Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Lukasz Grabowski

32 Fuel Economy of Electrical Energy in the City Bus during Japanese Test Procedure

Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Lukasz Grabowski, Zdzislaw Kaminski


This paper discusses a model of fuel consumption and on-board electricity generation. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the on-board electricity generation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show that driving dynamics has an impact on a consumption of fuel to drive alternators.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, power generation

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31 A Research of the Prototype Fuel Injector for the Aircraft Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Lukasz Grabowski


The paper presents the research results of the construction of an injector with a modified injection nozzle. The injector is designed for a prototype aircraft opposed-piston diesel engine with an assumed starting power of 100 kW. The injector has been subjected to optical tests carried out in a constant volume chamber with the use of a camera allowing to record images at the frequency of 5400 fps and at the resolution of 1024x1024. The measurements were based on a Mie scattering technique with global lighting. Seven repetitions were made for a specific measurement point. The measuring point was selected on the basis of the analysis of engine operating conditions. The analysis focused on the average range of the spray and its distribution. As a result of the conducted research, the range of the fuel spray was defined for the determined parameters of injection. The obtained results were used to verify and optimize the combustion process in the designed opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ' S.A.' and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, opposed-piston, aircraft, fuel injector

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30 Validation Study of Radial Aircraft Engine Model

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Tytus Tulwin, Michal Geca, P. Karpinski


This paper presents the radial aircraft engine model which has been created in AVL Boost software. This model is a one-dimensional physical model of the engine, which enables us to investigate the impact of an ignition system design on engine performance (power, torque, fuel consumption). In addition, this model allows research under variable environmental conditions to reflect varied flight conditions (altitude, humidity, cruising speed). Before the simulation research the identifying parameters and validating of model were studied. In order to verify the feasibility to take off power of gasoline radial aircraft engine model, some validation study was carried out. The first stage of the identification was completed with reference to the technical documentation provided by manufacturer of engine and the experiments on the test stand of the real engine. The second stage involved a comparison of simulation results with the results of the engine stand tests performed on a WSK ’PZL-Kalisz’. The engine was loaded by a propeller in a special test bench. Identifying the model parameters referred to a comparison of the test results to the simulation in terms of: pressure behind the throttles, pressure in the inlet pipe, and time course for pressure in the first inlet pipe, power, and specific fuel consumption. Accordingly, the required coefficients and error of simulation calculation relative to the real-object experiments were determined. Obtained the time course for pressure and its value is compatible with the experimental results. Additionally the engine power and specific fuel consumption tends to be significantly compatible with the bench tests. The mapping error does not exceed 1.5%, which verifies positively the model of combustion and allows us to predict engine performance if the process of combustion will be modified. The next conducted tests verified completely model. The maximum mapping error for the pressure behind the throttles and the inlet pipe pressure is 4 %, which proves the model of the inlet duct in the engine with the charging compressor to be correct.

Keywords: 1D-model, aircraft engine, performance, validation

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29 The Verification Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy


This paper presents the results of the research to verify the combustion in aircraft piston engine Asz62-IR. This engine was modernized and a type of ignition system was developed. Due to the high costs of experiments of a nine-cylinder 1,000 hp aircraft engine, a simulation technique should be applied. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics to simulate the combustion process is a reasonable solution. Accordingly, the tests for varied ignition advance angles were carried out and the optimal value to be tested on a real engine was specified. The CFD model was created with the AVL Fire software. The engine in the research had two spark plugs for each cylinder and ignition advance angles had to be set up separately for each spark. The results of the simulation were verified by comparing the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of the indicated pressure of the engine mounted on a test stand were compared. The real course of pressure was measured with an optical sensor, mounted in a specially drilled hole between the valves. It was the OPTRAND pressure sensor, which was designed especially to engine combustion process research. The indicated pressure was measured in cylinder no 3. The engine was running at take-off power. The engine was loaded by a propeller at a special test bench. The verification of the CFD simulation results was based on the results of the test bench studies. The course of the simulated pressure obtained is within the measurement error of the optical sensor. This error is 1% and reflects the hysteresis and nonlinearity of the sensor. The real indicated pressure measured in the cylinder and the pressure taken from the simulation were compared. It can be claimed that the verification of CFD simulations based on the pressure is a success. The next step was to research on the impact of changing the ignition advance timing of spark plugs 1 and 2 on a combustion process. Moving ignition timing between 1 and 2 spark plug results in a longer and uneven firing of a mixture. The most optimal point in terms of indicated power occurs when ignition is simultaneous for both spark plugs, but so severely separated ignitions are assured that ignition will occur at all speeds and loads of engine. It should be confirmed by a bench experiment of the engine. However, this simulation research enabled us to determine the optimal ignition advance angle to be implemented into the ignition control system. This knowledge allows us to set up the ignition point with two spark plugs to achieve as large power as possible.

