Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: wellness

27 Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili


This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: tourism, economic policy of tourism, wellness industry, medical wellness resorts

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26 Policy of Tourism and Opportunities of Development of Wellness Industry in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, R. Gvelesiani, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili


The topic reviews the situation existing currently in Georgia in the field of tourism in conditions of globalization: Touristic resources, the paces of development of the tourism infrastructure, tourism policy, possibilities of development of the Wellness industry in Georgia that is the newest direction of the medical tourism. The factors impeding the development of the industry of tourism, namely-existence of the conflict zones, high rates of the bank credits, deficiencies associated with the tax laws, a level of infrastructural development, quality of services, deficit in the competitive staff, increase of prices in the peak seasons, insufficient promotion of the touristic opportunities of Georgia on the international markets are studied and analyzed. Besides, the levels of development of tourism in Georgia according to the World Economic Forum, aspects of cooperation with the European Union etc. are reviewed. As a result of these studies, a strategy of development of tourism and one of its directions-Wellness industries in Georgia is introduced with the relevant conclusions, on which basis the recommendations are provided.

Keywords: about tourism, tourism policy, wellness industry, business, innovation, technology

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25 The Effect of Wellness Program on Organizations Productivity: The Case of Pakistani Corporation’s

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir


This study imperially evaluated of five human resource (HR) practices (Wellness program extents are Employee’s assistance program, Health care screenings, and Recreation trips, Seminars for life style, Indoor and Outdoor activities) and there likely impact on the organization productivity in Pakistani organizations. The data were gathering by administrating questionnaires. The result indicated that all five variables are positively and significantly correlated with organization productivity. Results of regressing the all variables on organization productivity show that seminars for life style and employee’s assistance program strong predictors of organization productivity.

Keywords: wellness program, organization’s productivity, employee’s assistance program, health care screening

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24 Nutritional Wellness at the Workplace

Authors: Siveshnee Devar


Background: The rate of absenteeism and prevalence of NCDs in South Africa is extremely high. This is consistent with other educational institutions and workplaces around the globe. In most cases the absence of health and the presence of one or more non communicable diseases coupled with the lack of physical exercise is a major factor in absenteeism. Absenteeism at the workplace comes at a huge cost to the employer and the country as a whole. Aim: Findings from this study was to develop a suitable nutritional wellness program for the workplace. Methodology: A needs analysis in the form of 24-hour recall, food frequency, health and socio demographic questionnaires was undertaken to determine the need for a wellness program for the institution. Anthropometric indices such as BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also undertaken to determine the state of health of the staff. Results: This study has found that obesity, central obesity, hypertension as well as deficiencies in nutrients and minerals were prevalent in this group. Fruit and vegetable consumption was also below the WHO recommendation. This study showed a link between diet, physical activity and diseases of lifestyle. There were positive correlations between age and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure and waist-to-height ratio and BMI. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for immediate intervention in the form of a wellness program. Nutrition education is important for both the workplace and out. Education and knowledge are important factors for lifestyle changes. The proposed intervention is aimed at improving presenteeism and decreasing the incidence of non- communicable diseases. Presenteeism and good health are important factors for quality education at all educational institutions.

Keywords: absenteeism, non-communicable diseases, nutrition, wellness

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23 Chat-Based Online Counseling for Enhancing Wellness of Undergraduates with Emotional Crisis Tendency

Authors: Arunya Tuicomepee


During the past two decades, there have been the increasing numbers of studies on online counseling, especially among adolescents who are familiar with the online world. This can be explained by the fact that via this channel enables easier access to the young, who may not be ready for face-to-face service, possibly due to uneasiness to reveal their personal problems with a stranger, the feeling that their problems are to be shamed, or the need to protect their images. Especially, the group of teenagers prone to suicide or despair, who tend to keep things to or isolate from the society to themselves, usually prefer types of services that require no face-to-face encounter and allow their anonymity, such as online services. This study aimed to examine effectiveness of chat-based online counseling for enhancing wellness of undergraduates with emotional crisis tendency. Experimental with pretest-posttest control group design was employed. Participants were 47 undergraduates (10 males and 37 females) with high emotional crisis tendency. They were randomly assigned to experimental group (24 students) and control group (23 students). Participants in the experimental group received a 60-minute, 4-sessions of individual chat-based online counseling led by counselor. Those in control group received no counseling session. Instruments were the Emotional Crisis Scale and Wellness Scales. Two-way mixed-design multivariate analysis of variance was used for data analysis. Finding revealed that the posttest scores on wellness of those in the experimental group were higher than the scores of those in the control group. The posttest scores on emotional crisis tendency of those in the experimental group were lower than the scores of those in the control group. Hence, this study suggests chat-based online counseling services can become a helping source that increasing more adolescents would recognize and turn to in the future and that will receive more attention.

