Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4411

Search results for: intervention effectiveness

4411 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak

Abstract:

This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: violence, intervention, safety climate, performance, public sector

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4410 Experiencing Negative Thoughts? Write It, Crumple It and Throw It

Authors: Yasmin Othman Mydin

Abstract:

When one experiences problems, this may lead to negative thoughts. These thoughts may occur repetitively. The present study investigates the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioural techniques to reduce negative thoughts. 20 undergraduate university students participated as the sample in these experimental therapy sessions. Ten students received the intervention while the other ten students were in control group. 15 items Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention to test the effectiveness of the techniques. The behavioural techniques applied were such as, write down the negative thoughts, crumple it and throw it away. While the cognitive technique was to imagine that the thoughts are being taken out of the mind while throwing it away. Paired samples t-test analysis revealed that there were significant reductions (t=4.245,df=9, p .003) in the negative thoughts in the group that received the intervention compared to the control group. This indicates that these techniques are effective to reduce the repetitive negative thoughts.

Keywords: behaviour and cognitive intervention, negative thoughts, writing, psychology

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4409 Effectiveness of an Unorthodox Intervention for Work-Family Interaction: A Field Experiment

Authors: Hassan Rasool

Abstract:

There is limited research in the intervention domain of work family interaction. We identified that meditation could be effective in coping work family conflict and nurturing work family facilitation across domains. We conducted pretest posttest control group field experiment on a sample of sixty employees to test the effectiveness of meditation in a financial sector organization. Empirical evidence confirms that the intervention was effective in coping work family conflict & nurturing facilitation across work & home domains. The intervention, also positively affected a known outcome (i.e. satisfaction at work and home) of work family interaction. Future research perspectives on the use of unorthodox interventions in the domain of work family interaction are also discussed.

Keywords: work family interaction, meditation, satisfaction, experiment

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4408 An Examination of Low Engagement in a Group-Based ACT Intervention for Chronic Pain Management: Highlighting the Need for User-Attainment Focused Digitalised Interventions

Authors: Orestis Kasinopoulos, Maria Karekla, Vasilis Vasiliou, Evangelos Karademas

Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported intervention for treating Chronic Pain Patients, yet its effectiveness for some chronic conditions or when adapted to other languages, has not been explored. An ACT group intervention was designed to explore the effectiveness of treating a Greek speaking heterogeneous sample of Chronic Pain patients with the aim of increasing quality of life, acceptance of pain and functionality. Sixty-nine patients were assessed and randomly assigned to an ACT or control group (relaxation techniques) for eight, 90-minute, sessions. Results are currently being analysed and follow-ups (6 and 12 month) are being completed. Low adherence rates and high attrition rates observed in the study, however point to the direction of future modified interventions. Such modifications may include web-based and smartphone interventions and their benefits in being implemented in chronic pain patients.

Keywords: chronic pain, ACT, internet-delivered, digitalised intervention, adherence, attrition

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4407 The Mission Slimpossible Program: Dietary and Physical Activity Intervention to Combat Obesity among University Students in UITM Puncak Alam

Authors: Kartini Ilias, Nabilah Md Ahir, Nor Zafirah Ab Rahman, Safiah Md Yusof, Nuri Naqieyah Radzuan, Siti Sabariah Buhari

Abstract:

This study aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of an intervention in improving eating habits and physical activity level of university students of UiTM Puncak Alam. The intervention consists of weekly dietary counselling by registered dietitian and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for three times per week for the duration of 8 weeks. A total of 25 students from the intervention group and 25 students from control group who had BMI equal to or greater than 25kg/m² participated in the study. The results showed a significant reduction in body weight (3.0 kg), body fat percentage (7.9 %), waist circumference (7.3 cm) and BMI (2.9 kg/m²) between pre and post intervention. Besides, there was a significant increase in the level of physical activity among subjects in intervention group. In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on eating habit, physical activity level and improves weight status of the students. It is expected that the intervention could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating obesity intervention.

Keywords: obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

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4406 Effectiveness of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Program on Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Dongjoo Chin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) program on infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore the factors predicting the effectiveness of the program, focusing on the infant's age, language ability, problem behaviors, and parental stress. 19 pairs of infants aged between 2 and 5 years who have had been diagnosed with ASD, and their parents participated in an EIBI program at a clinic providing evidence-based treatment based on applied behavior analysis. The measurement tools which were administered before and after the EIBI program and compared, included PEP-R, a curriculum evaluation, K-SIB-R, K-Vineland-II, K-CBCL, and PedsQL for the infants, and included PSI-SF and BDI-II for the parents. Statistical analysis was performed using a sample t-test and multiple regression analysis and the results were as follows. The EIBI program showed significant improvements in overall developmental age, curriculum assessment, and quality of life for infants. There was no difference in parenting stress or depression. Furthermore, measures for both children and parents at the start of the program predicted neither PEP-R nor the degree of improvement in curriculum evaluation measured six months later at the end of the program. Based on these results, the authors suggest future directions for developing an effective intensive early intervention (EIBI) program for infants with ASD in Korea, and discuss the implications and limitations of this study.