Keywords: CFD model, combustion, engine, simulation

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28 Numerical Analysis of Charge Exchange in an Opposed-Piston Engine

Authors: Zbigniew Czyż, Adam Majczak, Lukasz Grabowski


The paper presents a description of geometric models, computational algorithms, and results of numerical analyses of charge exchange in a two-stroke opposed-piston engine. The research engine was a newly designed internal Diesel engine. The unit is characterized by three cylinders in which three pairs of opposed-pistons operate. The engine will generate a power output equal to 100 kW at a crankshaft rotation speed of 3800-4000 rpm. The numerical investigations were carried out using ANSYS FLUENT solver. Numerical research, in contrast to experimental research, allows us to validate project assumptions and avoid costly prototype preparation for experimental tests. This makes it possible to optimize the geometrical model in countless variants with no production costs. The geometrical model includes an intake manifold, a cylinder, and an outlet manifold. The study was conducted for a series of modifications of manifolds and intake and exhaust ports to optimize the charge exchange process in the engine. The calculations specified a swirl coefficient obtained under stationary conditions for a full opening of intake and exhaust ports as well as a CA value of 280° for all cylinders. In addition, mass flow rates were identified separately in all of the intake and exhaust ports to achieve the best possible uniformity of flow in the individual cylinders. For the models under consideration, velocity, pressure and streamline contours were generated in important cross sections. The developed models are designed primarily to minimize the flow drag through the intake and exhaust ports while the mass flow rate increases. Firstly, in order to calculate the swirl ratio [-], tangential velocity v [m/s] and then angular velocity ω [rad / s] with respect to the charge as the mean of each element were calculated. The paper contains comparative analyses of all the intake and exhaust manifolds of the designed engine. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, engine swirl, fluid mechanics, mass flow rates, numerical analysis, opposed-piston engine

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27 A Modelling of Main Bearings in the Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Rafal Sochaczewski, Lukasz Grabowski


This paper presents the results of the load simulations of main bearings in a two-stroke Diesel engine. A model of an engine lubrication system with connections of its main lubrication nodes, i.e., a connection of its main bearings in the engine block with the crankshaft, a connection of its crankpins with its connecting rod and a connection of its pin and its piston has been created for our calculations performed using the AVL EXCITE Designer. The analysis covers the loads given as a pressure distribution in a hydrodynamic oil film, a temperature distribution on the main bush surfaces for the specified radial clearance values as well as the impact of the force of gas on the minimum oil film thickness in the main bearings depending on crankshaft rotational speeds and temperatures of oil in the bearings. One of the main goals of the research has been to determine whether the minimum thickness of the oil film at which fluid friction occurs can be achieved for each value of crankshaft speed. Our model calculates different oil film parameters, i.e., its thickness, a pressure distribution there, the change in oil temperature. Additional enables an analysis of an oil temperature distribution on the surfaces of the bearing seats. It allows verifying the selected clearances in the bearings of the main engine under normal operation conditions and extremal ones that show a significant increase in temperature above the limit value. The research has been conducted for several engine crankshaft speeds ranging from 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm. The oil pressure in the bearings has ranged 2-5 bar according to engine speeds and the oil temperature has ranged 90-120 °C. The main bearing clearance has been adopted for the calculation and analysis as 0.025 mm. The oil classified as SAE 5W-30 has been used for the simulations. The paper discusses the selected research results referring to several specific operating points and different temperatures of the lubricating oil in the bearings. The received research results show that for the investigated main bearing bushes of the shaft, the results fall within the ranges of the limit values despite the increase in the oil temperature of the bearings reaching 120˚C. The fact that the bearings are loaded with the maximum pressure makes no excessive temperature rise on the bush surfaces. The oil temperature increases by 17˚C, reaching 137˚C at a speed of 4000 rpm. The minimum film thickness at which fluid friction occurs has been achieved for each of the operating points at each of the engine crankshaft speeds. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, main bearings, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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26 Thermal Imaging of Aircraft Piston Engine in Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Marcin Szlachetka, Tytus Tulwin


The main task of the engine cooling system is to maintain its average operating temperatures within strictly defined limits. Too high or too low average temperatures result in accelerated wear or even damage to the engine or its individual components. In order to avoid local overheating or significant temperature gradients, leading to high stresses in the component, the aim is to ensure an even flow of air. In the case of analyses related to heat exchange, one of the main problems is the comparison of temperature fields because standard measuring instruments such as thermocouples or thermistors only provide information about the course of temperature at a given point. Thermal imaging tests can be helpful in this case. With appropriate camera settings and taking into account environmental conditions, we are able to obtain accurate temperature fields in the form of thermograms. Emission of heat from the engine to the engine compartment is an important issue when designing a cooling system. Also, in the case of liquid cooling, the main sources of heat in the form of emissions from the engine block, cylinders, etc. should be identified. It is important to redesign the engine compartment ventilation system. Ensuring proper cooling of aircraft reciprocating engine is difficult not only because of variable operating range but mainly because of different cooling conditions related to the change of speed or altitude of flight. Engine temperature also has a direct and significant impact on the properties of engine oil, which under the influence of this parameter changes, in particular, its viscosity. Too low or too high, its value can be a result of fast wear of engine parts. One of the ways to determine the temperatures occurring on individual parts of the engine is the use of thermal imaging measurements. The article presents the results of preliminary thermal imaging tests of aircraft piston diesel engine with a maximum power of about 100 HP. In order to perform the heat emission tests of the tested engine, the ThermaCAM S65 thermovision monitoring system from FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) together with the ThermaCAM Researcher Professional software was used. The measurements were carried out after the engine warm up. The engine speed was 5300 rpm The measurements were taken for the following environmental parameters: air temperature: 17 °C, ambient pressure: 1004 hPa, relative humidity: 38%. The temperatures distribution on the engine cylinder and on the exhaust manifold were analysed. Thermal imaging tests made it possible to relate the results of simulation tests to the real object by measuring the rib temperature of the cylinders. The results obtained are necessary to develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of heat emission from the engine bay. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: aircraft, piston engine, heat, emission

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25 Exploring Coordination between Monetary and Macroprudential Policies Using a Monetary Policy Procyclicality Ratio

Authors: Lukasz Kurowski, Paweł Smaga


We explore the procyclicality of monetary policy decisions towards the financial cycle in the 1995−2015 period on a sample of six central banks. Using interest rate paths and the credit-to-GDP gap to construct a monetary policy procyclicality ratio, we provide evidence that monetary policy procyclicality was high in BoE and CNB and low in Riksbank and ECB. The results support the need for coordination between macroprudential and monetary policies, for example, by including financial stability considerations to the inflation targeting strategy.