Keywords: chat-based online counseling, emotional crisis, undergraduate student, wellness

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22 Common Health Problems of Filipino Overseas Household Service Workers: Implications for Wellness

Authors: Veronica Ramirez


For over 40 years now, the Philippines has been supplying Household Service Workers (HSWs) globally. As a requirement of the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA), all Filipinos applying for overseas work undergo medical examination and a certificate of good health is submitted to the foreign employer before hiring. However, there are workplace-related health problems that develop during employment such as musculoskeletal strain or injury, back pain, hypertension and other illnesses. Some workers are in good working conditions but are on call more than 12 hours per day. There are also those who experience heavy physical work with short rest periods or time off. They can also be easily exposed to disease outbreaks and epidemics. It was the objective of this study to determine the common health problems of Filipino Overseas Service Workers and analyze their implications to wellness in the workplace. Specifically, it sought to describe the work conditions of HSWs and determine the work-related factors affecting their health. It also identified the medical care they avail of and how they perceive their health and wellness as determinants of well-being. Finally, it proposes ways to promote wellness among HSWs. This study focused on physical illnesses and does not include mental problems experienced by HSWs. Using a questionnaire, primary data were gathered online and through survey of HSW rehires who were retaking Pre-Departure Orientation Seminar at recruitment agencies. The 2010 Health Benefit Availment data from the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) was also utilized. Descriptive analysis was employed on the data gathered. Key stakeholders in the migration industry were also interviewed. Previous research studies, reports and literature on migration and wellness were used as secondary data. The study found that Filipino overseas HSWs are vulnerable to physical injury and experience body pains such as back, hip and shoulder pain. Long hours of work, work hazards and lack of rest due to poor accommodations can aggravate their physical condition. Although health insurance and health care are available, HSWs are not aware how to avail them. On the basis of the findings, a Wellness Program can be designed that include health awareness, health care availment, occupational ergonomics, safety and health, work and leisure balance, developing emotional intelligence, anger management and spirituality.

Keywords: health, household service worker, overseas, wellness

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21 A Nutritional Wellness Program for Overweight Health Care Providers in Hospital Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang


Background: The prevalence of workplace obesity is rising worldwide; therefore, the workplace is an ideal venue to implement weight control intervention. This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers working in a hospital. Methods: This hospital-based nutritional wellness program was an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial for obese health care providers. The primary outcomes were body weight and body mass index (BMI). The secondary outcomes were serum fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoprotein, body fat percentage, and body mass. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 22) group. Participants in both groups received individual nutrition counselling and nutrition pamphlets, whereas only participants in the intervention group were given mobile phone text messages. Results: 42 participants completed the study. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed approximately 0.98 kg weight reduction after two months. Participants in intervention group also demonstrated clinically significant improvement in BMI, serum cholesterol level, and HDL level. There was no improvement of body fat percentage and body mass for both intervention and control groups. Conclusion: The nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers was feasible in hospital settings. Health care providers demonstrated short-term weight loss, decrease in serum fasting cholesterol level, and HDL level after completing the program.

Keywords: weight management, weight control, health care providers, hospital

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20 Empirical Study of Health Behaviors of Employees in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing

Authors: Yogesh Pawar


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behaviors of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) employees in relation to diet, exercise, sleep, stress, and social habits. This was a qualitative research study, using in-depth,semi-structured interviews. Descriptive data were collected from a two-stage purposive sample of 28 IT-BPO employees from two IT companies and one BPOs in Pune. The majority of interviewees reported having an unhealthy diet and/or sedentary lifestyle. Lack of time due to demanding work schedules was the largest barrier to diet and exercise. Given the qualitative study design and limited sampling frame, results may not be generalizable. However, the qualitative data suggests that Pune’s young IT-BPO employees may be at greater risk of lifestyle-related diseases than the general population. The data also suggests that interventions incorporating social influence may be a promising solution, particularly at international call centers. The results from this study provide qualitative insight on the motives for health behaviors of IT-BPO employees, as well as the barriers and facilitators for leading a healthy lifestyle in this industry. The findings provide the framework for future workplace wellness interventions.

Keywords: exercise, information technology, qualitative research, wellness

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19 Well-Being and Helping Technology for Retired Population in Finland

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen


This study aimed to evaluate parameters influencing well-being and how to maintain well-being as long as possible after retirement. There is contradictory information on the health changes after retirement in Finland. This work is based on interviews, statistics, and literature evaluation of Finland. Most often, balance, multitasking reaction time, and adaptation of vision in dim and darks areas are worsened. Slowing is one characteristic that is difficult to measure properly. The most important is try to determine ways to manage daily activities and symptoms of disease after retirement. Medicine is advancing, problems are often also on the economic side. Information of technical aids is important. It is worth planning a retirement age.

Keywords: retirement, working, aging, wellness

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18 Mindmax: Building and Testing a Digital Wellbeing Application for Australian Football Players

Authors: Jo Mitchell, Daniel Johnson


MindMax is a digital community and learning platform built to maximise the wellbeing and resilience of AFL Players and Australian men. The MindMax application engages men, via their existing connection with sport and video games, in a range of wellbeing ideas, stories and actions, because we believe fit minds, kick goals. MindMax is an AFL Players Association led project, supported by a Movember Foundation grant, to improve the mental health of Australian males aged between 16-35 years. The key engagement and delivery strategy for the project was digital technology, sport (AFL) and video games, underpinned by evidenced based wellbeing science. The project commenced April 2015, and the expected completion date is March 2017. This paper describes the conceptual model underpinning product development, including progress, key learnings and challenges, as well as the research agenda. Evaluation of the MindMax project is a multi-pronged approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, including participatory design workshops, online reference groups, longitudinal survey methods, a naturalistic efficacy trial and evaluation of the social and economic return on investment. MindMax is focused on the wellness pathway and maximising our mind's capacity for fitness by sharing and promoting evidence-based actions that support this. A range of these ideas (from ACT, mindfulness and positive psychology) are already being implemented in AFL programs and services, mostly in face-to-face formats, with strong engagement by players. Player's experience features strongly as part of the product content. Wellbeing science is a discipline of psychology that explores what helps individuals and communities to flourish in life. Rather than ask questions about illness and poor functioning, wellbeing scientists and practitioners ask questions about wellness and optimal functioning. While illness and wellness are related, they operate as separate constructs and as such can be influenced through different pathways. The essential idea was to take the evidence-based wellbeing science around building psychological fitness to the places and spaces that men already frequent, namely sport and video games. There are 800 current senior AFL players, 5000+ past players, and 11 million boys and men that are interested in the lives of AFL Players; what they think and do to be their best both on and off field. AFL Players are also keen video gamers – using games as one way to de-stress, connect and build wellbeing. There are 9.5 million active gamers in Australia with 93% of households having a device for playing games. Video games in MindMax will be used as an engagement and learning tool. Gamers (including AFL players) can also share their personal experience of how games help build their mental fitness. Currently available games (i.e., we are not in the game creation business) will also be used to motivate and connect MindMax participants. The MindMax model is built with replication by other sport codes (e.g., Cricket) in mind. It is intended to not only support our current crop of athletes but also the community that surrounds them, so they can maximise their capacity for health and wellbeing.

