, particles have spherical shape and uniform distribution. DSC & FTIR study showed that no interaction between drug and excipients. Zeta potential shows good stability of SLNs. % respirable fraction found to be 52.78% indicating reach to the deep part of lung such as alveoli. Animal study showed that fabricated MDI protect the lungs against histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. MDI showed sphericity of particle in spray pattern, 96.34% content per puff and non-flammable. SLNs prepared by Solvent emulsification diffusion technique provide desirable size for deposition into the alveoli. This delivery platform opens up a wide range of treatment application of pulmonary disease like asthma via solid lipid nanoparticles.

Keywords: salmeterol xinafoate, solid lipid nanoparticles, box-behnken design, solvent emulsification diffusion technique, pulmonary delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3 Recycling the Lanthanides from Permanent Magnets by Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquid

Authors: Celine Bonnaud, Isabelle Billard, Nicolas Papaiconomou, Eric Chainet

Abstract:

Thanks to their high magnetization and low mass, permanent magnets (NdFeB and SmCo) have quickly became essential for new energies (wind turbines, electrical vehicles…). They contain large quantities of neodymium, samarium and dysprosium, that have been recently classified as critical elements and that therefore need to be recycled. Electrochemical processes including electrodissolution followed by electrodeposition are an elegant and environmentally friendly solution for the recycling of such lanthanides contained in permanent magnets. However, electrochemistry of the lanthanides is a real challenge as their standard potentials are highly negative (around -2.5V vs ENH). Consequently, non-aqueous solvents are required. Ionic liquids (IL) are novel electrolytes exhibiting physico-chemical properties that fulfill many requirements of the sustainable chemistry principles, such as extremely low volatility and non-flammability. Furthermore, their chemical and electrochemical properties (solvation of metallic ions, large electrochemical windows, etc.) render them very attractive media to implement alternative and sustainable processes in view of integrated processes. All experiments that will be presented were carried out using butyl-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Linear sweep, cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrochemical techniques were used. The reliability of electrochemical experiments, performed without glove box, for the classic three electrodes cell used in this study has been assessed. Deposits were obtained by chronoamperometry and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The IL cathodic behavior under different constraints (argon, nitrogen, oxygen atmosphere or water content) and using several electrode materials (Pt, Au, GC) shows that with argon gas flow and gold as a working electrode, the cathodic potential can reach the maximum value of -3V vs Fc+/Fc; thus allowing a possible reduction of lanthanides. On a gold working electrode, the reduction potential of samarium and neodymium was found to be -1.8V vs Fc+/Fc while that of dysprosium was -2.1V vs Fc+/Fc. The individual deposits obtained were found to be porous and presented some significant amounts of C, N, F, S and O atoms. Selective deposition of neodymium in presence of dysprosium was also studied and will be discussed. Next, metallic Sm, Nd and Dy electrodes were used in replacement of Au, which induced changes in the reduction potential values and the deposit structures of lanthanides. The individual corrosion potentials were also measured in order to determine the parameters influencing the electrodissolution of these metals. Finally, a full recycling process was investigated. Electrodissolution of a real permanent magnet sample was monitored kinetically. Then, the sequential electrodeposition of all lanthanides contained in the IL was investigated. Yields, quality of the deposits and consumption of chemicals will be discussed in depth, in view of the industrial feasibility of this process for real permanent magnets recycling.

Keywords: electrodeposition, electrodissolution, ionic liquids, lanthanides, rcycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2 Thermal Securing of Electrical Contacts inside Oil Power Transformers