Keywords: central bank, financial stability, macroprudential policy, monetary policy

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24 Problems of Using Mobile Photovoltaic Installations

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca


The dynamic development of photovoltaics in the 21st century has resulted in more possibilities for using photovoltaic systems. In order to reduce emissions, a retrofitting of vehicles with photovoltaic modules has recently become increasingly popular. Preparing such an installation, however, requires professional knowledge and compliance with safety rules. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of some types of flexible photovoltaic modules that can be applied to mobile installations, types and causes of damage to photovoltaic modules as well as the most frequent types of misinstallation. Our attention has been drawn to the risk of fire caused by misintallation or defective insulation and the need to closely monitor mobile installations, for example by a non-destructive testing with a thermal imaging camera. The paper also presents certain selected results of the research conducted at the Lublin University of Technology. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS2/A6/16/2013.

Keywords: flexible PV module, mobile PV module, photovoltaic module, photovoltaic

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23 Methodology of Choosing Technology and Sizing of the Hybrid Energy Storage Based on Cost-benefit Analysis

Authors: Krzysztof Rafał, Weronika Radziszewska, Hubert Biedka, Oskar Grabowski, Krzysztof Mik


We present a method to choose energy storage technologies and their parameters for the economic operation of a microgrid. A grid-connected system with local loads and PV generation is assumed, where an energy storage system (ESS) is attached to minimize energy cost by providing energy balancing and arbitrage functionalities. The ESS operates in a hybrid configuration and consists of two unique technologies operated in a coordinated way. Based on given energy profiles and economical data a model calculates financial flow for ESS investment, including energy cost and ESS depreciation resulting from degradation. The optimization strategy proposes a hybrid set of two technologies with their respective power and energy ratings to minimize overall system cost in a given timeframe. Results are validated through microgrid simulations using real-life input profiles.

Keywords: energy storage, hybrid energy storage, cost-benefit analysis, microgrid, battery sizing

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22 Application of EEG Wavelet Power to Prediction of Antidepressant Treatment Response

Authors: Dorota Witkowska, Paweł Gosek, Lukasz Swiecicki, Wojciech Jernajczyk, Bruce J. West, Miroslaw Latka


In clinical practice, the selection of an antidepressant often degrades to lengthy trial-and-error. In this work we employ a normalized wavelet power of alpha waves as a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response. This novel EEG metric takes into account both non-stationarity and intersubject variability of alpha waves. We recorded resting, 19-channel EEG (closed eyes) in 22 inpatients suffering from unipolar (UD, n=10) or bipolar (BD, n=12) depression. The EEG measurement was done at the end of the short washout period which followed previously unsuccessful pharmacotherapy. The normalized alpha wavelet power of 11 responders was markedly different than that of 11 nonresponders at several, mostly temporoparietal sites. Using the prediction of treatment response based on the normalized alpha wavelet power, we achieved 81.8% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity for channel T4.

Keywords: alpha waves, antidepressant, treatment outcome, wavelet

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21 Destruction of Colon Cells by Nanocontainers of Ferromagnetic

Authors: Lukasz Szymanski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Grzegorz Raniszewski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Ireneusz Majsterek, Zbigniew Kaminski, Justyna Fraczyk, Malgorzata Walczak, Beata Kolasinska, Adam Bednarek, Joanna Konka


The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of electromagnetic field from the range of radio frequencies on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes: The synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Pristine ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes are not suitable for application in medicine and biotechnology. Appropriate functionalization of ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes allows to receiving materials useful in medicine. Finally, a product contains folic acids on the surface of FNCs. The folic acid is a ligand of folate receptors – α which is overexpressed on the surface of epithelial tumours cells. It is expected that folic acids will be recognized and selectively bound by receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. In our research, FNCs were covalently functionalized in a multi-step procedure. Ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes were oxidated using different oxidative agents. For this purpose, strong acids such as HNO3, or mixture HNO3 and H2SO4 were used. Reactive carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed on the open sides and at the defects on the sidewalls of FNCs. These groups allow further modification of FNCs as a reaction of amidation, reaction of introduction appropriate linkers which separate solid surface of FNCs and ligand (folic acid). In our studies, amino acid and peptide have been applied as ligands. The last step of chemical modification was reaction-condensation with folic acid. In all reaction as coupling reagents were used derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine. The first trials in the device for hyperthermal RF generator have been done. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz. Obtained functionalized nanoparticles enabled to reach the temperature of denaturation tumor cells in given frequencies.

Keywords: cancer colon cells, carbon nanotubes, hyperthermia, ligands

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20 Sonochemically Prepared Non-Noble Metal Oxide Catalysts for Methane Catalytic Combustion

Authors: Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski, Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Lukasz Kuterasinski, Anna Gancarczyk, Maciej Sitarz


The aim of this study was to obtain highly active catalysts based on non-noble metal oxides supported on zirconia prepared via a sonochemical method. In this study, the influence of the stabilizers addition during the preparation step was checked. The final catalysts were characterized by using such characterization methods as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and µRaman. The proposed preparation method allowed to obtain uniformly dispersed metal-oxide nanoparticles at the support’s surface. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst samples was measured in a methane combustion reaction. The activity of the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method was considerably higher than their counterparts prepared by the incipient wetness method.