Keywords: Australian football league, digital application, positive psychology, wellbeing

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17 Presenting Research-Based Mindfulness Tools for Corporate Wellness

Authors: Dana Zelicha


The objective of this paper is to present innovative mindfulness tools specifically designed by OWBA—The Well Being Agency for organisations and corporate wellness programmes. The OWBA Mindfulness Tools (OWBA-MT) consist of practical mindfulness exercises to educate and train employees and business leaders to think, feel, and act more mindfully. Among these cutting-edge interventions are Mindful Meetings, Mindful Decision Making and Unitasking activities, intended to cultivate mindful communication and compassion in the workplace and transform organisational culture. In addition to targeting CEO’s and leaders within large corporations, OWBA-MT is also directed at the needs of specific populations such as entrepreneurs’ resilience and women empowerment. The goals of the OWBA-MT are threefold: to inform, inspire and implement. The first goal is to inform participants about the relationship between workplace stress, distractibility and miscommunication in the framework of mindfulness. The second goal is for the audience to be inspired to share those practices with other members of their organisation. The final objective is to equip participants with the tools to foster a compassionate, mindful and well-balanced work environment. To assess these tools, a 6-week case study was conducted as part of an employee wellness programme for a large international corporation. The OWBA-MT were introduced in a workshop forum once-a-week, with participants practicing these tools both in the office and at home. The workshops occurred 1 day a week (2 hours each), with themes and exercises varying weekly. To reinforce practice at home, participants received reflection forms and guided meditations online. Materials were sent via-email at the same time each day to ensure consistency and participation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the mindfulness intervention, improvements in four categories were measured: listening skills, mindfulness levels, prioritising skills and happiness levels. These factors were assessed using online self-reported questionnaires administered at the start of the intervention, and then again 4-weeks following completion. The measures included the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Listening Skills Inventory (LSI), Time Management Behaviour Scale (TMBS) and a modified version of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ). All four parameters showed significant improvements from the start of the programme to the 4-week follow-up. Participant testimonials exhibited high levels of satisfaction and the overall results indicate that the OWBA-MT intervention substantially impacted the corporation in a positive way. The implications of these results suggest that OWBA-MT can improve employees’ capacities to listen and work well with others, to manage time effectively, and to experience enhanced satisfaction both at work and in life. Although corporate mindfulness programmes have proven to be effective, the challenge remains the low engagement levels at home in between training sessions and to implement the tools beyond the scope of the intervention. OWBA-MT has offered an innovative approach to enforce engagement levels at home by sending daily online materials outside the workshop forum with a personalised response. The limitations also noteworthy to consider for future research include the afterglow effect and lack of generalisability, as this study was conducted on a small and fairly homogenous sample.

Keywords: corporate mindfulness, listening skills, mindful leadership, mindfulness tools, organisational well being

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16 Mobile Health Programs by Government: A Content Analysis of Online Consumer Reviews

Authors: Ge Zhan


Mobile health (mHealth) concerns the use of mobile technologies to deliver health care and improve wellness. In this paper, we ask the question of what are the drivers of positive consumer attitude toward mHealth programs. Answers to this question are important to consumer health, but existing marketing and health care service literature does not provide sufficient empirical conclusions on the use of mobile technologies for consumer health. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap by investigating mHealth use and consumer attitude. A content analysis was conducted with sample mHealth programs and online consumer reviews in Hong Kong, UK, US, and India. The research findings will contribute to marketing and health services literature.

Keywords: mobile health, consumer attitude, content analysis, online marketing

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15 Analysis of Latest Fitness Trends in India