Keywords: applied behavior analysis, autism spectrum disorder, early intensive behavioral intervention, parental stress

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4405 The Long – Term Effects of a Prevention Program on the Number of Critical Incidents and Sick Leave Days: A Decade Perspective

Authors: Valerie Isaak

Abstract:

Background: This study explores the effectiveness of refresher training sessions of an intervention program at reducing the employees’ risk of injury due to patient violence in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Methods: The original safety intervention program that consisted of a 3 days’ workshop was conducted in the maximum-security ward of a psychiatric hospital in Israel. Ever since the original intervention, annual refreshers were conducted, highlighting one of the safety elements covered in the original intervention. The study examines the effect of the intervention program along with the refreshers over a period of 10 years in four wards. Results: Analysis of the data demonstrates that beyond the initial reduction following the original intervention, refreshers seem to have an additional positive long-term effect, reducing both the number of violent incidents and the number of actual employee injuries in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Conclusions: We conclude that such an intervention program followed by refresher training would promote employees’ wellbeing. A healthy work environment is part of management’s commitment to improving employee wellbeing at the workplace.

Keywords: wellbeing, violence at work, intervention program refreshers, public sector mental healthcare

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4404 The Effectiveness of Video Modeling Procedures on Request an Item Behavior Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Melih Cattik

Abstract:

The present study investigate effectiveness of video modeling procedures on request an item behavior of children with ASD. Two male and a female children with ASD participated in the study. A multiple baseline across participant single-subject design was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedures on request an item behavior. During baseline, no prompts were presented to participants. In the intervention phase, the teacher gave video model to the participant and than created opportunity for request an item to him/her. When the first participant reached to criterion, the second participant began intervention. This procedure continued till all participants completed intervention. Finally, all three participants learned to request an item behavior. Based upon findings of this study, it will make suggestions to future researches.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, video modeling procedures, request an item behavior, single subject design

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4403 Telephone Health Service to Improve the Quality of Life of the People Living with AIDS in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Naveen Kumar Pandey, Binod Kumar Deo

Abstract:

Quality of Life (QOL) is an important component in the evaluation of the well-being of People Living with AIDS (PLWA). This study assessed the effectiveness of education intervention programme in improving the QOL of PLWA on ART attaining the ART-clinics at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. A pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the PLWA on ART at BPKIHS from June to August 2013 involving 60 PLWA on pre-test randomly. The mean age of the respondents was 36.70 ± 9.92, and majority of them (80%) were of age group of 25-50 years and Male (56.7%). After education intervention programme there is significant change in the QOL in all the four domains i.e. Physical (p=0.008), Psychological (p=0.019), Social (p=0.046) and Environmental (p=0.032) using student t-test at 0.05 level of significance. There is significant (p= 0.016) difference in the mean QOL scores of pre-test and post-test. High QOL scores in post-test after education intervention programme may reflective of the effectiveness of planned education interventions programme.

Keywords: telephone, AIDS, health service, Nepal

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4402 The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Intervention in Alleviating Social Avoidance for Blind Students

Authors: Mohamed M. Elsherbiny

Abstract:

Social Avoidance is one of the most important problems that face a good number of disabled students. It results from the negative attitudes of non-disabled students, teachers and others. Some of the past research has shown that non-disabled individuals hold negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The present study aims to alleviate Social Avoidance by applying the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention. 24 Blind students aged 19–24 (university students) were randomly chosen we compared an experimental group (consisted of 12 students) who went through the intervention program, with a control group (12 students also) who did not go through such intervention. We used the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess social anxiety and distress behavior. The author used many techniques of cognitive behavioral intervention such as modeling, cognitive restructuring, extension, contingency contracts, self-monitoring, assertiveness training, role play, encouragement and others. Statistically, T-test was employed to test the research hypothesis. Result showed that there is a significance difference between the experimental group and the control group after the intervention and also at the follow up stages of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale. Also for the experimental group, there is a significance difference before the intervention and the follow up stages for the scale. Results showed that, there is a decrease in social avoidance. Accordingly, cognitive behavioral intervention program was successful in decreasing social avoidance for blind students.