Keywords: methane catalytic combustion, nanoparticles, non-noble metals, sonochemistry

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19 Low- and High-Temperature Methods of CNTs Synthesis for Medicine

Authors: Grzegorz Raniszewski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Lukasz Szymanski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza


One of the most promising area for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) application is medicine. One of the most devastating diseases is cancer. Carbon nanotubes may be used as carriers of a slowly released drug. It is possible to use of electromagnetic waves to destroy cancer cells by the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In our research we focused on thermal ablation by ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs). In the cancer cell hyperthermia functionalized carbon nanotubes are exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic field. Properly functionalized Fe-CNTs join the cancer cells. Heat generated in nanoparticles connected to nanotubes warm up nanotubes and then the target tissue. When the temperature in tumor tissue exceeds 316 K the necrosis of cancer cells may be observed. Several techniques can be used for Fe-CNTs synthesis. In our work, we use high-temperature methods where arc-discharge is applied. Low-temperature systems are microwave plasma with assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). In the arc discharge system, the plasma reactor works with a pressure of He up to 0,5 atm. The electric arc burns between two graphite rods. Vapors of carbon move from the anode, through a short arc column and forms CNTs which can be collected either from the reactor walls or cathode deposit. This method is suitable for the production of multi-wall and single-wall CNTs. A disadvantage of high-temperature methods is a low purification, short length, random size and multi-directional distribution. In MPCVD system plasma is generated in waveguide connected to the microwave generator. Then containing carbon and ferromagnetic elements plasma flux go to the quartz tube. The additional resistance heating can be applied to increase the reaction effectiveness and efficiency. CNTs nucleation occurs on the quartz tube walls. It is also possible to use substrates to improve carbon nanotubes growth. HPCVD system involves both chemical decomposition of carbon containing gases and vaporization of a solid or liquid source of catalyst. In this system, a tube furnace is applied. A mixture of working and carbon-containing gases go through the quartz tube placed inside the furnace. As a catalyst ferrocene vapors can be used. Fe-CNTs may be collected then either from the quartz tube walls or on the substrates. Low-temperature methods are characterized by higher purity product. Moreover, carbon nanotubes from tested CVD systems were partially filled with the iron. Regardless of the method of Fe-CNTs synthesis the final product always needs to be purified for applications in medicine. The simplest method of purification is an oxidation of the amorphous carbon. Carbon nanotubes dedicated for cancer cell thermal ablation need to be additionally treated by acids for defects amplification on the CNTs surface what facilitates biofunctionalization. Application of ferromagnetic nanotubes for cancer treatment is a promising method of fighting with cancer for the next decade. Acknowledgment: The research work has been financed from the budget of science as a research project No. PBS2/A5/31/2013

Keywords: arc discharge, cancer, carbon nanotubes, CVD, thermal ablation

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18 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin


We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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17 Association of Selected Polymorphisms of BER Pathway with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Polish Population

Authors: Jacek Kabzinski, Karolina Przybylowska, Lukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek


The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing from year to year. Despite intensive research CRC etiology remains unknown. Studies suggest that at the basis of the process of carcinogenesis can lie reduced efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms, often caused by polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between gene polymorphisms Pro242Arg of PolB gene and Arg780His of Lig3 gene and modulation of the risk of colorectal cancer in the Polish population. Determination of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis process and predicting increased risk will allow qualifying patients to increased risk group and including them in preventive program. We used blood collected from 110 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The control group consisted of equal number of healthy people. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan method. The obtained results indicate that the genotype 780Arg/His of Lig3 gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. On the basis of these results, we conclude that Lig3 gene polymorphism Arg780His may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

Keywords: BER, colorectal cancer, PolB, Lig3, polymorphisms

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16 The Influence of Polymorphisms of NER System Genes on the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Polish Population

Authors: Ireneusz Majsterek, Karolina Przybylowska, Lukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki, Jacek Kabzinski


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest cancers. Every year we see an increase in the number of cases, and in spite of intensive research etiology of the disease remains unknown. For many years, researchers are seeking to associate genetic factors with an increased risk of CRC, so far it has proved to be a compelling link between the MMR system of DNA repair and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC). Currently, research is focused on finding the relationship between the remaining DNA repair systems and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between gene polymorphisms Ser835Ser of XPF gene and Gly23Ala of XPA gene–elements of NER DNA repair system, and modulation of the risk of colorectal cancer in the Polish population. Determination of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis process and predicting increased risk will allow qualifying patients to increased risk group and including them in preventive program. We used blood collected from 110 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The control group consisted of equal number of healthy people. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan method. The obtained results indicate that the genotype 23Gly/Ala of XPA gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, while 23Ala/Ala as well as TCT allele of Ser835Ser of XPF gene may reduce the risk of CRC.