Authors: Amita Rana


From the ancient to modern times, the nature of fitness activities has varied. We can choose any form of exercise that is suitable for our particular need. Watchers of fitness trends say that the road to better health is paved with new possibilities along with some old ones that are poised to make a comeback. Educated, certified and experienced fitness professionals; strength training; fitness programmes for older adults; exercise and weight loss; children and obesity; personal training; core training; group personal training; Zumba and other dance workouts; functional fitness; yoga; comprehensive health promotion programmes at worksite; boot-camp; outdoor activities; reaching new markets; spinning; sport-specific training; worker incentive programmes; wellness coaching; and physician referrals are among the fitness trends included in worldwide surveys. However, trends related to fitness in India could be the same or different. Hence, the present paper makes an attempt to analyze the latest fitness trends in India. A total of eighteen (18) surveys were shortlisted on the basis of their relevance to the present topic of study and were arranged in descending order of their chronology. Content analysis was done after the preliminary set of data collection, which formed the basis of a group of data. Further, frequency and percentage were used to statistically represent the data. It can be concluded from the analysis of data regarding recent fitness trends in India that yoga dominates the fitness activity list, followed by numerous other activities including running, Zumba and sh’bam, boot camp, boxing, kickboxing, cycling, swimming, TRX, ass-pocalypse, ballet, biking, bokwa fitness, dance-iso-bic, masala bhangra, outdoor activities, pilates, planks, push-ups, sofa workouts, stairs Workouts, tabata training, and twerking. The body weight/ gym-specified/ strength training as well as high intensity interval training dominate the preferred workouts; followed by mixed work-outs, cross training work-outs, express work-outs, functional fitness, natural body movements, personalized training, and stay-at-home workouts. General areas that featured in the latest fitness trends in India demonstrates that the fitness is making an impact on all sections of the society be it children, women, older adults, senior citizens, worksite fitness. Fitness is becoming the lifestyle of the masses. People are doing exercise for weight-loss, combining diet with exercising; prefer sweating, making groups participate in fitness activities and wellness programmes. Technology is another area which has a high impact on the lives of people. They are using wearable technology for workout tracking and following numerous mobile friendly apps.

Keywords: fitness, India, survey, trend

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14 Integrating Neural Linguistic Programming with Exergaming

Authors: Shyam Sajan, Kamal Bijlani


The widespread effects of digital media help people to explore the world more and get entertained with no effort. People became fond of these kind of sedentary life style. The increase in sedentary time and a decrease in physical activities has negative impacts on human health. Even though the addiction to video games has been exploited in exergames, to make people exercise and enjoy game challenges, the contribution is restricted only to physical wellness. This paper proposes creation and implementation of a game with the help of digital media in a virtual environment. The game is designed by collaborating ideas from neural linguistic programming and Stroop effect that can also be used to identify a person’s mental state, to improve concentration and to eliminate various phobias. The multiplayer game is played in a virtual environment created with Kinect sensor, to make the game more motivating and interactive.

Keywords: exergaming, Kinect Sensor, Neural Linguistic Programming, Stroop Effect

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13 The Interrelation of Institutional Care and Successful Aging

Authors: Naphaporn Sapsopha


Aging population has been growing rapidly in Thailand due to several factors – namely, the declining size of the average Thai family, changing family structure, higher survival rates of women, and job migration patterns – there are fewer working-age citizens who are able to care for and support their aging family members. When a family can no longer provide for their elders, the responsibility shifts to the government. Many non-profit institutional care facilities for older adults have already been established, but having such institutions are not enough. In addition to the provisions that a reliable shelter can provide, older adults also need efficient social services, physical wellness, and mental health, all of which are crucial for successful aging. Yet, to date, there is no consensus or a well-accepted definition of what constitutes successful aging. The issue is further complicated by cultural expectations, and the gendered experience of the older adults. These issues need to be better understood to promote effective care and wellness. This qualitative research investigates the relationship between institutional care and successful aging among the institutionalized Thai older adults at a non-profit facility in Bangkok, Thailand. Specifically, it examines: a) How do institutionalized older adults define successful aging?, b) What factors do they believe contribute to successful aging?, and c) Do their beliefs vary by gender? Data was collected using a phenomenological research approach that included focus groups and in-depth interviews using open-ended questions, conducted on 10 institutionalized older adults (5 men and 5 women) ages 60 or over. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. The participants aged between 70-91 years old, and they varied in terms of gender, education, occupation, and life background. The results revealed that Thai institutionalized older adults viewed successful aging as a result of multiple interrelated factors: maintaining physical health, good mental and cognitive abilities. Remarkably, the participants identified as successful aging include independence for self-care and financial support, adhering to moral principles and religious practice, seeing the success of their loved ones, and making social contributions to their community. In addition, three primary themes were identified as a coping strategy to age successfully: self-acceptance by being sufficient and satisfied with all aspects of life, preparedness and adaptation for every stage of life, and self-esteem by maintaining their self. These beliefs are shared across gender and age differences. However, participants highlighted the importance of the interrelationship among these attributes similar to the need for a secure environment, the thoughtfulness and social support of institutional care in order to maintain positive attitude and well-being. With highly increased Thai aging population, many of these older adults will find themselves living in the institutional care; therefore, it is important to intensively understand how older adults viewed successful aging, what constituted successful aging and what could be done to promote it. Interventions to enhance successful aging may include meaningful practice and along with an effective coping strategy in order to lead a better quality of life those living in institutional care.

Keywords: institutional care, older adults, self-acceptant, successful aging

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12 The Construction of Healthy Bodies in U.S. and China: A Comparative Analysis of Women's Health and Trends Health

Authors: Yang L. Frances


Women's health and wellness has been becoming an increasingly important issue in mass media in the age of globalization. In this context, the current research focuses on comparing the construction of healthy bodies in women's health magazines of China and U.S. Trends Health in China and Women's Health in U.S are chosen. Textual analysis and in depth interviews are combined to examine how the healthy bodies are constructed in two magazines through discursive strategies. The interviews with the Deputy Editorial Director, Creative Director and Senior Visual Design of two magazines are undertaken to make the further comparisons. In both Trends Health and Women's Health, women's subjectivity is realized in the construction of ideal healthy body; nevertheless in the process of constructing healthy body, the disciplinary practices imposed on women's bodies are different in two magazines. This paper argues that women's health magazines in both China and America provide an alternative discourse to speak their voices on the one hand, but on the other hand, Women's Health and Trends Health construct the healthy body through disparate disciplinary practices because of the different socio-cultural contexts in two societies.