Keywords: social avoidance, cognitive behavioral intervention, blind disability, disability

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4401 Effect of Co-Parenting Support on Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Developing Nation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Phomid Techi, L. N. Padmasini, Mohan Mathew

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of co-parent support on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding by a randomized control trial. Introduction: The current rates of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in India is 46% (NFHS3 2008.). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of co-parenting support on duration of exclusive breastfeeding in primi mothers. Design: RCT: Willing parents of healthy TAGA babies born in our hospital were explained about the study purpose and randomly assigned to either trial or control group. The control group was given the usual care. The intervention group received usual care and in addition the trial intervention. Follow-up data was collected at the end of 6 mon. Intervention: Face to face 30-minute discussion in post partum unit on breast feeding benefits, techniques, and problem-solving information followed up by phone calls to mother every 4 weeks to answer questions/concerns. Outcome measures: Duration of exclusive breastfeeding Baseline demographic variables were measured. Results: After obtaining IEC approval a total of 100 couples were recruited, 100 is each group. In the intervention group, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 97.2% while in the control group it was 64% (p-value 0.00). Conclusion: Co-parenting support has an important role in promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

Keywords: co-parenting, exclusive breastfeeding, developing nation, randomised control trial

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4400 Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Cigarette Smoking Prevention among College Students

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Behzad Karami Matin, Abbas Aghaei, Ahmad Ali Eslami

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is introduced as one of the main risky factors to develop different types of diseases around the world, especially related to non-contagious diseases. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of web based education program to prevent cigarette smoking among college students. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, during 2014, 150 male college students in Isfahan and Kermanshah University of medical sciences were assigned to intervention group (receiving web based education program) and control groups. The study information was analyzed by SPSS software version 21 using cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures and GEE. Results: It was found significantly that average response for attitude towards cigarette smoking and sensation seeking after education reduced (P < 0.05). After intervention there was no significant difference between intervention and control group of cigarette smoking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: web based education have usefulness to reduce belief towards cigarette smoking.

Keywords: web-based intervention, smoking, students, Iran

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4399 Web-Based Alcohol Prevention among Iranian Medical University Students: A Randomized Control Trail

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh

Abstract:

Background: E-interventions as a universal approach to prevent a high-risk behavior, such as alcohol drinking. This study was conducted to evaluate web-based alcohol drinking preventative intervention efficiency among medical university students in Iran. Methods: Overall, 150 freshman and sophomore male student’s college students participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pre- and post-test series control group design panel study to implement a behavior modification based intervention to alcohol drinking prevention among college students. Cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures, and GEE by using SPSS statistical package, version 21 was used for the statistical analysis. The participants were followed up for 6 months with data collection scheduled at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are attitude, self-control, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, the secondary outcome is comparing alcohol drinking among the study groups. Results: It was found significant reduce in average response for an attitude towards alcohol drinking and sensation seeking among intervention group (P < 0.05). But after intervention not significant difference between intervention and control group of improve self-control and reduce alcohol drinking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our intervention has been accompanied with reducing alcohol use rate. These findings indicate that e-intervention may be effectiveness approach to address the alcohol prevention among college students.

Keywords: e-interventions, alcohol drinking, students, Iran

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4398 The Effectiveness of an Occupational Therapy Metacognitive-Functional Intervention for the Improvement of Human Risk Factors of Bus Drivers

Authors: Navah Z. Ratzon, Rachel Shichrur

Abstract:

Background: Many studies have assessed and identified the risk factors of safe driving, but there is relatively little research-based evidence concerning the ability to improve the driving skills of drivers in general and in particular of bus drivers, who are defined as a population at risk. Accidents involving bus drivers can endanger dozens of passengers and cause high direct and indirect damages. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of a metacognitive-functional intervention program for the reduction of risk factors among professional drivers relative to a control group. Methods: The study examined 77 bus drivers working for a large public company in the center of the country, aged 27-69. Twenty-one drivers continued to the intervention stage; four of them dropped out before the end of the intervention. The intervention program we developed was based on previous driving models and the guiding occupational therapy practice framework model in Israel, while adjusting the model to the professional driving in public transportation and its particular risk factors. Treatment focused on raising awareness to safe driving risk factors identified at prescreening (ergonomic, perceptual-cognitive and on-road driving data), with reference to the difficulties that the driver raises and providing coping strategies. The intervention has been customized for each driver and included three sessions of two hours. The effectiveness of the intervention was tested using objective measures: In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR) for monitoring natural driving data, traffic accident data before and after the intervention, and subjective measures (occupational performance questionnaire for bus drivers). Results: Statistical analysis found a significant difference between the degree of change in the rate of IVDR perilous events (t(17)=2.14, p=0.046), before and after the intervention. There was significant difference in the number of accidents per year before and after the intervention in the intervention group (t(17)=2.11, p=0.05), but no significant change in the control group. Subjective ratings of the level of performance and of satisfaction with performance improved in all areas tested following the intervention. The change in the ‘human factors/person’ field, was significant (performance : t=- 2.30, p=0.04; satisfaction with performance : t=-3.18, p=0.009). The change in the ‘driving occupation/tasks’ field, was not significant but showed a tendency toward significance (t=-1.94, p=0.07,). No significant differences were found in driving environment-related variables. Conclusions: The metacognitive-functional intervention significantly improved the objective and subjective measures of safety of bus drivers’ driving. These novel results highlight the potential contribution of occupational therapists, using metacognitive functional treatment, to preventing car accidents among the healthy drivers population and improving the well-being of these drivers. This study also enables familiarity with advanced technologies of IVDR systems and enriches the knowledge of occupational therapists in regards to using a wide variety of driving assessment tools and making the best practice decisions.