Keywords: NER, colorectal cancer, XPA, XPF, polymorphisms

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15 The Design of a Smartbrush Oral Health Installation for Aged Care Centres in Australia

Authors: Lukasz Grzegorz Broda, Taiwo Oseni, Andrew Stranieri, Rodrigo Marino, Ronelle Welton, Mark Yates


The oral health of residents in aged care centres in Australia is poor, contributing to infections, hospital admissions, and increased suffering. Although the use of electric toothbrushes has been deployed in many centres, smartbrushes that record and transmit information about brushing patterns and duration are not routinely deployed. Yet, the use of smartbrushes for aged care residents promises better oral care. Thus, a study aimed at investigating the appropriateness and suitability of a smartbrush for aged care residents is currently underway. Due to the peculiarity of the aged care setting, the incorporation of smartbrushes into residents’ care does require careful planning and design considerations. This paper describes an initial design process undertaken through the use of an actor to understand the important elements to be incorporated whilst installing a smartbrush for use in aged care settings. The design covers the configuration settings of the brush and app, including ergonomic factors related to brush and smartphone placement. A design science approach led to an installation re-design and a revised protocol for the planned study, the ultimate aim being to design installations to enhance perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitudes towards the incorporation of smartbrushes for improving oral health care for aged care residents.

Keywords: smartbrush, applied computing, life and medical sciences, health informatics

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14 Coronavirus Anxiety and Job Burnout of Polish Front-Line Health-Care Workers. Mediation Effect of Insomnia

Authors: Lukasz Baka


Objective. The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion from the perspective of Hobfol Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. According to COR theory, critical events (e.g. the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleep troubles, which over time, results in an increase in exhaustion. Materials and Methods: Data were collected among 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance, and wardens. Three measurements were used: Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ, sleep trouble subscale) and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI, exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested by the use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleep problems depleted healthcare providers’ resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients, therefore researches into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety are needed.

Keywords: coronavirus anxiety, front-line healt-care workers, insomnia, job burnout

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13 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek


Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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12 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Fracture Mechanism in Paintings on Wood

Authors: Mohammad Jamalabadi, Noemi Zabari, Lukasz Bratasz


Panel paintings -complex multi-layer structures consisting of wood support and a paint layer composed of a preparatory layer of gesso, paints, and varnishes- are among the category of cultural objects most vulnerable to relative humidity fluctuations and frequently found in museum collections. The current environmental specifications in museums have been derived using the criterion of crack initiation in an undamaged, usually new gesso layer laid on wood. In reality, historical paintings exhibit complex crack patterns called craquelures. The present paper analyses the structural response of a paint layer with a virtual network of rectangular cracks under environmental loadings using a three-dimensional model of a panel painting. Two modes of loading are considered -one induced by one-dimensional moisture response of wood support, termed the tangential loading, and the other isotropic induced by drying shrinkage of the gesso layer. The superposition of the two modes is also analysed. The modelling showed that minimum distances between cracks parallel to the wood grain depended on the gesso stiffness under the tangential loading. In spite of a non-zero Poisson’s ratio, gesso cracks perpendicular to the wood grain could not be generated by the moisture response of wood support. The isotropic drying shrinkage of gesso produced cracks that were almost evenly spaced in both directions. The modelling results were cross-checked with crack patterns obtained on a mock-up of a panel painting exposed to a number of extreme environmental variations in an environmental chamber.

Keywords: fracture saturation, surface cracking, paintings on wood, wood panels

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11 Use of Selected Cytokines in the Early SIRS/MODS Diagnostic Testing at Patients after Trauma

Authors: Aneta Binkowska, Grzegorz Michalak, Slawomir Pilip, Lukasz Bondaruk, Daniel Celinski, Robert Slotwinski


Post-traumatic mortality rates are still very high and show an increasing tendency. Early identification of patients at high risk of severe complications has a significant impact on treatment outcomes. The aim of the study was to better understand the early pathological inflammatory response to injury and infection and to determine the usefulness of the assessment of TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in the peripheral blood as early indicators of severe post-traumatic complications. The study was carried out in a group of 51 patients after trauma treated in the ED, including 32 patients that met inclusion criteria for immunological analysis. Patients were divided into two groups using the ISS scale (group A with ISS ≥20, group B with ISS <20). Serum levels of TNF-α and sTNFR1 were determined after admission to the ED and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. The highest TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in both groups were recorded at admission and were significantly higher in group A compared to group B (A vs B TNF-α 2.46 pg/ml vs 1.78 pg/ml; sTNFR1 1667.5 pg/ml vs 875.2 p<0.005). The concentration of sTNFR1 in patients with severe complications was significantly higher compared to patients without complications and preceded clinical symptoms of complications ( C+ vs C- 1561.5 pg/ml vs 930.6 pg/ml). Spearman's correlation showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the baseline concentrations of IL-6 (r=0.38, p<0.043) and sTNFR1 (r=0.59, p=0.001) and the ISS scores. The high diagnostic sensitivity calculated from the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves was found for the concentrations of both cytokines: TNF α (AUC=0.91, p=0.004) and sTNFR1 (AUC=0.86, p=0.011). Elevated levels of sTNFR1, determined in the peripheral blood shortly after injury, is significantly associated with the occurrence of later complications, which in some patients lead to death. In contrast, high levels of TNF-α shortly after injury are associated with high mortality.