Keywords: healthy body, women's health magazines, Foucault, textual analysis

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11 Intra-Erythrocytic Trace Elements Profile of EMU (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Le Souef 1907

Authors: Adebayo Adewumi


Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae the second largest bird in the world started its domestication in the United States in the early 1980's and the present trend in the production of emu in the U.S can be compared with cattle industry. As the population of many wildlife species in Nigeria declined due to unsustainable harvest of bush meat, animals like snails, antelopes,Ostrich, Emu and rodents have been domesticated. Although this improved livestock production in Nigeria, the basic physiological parameters of these mini- livestock are not known. Especially the intra-erythrocyte trace elements of domesticated emu, For this study, emu blood was obtained from Ajanla farms, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. There, 16 emus at age of 20 months were bled through jugular vein in a semi-intensive system for a period of 12 months. The intra-erythrocyte trace elements Cu, Zn, and Mg in healthy Emu were measured. The influences of sex and age on these parameters were investigated. No age or sex differences were observed in intra-erythrocytic Cu levels. Intra-erythrocytic Zn and Mg levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in young Emu than in adults while males used significantly (P<0.05) higher intra erythrocytic Mg than females. intra-erythrocyte trace elements Cu, Zn and Mg is a good pointer to haemoglobin concentration which determines the state of wellness of an animal. The information from this work has provided a baseline data for further understanding of erythrocyte biochemistry of Emu in Nigeria.

Keywords: intra erythrocyte, trace elements, Emu, biochemistry

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10 A Preliminary Study of Local Customers' Perception towards the Image of the Spa and Their Intention to Visit

Authors: Felsy J. Sandi


There is a potential of growth in the spa industry due to the influx of domestic and international tourist coming to Sabah, Malaysia. It is a good opportunity to venture into this industry for the country’s economic future growth, and therefore, it is essential for this area to be researched. Being one of the fastest growing industries in the world, has led to enormous challenges, which need to be addressed. Malaysia is also riding with this phenomenon. The President of the Malaysian Association of Wellness and Spa stated that the misconception about the Spa industry’s image, especially amongst the elderly is the biggest challenge faced by the industry, as they perceived the spa industry is equivalent to a prostitution center. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the issue by analyzing whether image can be added in the theory of planned behavior to better understand the consumer’s intention to visit, in the spa context. The Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen, a theory or model in predicting intention, has three constructs; such as Attitude as the first construct, the second construct is Subjective Norm and the third construct is Perceived Behavioral Control. Qualitative research is used as this is an exploratory research. The site of study will be at Jari Jari Spa, located in Kota Kinabalu, the only spa in Sabah that was awarded as the Center of Excellence (CoE) by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture in Malaysia. The findings propose to provide useful information to the relevant stakeholders on ways to approach local customers to convince them to visit the spa and for spa marketers to help them develop and design effective marketing strategies. Future investigation should consider more on the perception and loyalty of the local customers.

Keywords: consumer's perception, image, local customer, spa, visit intention

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9 Environmental Awareness on Formal Education Level: A Program Approach through Physical Education Course

Authors: Jocelyn Floresca


This paper aimed to present the by-product of the introduction of environmental ecology awareness on a formal education level utilizing the program course of Physical Education, particularly in the tertiary level. It is based on the premise that the radical need for environmental protection may not only necessarily be the work of people in the pure sciences but also deemed necessary to look into more avenues of the school setting particularly in the field of Physical Education. In the Philippines, most schools’ Physical Education focuses on the advancement of sports, fitness and wellness which are mostly done in the confines of a closed building. The paper dwells into the introduction of Physical Education as an outdoor recreation activity where in the participants of the study had the opportunity to indulge in activities undertaken outside the confines of buildings and going into large areas of the environment. It looked into the individual participant’s environmental social behaviour and effects on the participant’s perceptions in terms of the set objectives of Physical Education before and after the study’s intervention. The study utilized the formal course in Physical Education on nature walks, mountaineering and bird watching as interventions to gain perceptions and understanding. The introduction of the environmental ecology activities as a formal Physical Education course has resulted in deeper awareness that led to understanding the need to protect the environment, appreciation of the value of natural areas and acquiring behaviour for a sustainable use of the environment during the practice of Physical Education. Also, prior to the introduction of environmental ecology in Physical Education as a formal study; participants have no knowledge of what dwells in the identified sites of intervention. Whereas after the study, participants were able to identify various species of birds and plants found in the sites of the study that may lead to further conservation of the particular species.

Keywords: appreciation, conservation, environmental ecology, outdoor

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8 Administrative Determinants of Students' Sports Participation in Private and Public Secondary Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Danjuma Moudu Momoh


Participation in sports is of immense benefit to the soundness of individual mental and social wellness, particularly among youngsters. The 1980’s and 1990’s compared to 2000’s witnessed great involvement of youngsters in school games arising from the high administrative supports attached to sports. Previous studies in an attempt to increase youngster’s participation in sports had focused more on other factors rather than on administrative factors. This study, therefore, investigated the importance of administrative factors (availability of facilities, availability of equipment, funding, scheduling of sports programme and administrative style of school principals) on students’ sports participation in private and public secondary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design using validated and structured questionnaire, was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to pick the students both male and female. A total of two thousand five hundred and sixty participants were involved in the study. A reliable coefficient of r=0.82 was obtained for the instruments using Cronbach Alpha. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions to test the hypotheses at 00.5 significant levels. At the end of the study, it was discovered that the relative contributions of administrative factors among the students were: availability of facilities (β=0.314), availability of equipment (β=0.444), funding (β=0.301), scheduling of sports programme (β=0.447), made relative contributions to the dependent variable, administrative style of school principal (β=0.077) did not make significant but minimal contribution to the student’s sports participation.