Keywords: bus drivers, IVDR, human risk factors, metacognitive-functional intervention

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4397 Use of External Sensory Stimuli in the Treatment of Parkinson Disease: Literature Review

Authors: Hadi O. Tohme

Abstract:

This study is a review on the effectiveness of new physiotherapy techniques with external sensory stimulus compared to standard physiotherapy in the daily activities of patients with Parkinson's disease. Twenty studies from 1996 to 2015 were analyzed and discussed in this review, using the rehabilitation strategy with external sensory stimulus evaluating walking, freezing episodes, balance, transfers, and daily activities of parkinsonian patients. The study highlights the effectiveness of the variety of rehabilitation with cueing strategy used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Based on the literature review completed, there is a need for more specific trials with better treatment strategies to support the most appropriate choice of physiotherapy intervention using external sensory stimulus to the type and frequency of this stimulus. In addition, no trials examined the long-term benefits of the physiotherapy intervention with the external sensory stimulus. In order to determine if, or how long the improvements due to the external sensory stimulus physiotherapy intervention can last, long-term follow-up should be performed.

Keywords: cueing strategy, external sensory stimulus, parkinson disease, rehabilitation for parkinson, sensory attention focused exercises, sensory strategy reeducation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
4396 Effectiveness of a Malaysian Workplace Intervention Study on Physical Activity Levels

Authors: M. Z. Bin Mohd Ghazali, N. C. Wilson, A. F. Bin Ahmad Fuad, M. A. H. B. Musa, M. U. Mohamad Sani, F. Zulkifli, M. S. Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Physical activity levels are low in Malaysia and this study was undertaken to determine if a four week work-based intervention program would be effective in changing physical activity levels. The study was conducted in a Malaysian Government Department and had three stages: baseline data collection, four-week intervention and two-month post intervention data collection. During the intervention and two-month post intervention phases, physical activity levels (determined by a pedometer) and basic health profiles (BMI, abdominal obesity, blood pressure) were measured. Staff (58 males, 47 females) with an average age of 33 years completed baseline data collection. Pedometer steps averaged 7,102 steps/day at baseline, although male step counts were significantly higher than females (7,861 vs. 6114). Health profiles were poor: over 50% were overweight/obese (males 66%, females 40%); hypertension (males 23%, females 6%); excess waist circumference (males 52%, females 17%). While 86 staff participated in the intervention, only 49 regularly reported their steps. There was a significant increase (17%) in average daily steps from 8,965 (week 1) to 10,436 (week 4). Unfortunately, participation in the intervention program was avoided by the less healthy staff. Two months after the intervention there was no significant difference in average steps/day, despite the fact that 89% of staff reporting they planned to make long-term changes to their lifestyle. An unexpected average increase of 2kg in body weight occurred in participants, although this was less than the 5.6kg in non-participants. A number of recommendations are made for future interventions, including the conclusion that pedometers were a useful tool and popular with participants.

Keywords: pedometers, walking, health, intervention

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4395 Effectiveness of Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty: Wound Healing in Critically Limb Ischemic

Authors: M. Wisnu Pamungkas, Patrianef Darwis

Abstract:

Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease that has a significant amputation and mortality risk with diabetes mellitus, the most significant risk factor in CLI, is very common among Indonesian. Endovascular intervention (EVI) is preferred in treating CLI because it is noninvasive and effective. Balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are the most common method of EVI in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty on wound healing in CLI. Method: A cross-sectional study enrolled 90 subjects of CLI who underwent endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty from January 2013 to July 2017 in dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The wound healing period between balloon angioplasty dan stent angioplasty was analyzed using unpaired T-test with p<0,05 considered as statistically significant. Data of intervention method wound healing period, and subjects characteristic data (age, amputation, BMI, smoking habit, DM, occlusion site, and blood profile) were obtained. Result: The wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty distributed normally. Mean value of wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are 84,8+/-2,423 and 59,93 +/- 2,423 days with a mean difference of 25 days. The difference in wound healing period in both groups is statically significant (p<0,05). The amputation event in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty is 22 and 16 event with no difference statistically. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty is a better method than balloon angioplasty for wound healing in patients with CLI.

Keywords: critical limb ischemia, endovascular intervention, wound healing, angioplasty

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4394 Estimating the Efficiency of a Meta-Cognitive Intervention Program to Reduce the Risk Factors of Teenage Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder While Driving