Keywords: cytokine, SIRS, MODS, trauma

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10 Rare-Earth Ions Doped Zirconium Oxide Layers for Optical and Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Sylwia Gieraltowska, Lukasz Wachnicki, Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Marek Godlewski


Oxide layers doped with rare-earth (RE) ions in optimized way can absorb short (ultraviolet light), which will be converted to visible light by so-called down-conversion. Down-conversion mechanisms are usually exploited to modify the incident solar spectrum. In down conversion, multiple low-energy photons are generated to exploit the energy of one incident high-energy photon. These RE-doped oxide materials have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of their potential for optical manipulation in optical devices (detectors, temperature sensors, and compact solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes), bio-analysis, medical therapy, display technologies, and light harvesting (such as in photovoltaic cells). The zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped RE ions (Eu, Tb, Ce) multilayer structures were tested as active layers, which can convert short wave emission to light in the visible range (the down-conversion mechanism). For these applications original approach of deposition ZrO2 layers using the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method and doping these layers with RE ions using the spin-coating technique was used. ALD films are deposited at relatively low temperature (well below 250°C). This can be an effective method to achieve the white-light emission and to improve on this way light conversion efficiency, by an extension of absorbed spectral range by a solar cell material. Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement are analyzed. The research was financially supported by the National Science Centre (decision No. DEC-2012/06/A/ST7/00398 and DEC- 2013/09/N/ST5/00901).

Keywords: ALD, oxide layers, photovoltaics, thin films

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9 Simulation Research of Diesel Aircraft Engine

Authors: Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca, Mirosław Wendeker


This paper presents the simulation results of a new opposed piston diesel engine to power a light aircraft. Created in the AVL Boost, the model covers the entire charge passage, from the inlet up to the outlet. The model shows fuel injection into cylinders and combustion in cylinders. The calculation uses the module for two-stroke engines. The model was created using sub-models available in this software that structure the model. Each of the sub-models is complemented with parameters in line with the design premise. Since engine weight resulting from geometric dimensions is fundamental in aircraft engines, two configurations of stroke were studied. For each of the values, there were calculated selected operating conditions defined by crankshaft speed. The required power was achieved by changing air fuel ratio (AFR). There was also studied brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). For stroke S1, the BSFC was lowest at all of the three operating points. This difference is approximately 1-2%, which means higher overall engine efficiency but the amount of fuel injected into cylinders is larger by several mg for S1. The cylinder maximum pressure is lower for S2 due to the fact that compressor gear driving remained the same and boost pressure was identical in the both cases. Calculations for various values of boost pressure were the next stage of the study. In each of the calculation case, the amount of fuel was changed to achieve the required engine power. In the former case, the intake system dimensions were modified, i.e. the duct connecting the compressor and the air cooler, so its diameter D = 40 mm was equal to the diameter of the compressor outlet duct. The impact of duct length was also examined to be able to reduce the flow pulsation during the operating cycle. For the so selected geometry of the intake system, there were calculations for various values of boost pressure. The boost pressure was changed by modifying the gear driving the compressor. To reach the required level of cruising power N = 68 kW. Due to the mechanical power consumed by the compressor, high pressure ratio results in a worsened overall engine efficiency. The figure on the change in BSFC from 210 g/kWh to nearly 270 g/kWh shows this correlation and the overall engine efficiency is reduced by about 8%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine, simulation

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8 Measurement Technologies for Advanced Characterization of Magnetic Materials Used in Electric Drives and Automotive Applications

Authors: Lukasz Mierczak, Patrick Denke, Piotr Klimczyk, Stefan Siebert


Due to the high complexity of the magnetization in electrical machines and influence of the manufacturing processes on the magnetic properties of their components, the assessment and prediction of hysteresis and eddy current losses has remained a challenge. In the design process of electric motors and generators, the power losses of stators and rotors are calculated based on the material supplier’s data from standard magnetic measurements. This type of data does not include the additional loss from non-sinusoidal multi-harmonic motor excitation nor the detrimental effects of residual stress remaining in the motor laminations after manufacturing processes, such as punching, housing shrink fitting and winding. Moreover, in production, considerable attention is given to the measurements of mechanical dimensions of stator and rotor cores, whereas verification of their magnetic properties is typically neglected, which can lead to inconsistent efficiency of assembled motors. Therefore, to enable a comprehensive characterization of motor materials and components, Brockhaus Measurements developed a range of in-line and offline measurement technologies for testing their magnetic properties under actual motor operating conditions. Multiple sets of experimental data were obtained to evaluate the influence of various factors, such as elevated temperature, applied and residual stress, and arbitrary magnetization on the magnetic properties of different grades of non-oriented steel. Measured power loss for tested samples and stator cores varied significantly, by more than 100%, comparing to standard measurement conditions. Quantitative effects of each of the applied measurement were analyzed. This research and applied Brockhaus measurement methodologies emphasized the requirement for advanced characterization of magnetic materials used in electric drives and automotive applications.

Keywords: magnetic materials, measurement technologies, permanent magnets, stator and rotor cores

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7 The Impact of Electrospinning Parameters on Surface Morphology and Chemistry of PHBV Fibers