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

In the operation of power transformers of 110 kV/MV from substations, these are traveled by fault current resulting from MV line damage. Defect electrical contacts are heated when they are travelled from fault currents. In the case of high temperatures when 135 °C is reached, the electrical insulating oil in the vicinity of the electrical faults comes into contact with these contacts releases gases, and activates the electrical protection. To avoid auto-flammability of electro-insulating oil, we designed a security system thermal of electrical contact defects by pouring fire-resistant polyurethane foam, mastic or mortar fire inside a cardboard electro-insulating cylinder. From practical experience, in the exploitation of power transformers of 110 kV/MT in oil electro-insulating were recorded some passing disconnecting commanded by the gas protection at internal defects. In normal operation and in the optimal load, nominal currents do not require thermal secure contacts inside electrical transformers, contacts are made at the fabrication according to the projects or to repair by solder. In the case of external short circuits close to the substation, the contacts inside electrical transformers, even if they are well made in sizes of Rcontact = 10‑6 Ω, are subjected to short-circuit currents of the order of 10 kA-20 kA which lead to the dissipation of some significant second-order electric powers, 100 W-400 W, on contact. At some internal or external factors which action on electrical contacts, including electrodynamic efforts at short-circuits, these factors could be degraded over time to values in the range of 10-4 Ω to 10-5 Ω and if the action time of protection is great, on the order of seconds, power dissipation on electrical contacts achieve high values of 1,0 kW to 40,0 kW. This power leads to strong local heating, hundreds of degrees Celsius and can initiate self-ignition and burning oil in the vicinity of electro-insulating contacts with action the gas relay. Degradation of electrical contacts inside power transformers may not be limited for the duration of their operation. In order to avoid oil burn with gas release near electrical contacts, at short-circuit currents 10 kA-20 kA, we have outlined the following solutions: covering electrical contacts in fireproof materials that would avoid direct burn oil at short circuit and transmission of heat from electrical contact along the conductors with heat dissipation gradually over time, in a large volume of cooling. Flame retardant materials are: polyurethane foam, mastic, cement (concrete). In the normal condition of operation of transformer, insulating of conductors coils is with paper and insulating oil. Ignition points of its two components respectively are approximated: 135 °C heat for oil and 200 0C for paper. In the case of a faulty electrical contact, about 10-3 Ω, at short-circuit; the temperature can reach for a short time, a value of 300 °C-400 °C, which ignite the paper and also the oil. By burning oil, there are local gases that disconnect the power transformer. Securing thermal electrical contacts inside the transformer, in cardboard tube with polyurethane foams, mastik or cement, ensures avoiding gas release and also gas protection working.

Keywords: power transformer, oil insulatation, electric contacts, Bucholtz relay

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
1 Expanded Polyurethane Foams and Waterborne-Polyurethanes from Vegetable Oils

Authors: A.Cifarelli, L. Boggioni, F. Bertini, L. Magon, M. Pitalieri, S. Losio

Abstract:

Nowadays, the growing environmental awareness and the dwindling of fossil resources stimulate the polyurethane (PU) industry towards renewable polymers with low carbon footprint to replace the feed stocks from petroleum sources. The main challenge in this field consists in replacing high-performance products from fossil-fuel with novel synthetic polymers derived from 'green monomers'. The bio-polyols from plant oils have attracted significant industrial interest and major attention in scientific research due to their availability and biodegradability. Triglycerides rich in unsaturated fatty acids, such as soybean oil (SBO) and linseed oil (ELO), are particularly interesting because their structures and functionalities are tunable by chemical modification in order to obtain polymeric materials with expected final properties. Unfortunately, their use is still limited for processing or performance problems because a high functionality, as well as OH number of the polyols will result in an increase in cross-linking densities of the resulting PUs. The main aim of this study is to evaluate soy and linseed-based polyols as precursors to prepare prepolymers for the production of polyurethane foams (PUFs) or waterborne-polyurethanes (WPU) used as coatings. An effective reaction route is employed for its simplicity and economic impact. Indeed, bio-polyols were synthesized by a two-step method: epoxidation of the double bonds in vegetable oils and solvent-free ring-opening reaction of the oxirane with organic acids. No organic solvents have been used. Acids with different moieties (aliphatic or aromatics) and different length of hydrocarbon backbones can be used to customize polyols with different functionalities. The ring-opening reaction requires a fine tuning of the experimental conditions (time, temperature, molar ratio of carboxylic acid and epoxy group) to control the acidity value of end-product as well as the amount of residual starting materials. Besides, a Lewis base catalyst is used to favor the ring opening reaction of internal epoxy groups of the epoxidized oil and minimize the formation of cross-linked structures in order to achieve less viscous and more processable polyols with narrower polydispersity indices (molecular weight lower than 2000 g/mol⁻¹). The functionality of optimized polyols is tuned from 2 to 4 per molecule. The obtained polyols are characterized by means of GPC, NMR (¹H, ¹³C) and FT-IR spectroscopy to evaluate molecular masses, molecular mass distributions, microstructures and linkage pathways. Several polyurethane foams have been prepared by prepolymer method blending conventional synthetic polyols with new bio-polyols from soybean and linseed oils without using organic solvents. The compatibility of such bio-polyols with commercial polyols and diisocyanates is demonstrated. The influence of the bio-polyols on the foam morphology (cellular structure, interconnectivity), density, mechanical and thermal properties has been studied. Moreover, bio-based WPUs have been synthesized by well-established processing technology. In this synthesis, a portion of commercial polyols is substituted by the new bio-polyols and the properties of the coatings on leather substrates have been evaluated to determine coating hardness, abrasion resistance, impact resistance, gloss, chemical resistance, flammability, durability, and adhesive strength.

Keywords: bio-polyols, polyurethane foams, solvent free synthesis, waterborne-polyurethanes

Procedia PDF Downloads 51