Authors: Navah Z. Ratzon, Talia Glick, Iris Manor

Abstract:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder that affects the sufferer’s functioning throughout life and in various spheres of activity, including driving. Difficulties in cognitive functioning and executive functions are often part and parcel of the ADHD diagnosis, and thus form a risk factor in driving. Studies examining the effectiveness of intervention programs for improving and rehabilitating driving in typical teenagers have been conducted in relatively small numbers; while studies on similar programs for teenagers with ADHD have been especially scarce. The aim of the present study has been to examine the effectiveness of a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention program for reducing risk factors in driving among teenagers with ADHD. The present study included 37 teenagers aged 17 to 19. They included 23 teenagers with ADHD divided into experimental (11) and control (12) groups; as well as 14 non-ADHD teenagers forming a second control group. All teenagers taking part in the study were examined in the Tel Aviv University driving lab, and underwent cognitive diagnoses and a driving simulator test. Every subject in the intervention group took part in 3 assessment meetings, and two metacognitive treatment meetings. The control groups took part in two assessment meetings with a follow-up meeting 3 months later. In all the study’s groups, the treatment’s effectiveness was tested by comparing monitoring results on the driving simulator at the first and second evaluations. In addition, the driving of 5 subjects from the intervention group was monitored continuously from a month prior to the start of the intervention, a month during the phase of the intervention and another month until the end of the intervention. In the ADHD control group, the driving of 4 subjects was monitored from the end of the first evaluation for a period of 3 months. The study’s findings were affected by the fact that the ADHD control group was different from the two other groups, and exhibited ADHD characteristics manifested by impaired executive functions and lower metacognitive abilities relative to their peers. The study found partial, moderate, non-significant correlations between driving skills and cognitive functions, executive functions, and perceptions and attitudes towards driving. According to the driving simulator test results and the limited sampling results of actual driving, it was found that a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention may be effective in reducing risk factors in driving among teenagers with ADHD relative to their peers with and without ADHD. In summary, the results of the present study indicate a positive direction that speaks to the viability of using a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention program for reducing risk factors in driving. A further study is required that will include a bigger number of subjects, add actual driving monitoring hours, and assign subjects randomly to the various groups.

Keywords: ADHD, driving, driving monitoring, metacognitive intervention, occupational therapy, simulator, teenagers

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4393 The Effects of Smoking Prevention Intervention on Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficiency among Adolescent Students

Authors: Yi-Ying Lin, Su-Guo, Chia-Hao, Ming-Szu Hong

Abstract:

Objectives: Smoking is a common addictive behavior in teenagers. Long-term smoking is hazardous to health, causes family and social expenditure, and is an important topic that should not be overlooked by academia or the government. The aims of this study are to examine the effectiveness of these courses in terms of teenagers’ knowledge and attitudes towards the hazards of smoking and the effectiveness of their self-efficacy in rejecting smoking. Methods: This study adopted a pre-test post-test design and selected 7th, 8th, 10th, and 11th graders from two junior high schools. Total of 1073 valid questionnaires were collected. The self-completed questionnaire included background information, smoking status of relatives staying with the subject, attitudes of parents towards child smoking, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, and anti-smoking self-efficacy. Results and clinical applications: Subjects in the experimental group underwent course interventions, which are 'smoking prevention courses,' in the semester. After course intervention, it was found that the intervention showed significant efficacy in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy in rejecting smoking in senior high school students but no efficacy in junior high school. We recommend that this course can be used in normal senior high schools. With regards to junior high schools, smoking prevention courses should be designed to be gamified, or combined with activities with both anti-smoking messages and entertainment at the same time, so that knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy can be subconsciously cultivated.

Keywords: adolescent students, smoking knowledge, attitudes, anti-smoking self-efficiency, smoking prevention intervention

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4392 The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Equestrian Jumping Tasks

Authors: Nurwina Anuar, Aswad Anuar

Abstract:

Imagery is a popular mental technique used by athletes and coaches to improve learning and performance. It has been widely investigated and beneficial in the sports context. However, the imagery application in equestrian sport has been understudied. Thus, the effectiveness of imagery should encompass the application in the equestrian sport to ensure its application covert all sports. Unlike most sports (e.g., football, badminton, tennis, ski) which are both mental and physical are dependent solely upon human decision and response, equestrian sports involves the interaction of human-horse collaboration to success in the equestrian tasks. This study aims to investigate the effect of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks, motivation and imagery ability. It was hypothesized that the use of PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase in the skill equestrian jumping tasks. It was also hypothesized that riders’ imagery ability and motivation will increase across phases. The participants were skilled riders with less to no imagery experience. A single-subject ABA design was employed. The study was occurred over five week’s period at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Equestrian Park. Imagery ability was measured using the Sport Imagery Assessment Questionnaires (SIAQ), the motivational measured based on the Motivational imagery ability measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the PETTLEP imagery intervention on show jumping tasks were evaluated by the professional equine rider on the observational scale. Results demonstrated the improvement on all equestrian jumping tasks for the most participants from baseline to intervention. Result shows the improvement on imagery ability and participants’ motivations after the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Implication of the present study include underlining the impact of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks. The result extends the previous research on the effectiveness of PETTLEP imagery in the sports context that involves interaction and collaboration between human and horse.