Authors: Lukasz Kaniuk, Mateusz M. Marzec, Andrzej Bernasik, Urszula Stachewicz


Electrospinning is one of the commonly used methods to produce micro- or nano-fibers. The properties of electrospun fibers allow them to be used to produce tissue scaffolds, biodegradable bandages, or purification membranes. The morphology of the obtained fibers depends on the composition of the polymer solution as well as the processing parameters. Interesting properties such as high fiber porosity can be achieved by changing humidity during electrospinning. Moreover, by changing voltage polarity in electrospinning, we are able to alternate functional groups at the surface of fibers. In this study, electrospun fibers were made of natural, thermoplastic polyester – PHBV (poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydrovaleric acid). The fibrous mats were obtained using both positive and negative voltage polarities, and their surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Ulvac-Phi, Chigasaki, Japan). Furthermore, the effect of the humidity on surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Merlin Gemini II, Zeiss, Germany). Electrospun PHBV fibers produced with positive and negative voltage polarity had similar morphology and the average fiber diameter, 2.47 ± 0.21 µm and 2.44 ± 0.15 µm, respectively. The change of the voltage polarity had a significant impact on the reorientation of the carbonyl groups what consequently changed the surface potential of the electrospun PHBV fibers. The increase of humidity during electrospinning causes porosity in the surface structure of the fibers. In conclusion, we showed within our studies that the process parameters such as humidity and voltage polarity have a great influence on fiber morphology and chemistry, changing their functionality. Surface properties of polymer fiber have a significant impact on cell integration and attachment, which is very important in tissue engineering. The possibility of changing surface porosity allows the use of fibers in various tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. Acknowledgment: This study was conducted within 'Nanofiber-based sponges for atopic skin treatment' project., carried out within the First TEAM programme of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund, project no POIR.04.04.00-00- 4571/18-00.

Keywords: cells integration, electrospun fiber, PHBV, surface characterization

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6 Operation Cycle Model of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Duk, L. Grabowski, P. Magryta


Today's very important element relating to air transport is the environment impact issues. Nowadays there are no emissions standards for turbine and piston engines used in air transport. However, it should be noticed that the environmental effect in the form of exhaust gases from aircraft engines should be as small as possible. For this purpose, R&D centers often use special software to simulate and to estimate the negative effect of engine working process. For cooperation between the Lublin University of Technology and the Polish aviation company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A., to achieve more effective operation of the ASz62IR engine, one of such tools have been used. The AVL Boost software allows to perform 1D simulations of combustion process of piston engines. ASz62IR is a nine-cylinder aircraft engine in a radial configuration. In order to analyze the impact of its working process on the environment, the mathematical model in the AVL Boost software have been made. This model contains, among others, model of the operation cycle of the cylinders. This model was based on a volume change in combustion chamber according to the reciprocating movement of a piston. The simplifications that all of the pistons move identically was assumed. The changes in cylinder volume during an operating cycle were specified. Those changes were important to determine the energy balance of a cylinder in an internal combustion engine which is fundamental for a model of the operating cycle. The calculations for cylinder thermodynamic state were based on the first law of thermodynamics. The change in the mass in the cylinder was calculated from the sum of inflowing and outflowing masses including: cylinder internal energy, heat from the fuel, heat losses, mass in cylinder, cylinder pressure and volume, blowdown enthalpy, evaporation heat etc. The model assumed that the amount of heat released in combustion process was calculated from the pace of combustion, using Vibe model. For gas exchange, it was also important to consider heat transfer in inlet and outlet channels because of much higher values there than for flow in a straight pipe. This results from high values of heat exchange coefficients and temperature coefficients near valves and valve seats. A Zapf modified model of heat exchange was used. To use the model with the flight scenarios, the impact of flight altitude on engine performance has been analyze. It was assumed that the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet correspond to the values resulting from the model for International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). Comparing this model of operation cycle with the others submodels of the ASz62IR engine, it could be noticed, that a full analysis of the performance of the engine, according to the ISA conditions, can be made. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under

Keywords: aviation propulsion, AVL Boost, engine model, operation cycle, aircraft engine

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5 Ultra-Fast Growth of ZnO Nanorods from Aqueous Solution: Technology and Applications

Authors: Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Lukasz Wachnicki, Sylwia Gieraltowska, Rafal Pietruszka, Marek Godlewski


Zinc oxide is extensively studied II-VI semiconductor with a direct energy gap of about 3.37 eV at room temperature and high transparency in visible light spectral region. Due to these properties, ZnO is an attractive material for applications in photovoltaic, electronic and optoelectronic devices. ZnO nanorods, due to a well-developed surface, have potential of applications in sensor technology and photovoltaics. In this work we present a new inexpensive method of the ultra-fast growth of ZnO nanorods from the aqueous solution. This environment friendly and fully reproducible method allows growth of nanorods in few minutes time on various substrates, without any catalyst or complexing agent. Growth temperature does not exceed 50ºC and growth can be performed at atmospheric pressure. The method is characterized by simplicity and allows regulation of size of the ZnO nanorods in a large extent. Moreover the method is also very safe, it requires organic, non-toxic and low-price precursors. The growth can be performed on almost any type of substrate through the homo-nucleation as well as hetero-nucleation. Moreover, received nanorods are characterized by a very high quality - they are monocrystalline as confirmed by XRD and transmission electron microscopy. Importantly oxygen vacancies are not found in the photoluminescence measurements. First results for obtained by us ZnO nanorods in sensor applications are very promising. Resistance UV sensor, based on ZnO nanorods grown on a quartz substrates shows high sensitivity of 20 mW/m2 (2 μW/cm2) for point contacts, especially that the results are obtained for the nanorods array, not for a single nanorod. UV light (below 400 nm of wavelength) generates electron-hole pairs, which results in a removal from the surfaces of the water vapor and hydroxyl groups. This reduces the depletion layer in nanorods, and thus lowers the resistance of the structure. The so-obtained sensor works at room temperature and does not need the annealing to reset to initial state. Details of the technology and the first sensors results will be presented. The obtained ZnO nanorods are also applied in simple-architecture photovoltaic cells (efficiency over 12%) in conjunction with low-price Si substrates and high-sensitive photoresistors. Details informations about technology and applications will be presented.