Keywords: administrative determinants, secondary school students, physical activity, sports participation

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7 Implementing Service Learning in the Health Education Curriculum

Authors: Karen Butler


Johnson C. Smith University, one of the nation’s oldest Historically Black Colleges and Universities, has a strong history of service learning and community service. We first integrated service learning and peer education into health education courses in the spring of 2000. Students enrolled in the classes served as peer educators for the semester. Since then, the program has evolved and expanded but remains an integral part of several courses. The purpose of this session is to describe our program in terms of development, successes, and obstacles, and feedback received. A detailed description of the service learning component in HED 235: Drugs and Drug Education and HED 337: Environmental Health will be provided. These classes are required of our Community Health majors but are also popular electives for students in other disciplines. Three sources of student feedback were used to evaluate and continually modify the component: the SIR II course evaluation, service learning reflection papers, and focus group interviews. Student feedback has been largely positive. When criticism was given, it was thoughtful and constructive – given in the spirit of making it better for the next group. Students consistently agreed that the service learning program increased their awareness of pertinent health issues; that both the service providers and service recipients benefited from the project; and that the goals/issues targeted by the service learning component fit the objectives of the course. Also, evidence of curriculum and learning enhancement was found in the reflection papers and focus group sessions. Service learning sets up a win-win situation. It provides a way to respond to campus and community health needs while enhancing the curriculum, as students learn more by doing things that benefit the health and wellness of others. Service learning is suitable for any health education course and any target audience would welcome the effort.

Keywords: black colleges, community health, health education, service learning

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6 Integrating Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights in Promoting Gender Equality, Equity, and Empowerment of Women

Authors: Danielle G. Saique


Introduction: Promoting Gender Equality, Equity and Empowerment of Women (GEE&EW) can be attained by practicing thereby exercising Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). Gender Inequality is manifested thru Violence Against Women (VAW). Objectives: This study presents causes, prevalence, effects of Gender Inequality for not practicing and violating SRHR. This proposes Action Plan by promoting, integrating SRHR in the “holistic approach” of Social Work education, practice and service-delivery in any work-set-ups. Limitations: VAW cases showed victim and violator are known, related and living together. Cases transpired at home, reported, investigated in the police and filed in the legal court of law for the year 2013. Methods: Data from blotters, reports, filed cases, case studies gathered by the Social Worker (SWr). Qualitative analysis identified cause, prevalence of VAW related in violating SRHR. SWr serves innovative interventions in any work settings by applying SRHR background, skills in educating, counseling client-victims. Results: 65 VAW cases on non-negotiation or refusal of practicing SRHR. Non-acceptance of Family Planning yielded unwanted, unplanned pregnancies, abandoned children, battered women. Neglected pre-post natal maternal care caused complications or death. Rape, incest led trauma or death. Unsafe, unprotected sex transmitted STDs. Conclusions: Non-availing SRHR from health facilities, from Medical Health SWr concluded to non-practicing or violating rights to life, health care, protection, rights to information, education, rights to plan family, rights from torture, ill-treatment. VAW brings undesirable effects to the well-being, wellness and humaneness of the victim. Recommendations: The innovative intervention services on SRHR of a SWr and the findings, results in violating SRHR are recommendations in Action Planning by adding “The SRHR Concepts” in Social Work thereby preventing VAW; empowering women’s rights to development, gender equality, equity liberty, security, freedom; resilience and involvement in promoting, practicing, exercising SRHR at home. Recommended therefore to duplicate this innovative practice and experience on SRHR as implemented by the SWr in any work setting.

Keywords: women development, promoting gender equality, equity, empowerment of women

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5 First Year Experience of International Students in Malaysian Universities

Authors: Nur Hidayah Iwani Mohd Kamal


The higher education institutions in Malaysia is challenged with a more socially and culturally diverse student population than ever before, especially with the increasing number of international students studying in Malaysia in the recent years. First year university is a critical time in students’ lives. Students are not only developing intelectually, they are also establishing and maintaining personal relationships, developing an identity, deciding about career and lifestyle, maintaining personal health and wellness, and developing an integrated philosohy of life. The higher education institutions work as a diverse community of learners to provide a supportive environment for these first year students in assisting them in their transition from high school to university. Although many universities are taking steps to improve the first year experience for their new local and international students, efforts must be taken to ensure organized and coordinated manner in order for the initiatives to be successful. The objectives of the study are to examine the international students’ perceptions and interpretation of their first year experiences in shaping and determining their attitudes toward study and the quality of their entire undergraduate academic career; and identify an appropriate mechanism to encounter the international students’ adjustment in the new environment in order to facilitate cross-functional communication and create a coherent and meaningful first year experience. A key construct in this study is that if universities wish to recruiting and retaining international students, it is their ethical responsibility to determine how they can best meet their needs at the academic and social level, create a supportive ‘learning community’ as a foundation of their educational experience, hence facilitate cross-cultural communication and create a coherent and meaningful first year experience. This study is simultaneously frames in relation to focus on the factors that influence a successful and satisfying transition to university life by the first year international students. The study employs a mixed-method data collection involving semi-structured interviews, questionnaire, classroom observation and document analysis. This study provides valuable insight into the struggles that many international students face as they attempt to make the adjustment not only to a new educational system but factors such as psychosocial and cultural problems. It would discuss some of the factors that impact the international students during their first year in university in their quest to be academically successful. It concludes with some recommendations on how Malaysian universities provide these students with a good first year experience based on some the best practices of universities around the world.