Keywords: PETTLEP imagery, imagery ability, equestrian, equestrian jumping tasks

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4391 A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Suicide Prevention for Adolescents and Meta-Regressions of Contextual and Intervention Factors

Authors: E. H. Walsh, J. McMahon, M. P. Herring

Abstract:

Post-primary school-based suicide prevention (PSSP) is a valuable avenue to reduce suicidal behaviours in adolescents. The aims of this meta-analysis and meta-regression were 1) to quantify the effect of PSSP interventions on adolescent suicide ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA), and 2) to explore how intervention effects may vary based on important contextual and intervention factors. This study provides further support to the benefits of PSSP by demonstrating lower suicide outcomes in over 30,000 adolescents following PSSP and mental health interventions and tentatively suggests that intervention effectiveness may potentially vary based on intervention factors. The protocol for this study is registered on PROSPERO (ID=CRD42020168883). Population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design (PICOs) defined eligible studies as cluster randomised studies (n=12) containing PSSP and measuring suicide outcomes. Aggregate electronic database EBSCO host, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched. Cochrane bias tools for cluster randomised studies demonstrated that half of the studies were rated as low risk of bias. The Egger’s Regression Test adapted for multi-level modelling indicated that publication bias was not an issue (all ps > .05). Crude and corresponding adjusted pooled log odds ratios (OR) were computed using the Metafor package in R, yielding 12 SA and 19 SI effects. Multi-level random-effects models accounting for dependencies of effects from the same study revealed that in crude models, compared to controls, interventions were significantly associated with 13% (OR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), [0.78,0.96], Q18 =15.41, p=0.63) and 34% (OR=0.66, 95%CI [0.47,0.91], Q10=16.31, p=0.13) lower odds of SI and SA, respectively. Adjusted models showed similar odds reductions of 15% (OR=0.85, 95%CI[0.75,0.95], Q18=10.04, p=0.93) and 28% (OR=0.72, 95%CI[0.59,0.87], Q10=10.46, p=0.49) for SI and SA, respectively. Within-cluster heterogeneity ranged from no heterogeneity to low heterogeneity for SA across crude and adjusted models (0-9%). No heterogeneity was identified for SI across crude and adjusted models (0%). Pre-specified univariate moderator analyses were not significant for SA (all ps < 0.05). Variations in average pooled SA odds reductions across categories of various intervention characteristics were observed (all ps < 0.05), which preliminarily suggests that the effectiveness of interventions may potentially vary across intervention factors. These findings have practical implications for researchers, clinicians, educators, and decision-makers. Further investigation of important logical, theoretical, and empirical moderators on PSSP intervention effectiveness is recommended to establish how and when PSSP interventions best reduce adolescent suicidal behaviour.

Keywords: adolescents, contextual factors, post-primary school-based suicide prevention, suicide ideation, suicide attempts

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4390 The Effectiveness of a Six-Week Yoga Intervention on Body Awareness, Warnings of Relapse, and Emotion Regulation among Incarcerated Females

Authors: James Beauchemin

Abstract:

Introduction: The incarceration of people with mental illness and substance use disorders is a major public health issue, with social, clinical, and economic implications. Yoga participation has been associated with numerous psychological benefits; however, there is a paucity of research examining impacts of yoga with incarcerated populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a six-week yoga intervention on several mental health-related variables, including emotion regulation, body awareness, and warnings of substance relapse among incarcerated females. Methods: This study utilized a pre-post, three-arm design, with participants assigned to intervention, therapeutic community, or general population groups. A between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted across groups to assess intervention effectiveness using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Scale of Body Connection (SBC), and Warnings of Relapse (AWARE) Questionnaire. Results: ANCOVA results for warnings of relapse (AWARE) revealed significant between-group differences F(2, 80) = 7.15, p = .001; np2 = .152), with significant pairwise comparisons between the intervention group and both the therapeutic community (p = .001) and the general population (p = .005) groups. Similarly, significant differences were found for emotional regulation (DERS) F(2, 83) = 10.521, p = .000; np2 = .278). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the intervention and general population (p = .01). Finally, significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found for body awareness (SBC) F(2, 84) = 3.69, p = .029; np2 = .081). Between-group differences were clarified via pairwise comparisons, indicating significant differences between the intervention group and both the therapeutic community (p = .028) and general population groups (p = .020). Implications: Study results suggest that yoga may be an effective addition to integrative mental health and substance use treatment for incarcerated women, and contributes to increasing evidence that holistic interventions may be an important component for treatment with this population. Specifically, given the prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders, findings revealed that changes in body awareness and emotion regulation may be particularly beneficial for incarcerated populations with substance use challenges as a result of yoga participation. From a systemic perspective, this proactive approach may have long-term implications for both physical and psychological well-being for the incarcerated population as a whole, thereby decreasing the need for traditional treatment. By integrating a more holistic, salutogenic model that emphasizes prevention, interventions like yoga may work to improve the wellness of this population, while providing an alternative or complementary treatment option for those with current symptoms.