Keywords: hydrothermal method, photoresistor, photovoltaic cells, ZnO nanorods

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4 Effects of Long-Term Exposure of Cadmium to the Ovary of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda)

Authors: Izabela Poprawa, Alina Chachulska-Zymelka, Lukasz Chajec, Grazyna Wilczek, Piotr Wilczek, Sebastian Student, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska


Heavy metals polluting the environment, especially soil, have a harmful effect on organisms, because they can damage the organ structure, disturb their function and cause developmental disorders. They can affect not only the somatic tissues but also the germinal tissues. In the natural environment, plants and animals are exposed to short- and long-term exposure to these stressors, which have a major influence on the functioning of these organisms. Numerous animals have been treated as the bioindicators of the environment. Therefore, studies on any alterations caused by, e.g., heavy metals are in the center of interests of not only environmental but also medical and biological science. Myriapods are invertebrates which are bioindicators of the environment. One of the species which lives in the upper layers of soil, particularly under stones and rocks is Lithobius forficatus (Chilopoda), commonly known as the brown centipede or stone centipede. It is a European species of the family Lithobiidae. This centipede living in the soil is exposed to, e.g., heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, arsenic. The main goal of our project was to analyze the impact of long-term exposure to cadmium on the structure of ovary with the emphasis on the course of oogenesis. As the material for analysis of cadmium exposure to ovaries, we chose the centipede species, L. forficatus. Animals were divided into two experimental groups: C – the control group, the animals cultured in laboratory conditions in a horticultural soil; Cd2 – the animals cultured in a horticultural soil supplemented with 80 mg/kg (dry weight) of CdCl2 for 45 days – long-term exposure. Animals were fed with Acheta and Chironomus larvae maintained in tap water. The analyzes were carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry and laser scanning (confocal) microscopy. Here we present the results of long-term exposure to cadmium concentration in soil on the organ responsible for female germ cell formation. Analysis with the use of the transmission electron microscope showed changes in the ultrastructure of both somatic and germ cells in the ovary. Moreover, quantitative analysis revealed the decrease in the percentage of cells viability, the increase in the percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondria and increasing the number of early apoptotic cells. All these changes were statistically significant compared to the control. Additionally, an increase in the ADP/ATP index was recorded. However, changes were not statistically significant to the control. Acknowledgment: The study has been financed by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant no 2017/25/B/NZ4/00420.

Keywords: cadmium, centipede, ovary, ultrastructure

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3 Estimation of Particle Number and Mass Doses Inhaled in a Busy Street in Lublin, Poland

Authors: Bernard Polednik, Adam Piotrowicz, Lukasz Guz, Marzenna Dudzinska


Transportation is considered to be responsible for increased exposure of road users – i.e., drivers, car passengers, and pedestrians as well as inhabitants of houses located near roads - to pollutants emitted from vehicles. Accurate estimates are, however, difficult as exposure depends on many factors such as traffic intensity or type of fuel as well as the topography and the built-up area around the individual routes. The season and weather conditions are also of importance. In the case of inhabitants of houses located near roads, their exposure depends on the distance from the road, window tightness and other factors that decrease pollutant infiltration. This work reports the variations of particle concentrations along a selected road in Lublin, Poland. Their impact on the exposure for road users as well as for inhabitants of houses located near the road is also presented. Mobile and fixed-site measurements were carried out in peak (around 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.) and off-peak (12 a.m., 4 a.m., and 12 p.m.) traffic times in all 4 seasons. Fixed-site measurements were performed in 12 measurement points along the route. The number and mass concentration of particles was determined with the use of P-Trak model 8525, OPS 3330, DustTrak DRX model 8533 (TSI Inc. USA) and Grimm Aerosol Spectrometer 1.109 with Nano Sizer 1.321 (Grimm Aerosol Germany). The obtained results indicated that the highest concentrations of traffic-related pollution were measured near 4-way traffic intersections during peak hours in the autumn and winter. The highest average number concentration of ultrafine particles (PN0.1), and mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5) in fixed-site measurements were obtained in the autumn and amounted to 23.6 ± 9.2×10³ pt/cm³ and 135.1 ± 11.3 µg/m³, respectively. The highest average number concentration of submicrometer particles (PN1) was measured in the winter and amounted to 68 ± 26.8×10³ pt/cm³. The estimated doses of particles deposited in the commuters’ and pedestrians’ lungs within an hour near 4-way TIs in peak hours in the summer amounted to 4.3 ± 3.3×10⁹ pt/h (PN0.1) and 2.9 ± 1.4 µg/h (PM2.5) and 3.9 ± 1.1×10⁹ pt/h (PN0.1) or 2.5 ± 0.4 µg/h (PM2.5), respectively. While estimating the doses inhaled by the inhabitants of premises located near the road one should take into account different fractional penetration of particles from outdoors to indoors. Such doses assessed for the autumn and winter are up to twice as high as the doses inhaled by commuters and pedestrians in the summer. In the winter traffic-related ultrafine particles account for over 70% of all ultrafine particles deposited in the pedestrians’ lungs. The share of traffic-related PM10 particles was estimated at approximately 33.5%. Concluding, the results of the particle concentration measurements along a road in Lublin indicated that the concentration is mainly affected by the traffic intensity and weather conditions. Further detailed research should focus on how the season and the metrological conditions affect concentration levels of traffic-related pollutants and the exposure of commuters and pedestrians as well as the inhabitants of houses located near traffic routes.

Keywords: air quality, deposition dose, health effects, vehicle emissions

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