Keywords: first year experience, Malaysian universities, international students, education

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4 Determinants of Walking among Middle-Aged and Older Overweight and Obese Adults: Demographic, Health, and Socio-Environmental Factors

Authors: Samuel N. Forjuoh, Marcia G. Ory, Jaewoong Won, Samuel D. Towne, Suojin Wang, Chanam Lee


The public health burden of obesity is well established as is the influence of physical activity (PA) on the health and wellness of individuals who are obese. This study examined the influence of selected demographic, health, and socioenvironmental factors on the walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight and obese adults. Online and paper surveys were administered to community-dwelling overweight and obese adults aged ≥ 50 years residing in four cities in central Texas and seen by a family physician in the primary care clinic from October 2013 to June 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize participants’ anthropometric and demographic data as well as their health conditions and walking, socioenvironmental, and more broadly defined PA behaviors. Then Pearson chi-square tests were used to assess differences between participants who reported walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week as a proxy to meeting the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s PA guidelines and those who did not. Finally, logistic regression was used to predict walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose, controlling for covariates. The analysis was conducted in 2016. Of the total sample (n=253, survey response rate of 6.8%), the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.7%), married (74.5%), male (53.5%), and reported an annual household income of ≥ $50,000 (65.7%). Approximately, half were employed (49.6%), or had at least a college degree (51.8%). Slightly more than 1 in 5 (n=57, 22.5%) reported walking the recommended ≥150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week. The strongest predictors of walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week in adjusted analysis were related to education and a high favorable perception of the neighborhood environment. Compared to those with a high school diploma or some college, participants with at least a college degree were five times as likely to walk the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose (OR=5.55, 95% CI=1.79-17.25). Walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose was significantly associated with participants who disagreed that there were many distracted drivers (e.g., on the cell phone while driving) in their neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI=1.47-11.36) and those who agreed that there are sidewalks or protected walkways (e.g., walking trails) in their neighborhood (OR=3.55, 95% CI=1.10-11.49). Those employed were less likely to walk the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose compared to those unemployed (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.11-0.85) as were those who reported some difficulty walking for a quarter of a mile (OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.05-0.77). Other socio-environmental factors such as having care-giver responsibilities for elders, someone to walk with, or a dog in the household as well as Walk Score™ were not significantly associated with walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week. Neighborhood perception appears to be an important factor associated with the walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight and obese individuals. Enhancing the neighborhood environment (e.g., providing walking trails) may promote walking among these individuals.

Keywords: determinants of walking, obesity, older adults, physical activity

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3 Health and Performance Fitness Assessment of Adolescents in Middle Income Schools in Lagos State

Authors: Onabajo Paul


The testing and assessment of physical fitness of school-aged adolescents in Nigeria has been going on for several decades. Originally, these tests strictly focused on identifying health and physical fitness status and comparing the results of adolescents with others. There is a considerable interest in health and performance fitness of adolescents in which results attained are compared with criteria representing positive health rather than simply on score comparisons with others. Despite the fact that physical education program is being studied in secondary schools and physical activities are encouraged, it is observed that regular assessment of students’ fitness level and health status seems to be scarce or not being done in these schools. The purpose of the study was to assess the heath and performance fitness of adolescents in middle-income schools in Lagos State. A total number of 150 students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Participants were measured on hand grip strength, sit-up, pacer 20 meter shuttle run, standing long jump, weight and height. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of means, standard deviations, and range and compared with fitness norms. It was concluded that majority 111(74.0%) of the adolescents achieved the healthy fitness zone, 33(22.0%) were very lean, and 6(4.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of Body Mass Index test. For muscular strength, majority 78(52.0%) were weak, 66(44.0%) were normal, and 6(4.0%) were strong according to the normative standard of hand-grip strength test. For aerobic capacity fitness, majority 93(62.0%) needed improvement and were at health risk, 36(24.0%) achieved healthy fitness zone, and 21(14.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of PACER test. Majority 48(32.0%) of the participants had good hip flexibility, 38(25.3%) had fair status, 27(18.0%) needed improvement, 24(16.0%) had very good hip flexibility status, and 13(8.7%) of the participants had excellent status. Majority 61(40.7%) had average muscular endurance status, 30(20.0%) had poor status, 29(18.3%) had good status, 28(18.7%) had fair muscular endurance status, and 2(1.3%) of the participants had excellent status according to the normative standard of sit-up test. Majority 52(34.7%) had low jump ability fitness, 47(31.3%) had marginal fitness, 31(20.7%) had good fitness, and 20(13.3%) had high performance fitness according to the normative standard of standing long jump test. Based on the findings, it was concluded that majority of the adolescents had better Body Mass Index status, and performed well in both hip flexibility and muscular endurance tests. Whereas majority of the adolescents performed poorly in aerobic capacity test, muscular strength and jump ability test. It was recommended that to enhance wellness, adolescents should be involved in physical activities and recreation lasting 30 minutes three times a week. Schools should engage in fitness program for students on regular basis at both senior and junior classes so as to develop good cardio-respiratory, muscular fitness and improve overall health of the students.