Keywords: yoga, mental health, incarceration, wellness

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4389 A Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Intervention Programme for Excessive Internet Use among Young Adults

Authors: Ke Guek Nee, Wong Siew Fan, Nigel V. Marsh

Abstract:

Excessive use of the Internet has become a cause for concern in many countries, including Malaysia. Such behaviour is reported to be more prevalent amongst young adults who are reported to be spending large amount of time on the Internet. The present study has three objectives. First one is designing a manual-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programme to reduce problematic Internet use among young adults in Malaysia. Second one is examining the effectiveness of a manual-based CBT programme at the pilot study stage. Thirdly, the programme focuses on reducing the level of stress and anxiety in problematic Internet users. We adopted CBT with single subject experimental design method. A total of six participants completed the entire program. They were asked to report their daily Internet use and software was installed on their devices to record actual use. The data collection involved three time frame measurements: T1 (baseline), T2 (immediately during the last session of the intervention sessions), and T3 (follow-up). Three scales were used to measure the effectiveness of the program: Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS), Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ). The results revealed that the intervention programme has significantly improved two dimensions of problematic Internet use which were obsession and control disorder. The participants’ mental health also showed a deduction in means scores for depression, anxiety and stress with depression showing the greatest improvement after the intervention programme. The participants’ social anxiety showed a slight deduction in means scores. We concluded that the intervention programme designed was effective. However, its limitations need to be addressed in future research.

Keywords: excessive internet use, cognitive behavioral thearapy (CBT), psychological well-being, young adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
4388 The Effectiveness of a Six-Week Yoga Intervention on Body Awareness, Warnings of Relapse, and Emotion Regulation among Incarcerated Females

Authors: James D. Beauchemin

Abstract:

Introduction: The incarceration of people with mental illness and substance use disorders is a major public health issue with social, clinical, and economic implications. Yoga participation has been associated with numerous psychological benefits; however, there is a paucity of research examining impacts of yoga with incarcerated populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a six-week yoga intervention on several mental health-related variables, including emotion regulation, body awareness, and warnings of substance relapse among incarcerated females. Methods: This study utilized a pre-post, three-arm design, with participants assigned to intervention, therapeutic community, or general population groups. A between-group analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted across groups to assess intervention effectiveness using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Scale of Body Connection (SBC), and Warnings of Relapse (AWARE) Questionnaire. Results: ANCOVA results for warnings of relapse (AWARE) revealed significant between-group differences F(2, 80) = 7.15, p = .001; np2 = .152), with significant pairwise comparisons between the intervention group and both the therapeutic community (p = .001) and the general population (p = .005) groups. Similarly, significant differences were found for emotional regulation (DERS) F(2, 83) = 10.521, p = .000; np2 = .278). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the intervention and general population (p = .01). Finally, significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found for body awareness (SBC) F(2, 84) = 3.69, p = .029; np2 = .081). Between-group differences were clarified via pairwise comparisons, indicating significant differences between the intervention group and both the therapeutic community (p = .028) and general population groups (p = .020). Implications: Study results suggest that yoga may be an effective addition to integrative mental health and substance use treatment for incarcerated women and contributes to increasing evidence that holistic interventions may be an important component for treatment with this population. Specifically, given the prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders, findings revealed that changes in body awareness and emotion regulation might be particularly beneficial for incarcerated populations with substance use challenges as a result of yoga participation. From a systemic perspective, this proactive approach may have long-term implications for both physical and psychological well-being for the incarcerated population as a whole, thereby decreasing the need for traditional treatment. By integrating a more holistic, salutogenic model that emphasizes prevention, interventions like yoga may work to improve the wellness of this population while providing an alternative or complementary treatment option for those with current symptoms.

Keywords: wellness, solution-focused coaching, college students, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
4387 Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Cognitive Development: Preliminary Analyses of a 12-Month Follow-Up

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Introduction: Over the last decade, researchers have implemented attachment-based interventions to promote parental interactive sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families. In the context of the present study, these interventions have been shown to be effective to enhance cognitive development when child outcome was measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child cognitive development one year post-intervention. Methods: Thirty-five mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, were included in this study: 21 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 14 dyads not exposed to the intervention and matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex and family status. Child cognitive development was measured using the WPPSI-IV, 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children was 54 months old. Findings: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the scores obtained on the WPPSI-IV for the two groups. In general, no differences were observed between the two groups. There was a significant difference on the fluid reasoning scale between children exposed to the intervention (M = 95,13, SD = 16,67) and children not exposed (M = 81, SD = 9,90). T (23) = -2,657; p= .014 (IC :-25.13;3.12). This difference was found only for children aged between 48 and 92 months old. Other results did not show any significant difference between the two groups (Global IQ or subscales). Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggest that relatively little effects of attachment-based intervention remain on the level of cognitive functioning 12-months post-intervention. It is possible that the significant findings concerning fluid reasoning may be pertinent in that fluid reasoning is linked to the capacity to analyse, to solve problems, and remember information, which may be important for promoting school readiness. As the study is completed and as more information is gained from other assessments of cognitive and socioemotional outcome, a clearer picture of the potential moderate-term impact of attachment-based intervention will emerge.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child development, child protective services, cognitive development