Keywords: adolescents, health-related fitness, performance-related fitness, physical fitness

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2 Single Stage Holistic Interventions: The Impact on Well-Being

Authors: L. Matthewman, J. Nowlan


Background: Holistic or Integrative Psychology emphasizes the interdependence of physiological, spiritual and psychological dynamics. Studying “wholeness and well-being” from a systems perspective combines innovative psychological science interventions with Eastern orientated healing wisdoms and therapies. The literature surrounding holistic/integrative psychology focuses on multi-stage interventions in attempts to enhance the mind-body experiences of well-being for participants. This study proposes a new single stage model as an intervention for UG/PG students, time-constrained workplace employees and managers/leaders for improved well-being and life enhancement. The main research objective was to investigate participants’ experiences of holistic and mindfulness interventions for impact on emotional well-being. The main research question asked was if single stage holistic interventions could impact on psychological well-being. This is of consequence because many people report that a reason for not taking part in mind-body or wellness programmes is that they believe that they do not have sufficient time to engage in such pursuits. Experimental Approach: The study employed a mixed methods pre-test/post-test research design. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Purposive sampling methods were employed. An adapted mindfulness measurement questionnaire (MAAS) was administered to 20 volunteer final year UG student participants prior to the single stage intervention and following the intervention. A further post-test longitudinal follow-up took place one week later. Intervention: The single stage model intervention consisted of a half hour session of mindfulness, yoga stretches and head and neck massage in the following sequence: Mindful awareness of the breath, yoga stretches 1, mindfulness of the body, head and neck massage, mindfulness of sounds, yoga stretches 2 and finished with pure awareness mindfulness. Results: The findings on the pre-test indicated key themes concerning: “being largely unaware of feelings”, “overwhelmed with final year exams”, “juggling other priorities” , “not feeling in control”, “stress” and “negative emotional display episodes”. Themes indicated on the post-test included: ‘more aware of self’, ‘in more control’, ‘immediately more alive’ and ‘just happier’ compared to the pre-test. Themes from post-test 2 indicated similar findings to post-test 1 in terms of themes. but on a lesser scale when scored for intensity. Interestingly, the majority of participants reported that they would now seek other similar interventions in the future and would be likely to engage with a multi-stage intervention type on a longer-term basis. Overall, participants reported increased psychological well-being after the single stage intervention. Conclusion: A single stage one-off intervention model can be effective to help towards the wellbeing of final year UG students. There is little indication to suggest that this would not be generalizable to others in different areas of life and business. However this study must be taken with caution due to low participant numbers. Implications: Single stage one-off interventions can be used to enhance peoples’ lives who might not otherwise sign up for a longer multi-stage intervention. In addition, single stage interventions can be utilized to help participants progress onto longer multiple stage interventions. Finally, further research into one stage well-being interventions is encouraged.

Keywords: holistic/integrative psychology, mindfulness, well-being, yoga

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1 Promoting Physical Activity through Urban Active Environments: Learning from Practice and Policy Implementation in the EU Space Project

Authors: Rosina U. Ndukwe, Diane Crone, Nick Cavill


Active transport (i.e. walking to school, cycle to work schemes etc.) is an effective approach with multiple social and environmental benefits for transforming urban environments into active urban environments. Although walking and cycling often remain on the margins of urban planning and infrastructure, there are new approaches emerging, along with policy intervention relevant for the creation of sustainable urban active environments conductive to active travel, increasing physical activity levels of involved communities and supporting social inclusion through more active participation. SPAcE - Supporting Policy and Action for Active Environments is a 3 year Erasmus+ project that aims to integrate active transport programmes into public policy across the EU. SPAcE focuses on cities/towns with recorded low physical activity levels to support the development of active environments in 5 sites: Latvia [Tukums], Italy [Palermo], Romania [Brasov], Spain [Castilla-La Mancha] and Greece [Trikala]. The first part of the project involved a review of good practice including case studies from across the EU and project partner countries. This has resulted in the first output from the project, an evidence of good practice summary with case study examples. In the second part of the project, working groups across the 5 sites have carried out co-production to develop Urban Active Environments (UActivE) Action Plans aimed at influencing policy and practice for increasing physical activity primarily through the use of cycling and walking. Action plans are based on international evidence and guidance for healthy urban planning. Remaining project partners include Universities (Gloucestershire, Oxford, Zurich, Thessaly) and Fit for Life programme (National physical activity promotion program, Finland) who provide support and advice incorporating current evidence, healthy urban planning and mentoring. Cooperation and co-production with public health professionals, local government officers, education authorities and transport agencies has been a key approach of the project. The third stage of the project has involved training partners in the WHO HEAT tool to support the implementation of the Action Plans. Project results show how multi-agency, transnational collaboration can produce real-life Action Plans in five EU countries, based on published evidence, real-life experience, consultation and collaborative working with other organisations across the EU. Learning from the processes adopted within this project will demonstrate how public health, local government and transport agencies across the EU, can work together to create healthy environments that have the aim of facilitating active behaviour, even in times of constrained public budgets. The SPAcE project has captured both the challenges and solutions for increasing population physical activity levels, health and wellness in urban spaces and translating evidence into policy and practice ensuring innovation at policy level. Funding acknowledgment: SPAcE ( is co-funded by the Sport action of the ERASMUS+ programme.

Keywords: action plans, active transport, SPAcE, UActivE urban active environments, walking and cycling

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