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4386 Effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention on Writing Skills in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Siddiq Ahmed

Abstract:

The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention (PMI) on writing skills for a student with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive classrooms. The participants in this study were two students, one as a tutor and another as a tutee who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The target participant struggled with writing skills and was paired with a student with high academic outcomes. The Tutor had a readiness to act as a tutor for his peer and was trained on how to assist his peer and how to identify and guide his peer’s writing mistakes. Multiple baseline design across behaviors was implemented to monitor the student’s progress in writing skills. The results of the present study showed that PMI yielded significant improvements in academic achievements for the target student. This study suggests that further studies should replicate the current study with an intensive focus on other academic skills such as reading comprehension, writing social stories, and math.

Keywords: peer tutoring, writing skills, autism, inclusion

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4385 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

Abstract:

Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
4384 Remedying Students' Misconceptions in Learning of Chemical Bonding and Spontaneity through Intervention Discussion Learning Model (IDLM)

Authors: Ihuarulam A. Ikenna

Abstract:

In the past few decades, the field of chemistry education has grown tremendously and researches indicated that after traditional chemistry instruction students often lacked deep conceptual understanding and failed to integrate their ideas into coherent conceptual framework. For several concepts in chemistry, students at all levels have demonstrated difficulty in changing their initial perceptions. Their perceptions are most often wrong and do not agree with correct scientific concepts. This study explored the effectiveness of intervention discussion sections for a college general chemistry course designed to apply research on students preconceptions, knowledge integration and student explanation. Three interventions discussions lasting three hours on bond energy and spontaneity were done tested and intervention (treatment) students’ performances were compared with that of control group which did not use the experimental pedagogy. Results indicated that this instruction which was capable of identifying students' misconceptions, initial conceptions and integrating those ideas into class discussion led to enhanced conceptual understanding and better achievement for the experimental group.

Keywords: remedying, students’ misconceptions, learning, intervention discussion, learning model

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
4383 Comparing the Educational Effectiveness of eHealth to Deliver Health Knowledge between Higher Literacy Users and Lower Literacy Users

Authors: Yah-Ling Hung

Abstract:

eHealth is undoubtedly emerging as a promising vehicle to provide information for individual self-care management. However, the accessing ability, reading strategies and navigating behavior between higher literacy users and lower literacy users are significantly different. Yet, ways to tailor audiences’ health literacy and develop appropriate eHealth to feed their need become a big challenge. The purpose of this study is to compare the educational effectiveness of eHealth to deliver health knowledge between higher literacy users and lower literacy users, thus establishing useful design strategies of eHealth for users with different level of health literacy. The study was implemented in four stages, the first of which developed a website as the testing media to introduce health care knowledge relating to children’s allergy. Secondly, a reliability and validity test was conducted to make sure that all of the questions in the questionnaire were good indicators. Thirdly, a pre-post knowledge test was conducted with 66 participants, 33 users with higher literacy and 33 users with lower literacy respectively. Finally, a usability evaluation survey was undertaken to explore the criteria used by users with different levels of health literacy to evaluate eHealth. The results demonstrated that the eHealth Intervention in both groups had a positive outcome. There was no significant difference between the effectiveness of eHealth intervention between users with higher literacy and users with lower literacy. However, the average mean of lower literacy group was marginally higher than the average mean of higher literacy group. The findings also showed that the criteria used to evaluate eHealth could be analyzed in terms of the quality of information, appearance, appeal and interaction, but the users with lower literacy have different evaluation criteria from those with higher literacy. This is an interdisciplinary research which proposes the sequential key steps that incorporate the planning, developing and accessing issues that need to be considered when designing eHealth for patients with varying degrees of health literacy.

Keywords: eHealth, health intervention, health literacy, usability evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
4382 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama in the Reduction of Social Anxiety Disorder among Male Adolescents

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Zahra Hadadi, Marzieh Rezabeigi, Nader Monirpoor

Abstract:

This study has been performed with the goal of investigating the effectiveness of psychodrama in the reduction of social anxiety among the male adolescents in Kermanshah. 210 adolescents (13-14 year-olds) from four junior high schools in Kermanshah filled Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA) (Masia-Warner, Klien & Liebowitz, 2003). 30 of the adolescents who obtained the highest scores in LSAS-CA scale were chosen as the sample and were randomly assigned as experimental group (15 people) and control group (15 people). The experimental group participated in two-hour sessions of psychodrama twice a week for 6 weeks. The control group received no intervention. The findings of this study showed a significant reduction in the symptoms of social anxiety among the adolescents in experimental group in comparison to that of the control group. Also a three-month follow-up confirmed the stability of the results. Adolescents’ interactions in the psychodrama group, talking about their problems to the group, and achieving appropriate solutions by themselves are the useful factors of this intervention.

Keywords: psychodrama, social anxiety disorder, adolescents, male adolescents

Procedia PDF Downloads 343