Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

Search results for: apoptotic mimicry

137 Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry

Authors: Yi-Feng Kao, Huey-Jine Chai, Chin-I Chang, Yi-Chen Chen, June-Ru Chen

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Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.

Keywords: apoptotic mimicry, neuroinflammation, microglia, squid processing by-products

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136 The Effect of Cognitively-Induced Self-Construal and Direct Behavioral Mimicry on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Czar Matthew Gerard Dayday, Danielle Marie Estrera, Philippe Jefferson Galban, Gabrielle Marie Heredia

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The study aimed to examine the effects of self-construal and direct mimicry on prosocial behavior. The study made use of a 2 (Self-construal: independent or interdependent) x 2 (Mimicry: mimicry or non-mimicry) between subjects factorial design where effects of self-construal was cognitively-induced through a story with varying pronouns (We, Us, Ourselves vs. Me, I, Myself), and prosocial behavior was measured with the amount of money donated to a fabricated advocacy. The research was conducted with a convenience sampling comprised of 88 undergraduate students (58 Females, 33 Males) aged 16 to 26 years olds from the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Results from the experiment show that both factors do not have significant main effects on prosocial behavior. Additionally, their interaction also does not have a significant effect to prosocial behavior with No Mimicry x Independent ranking highest in amount of money donated and Mimicry x Interdependent ranking lowest. These results can be attributed to multiple factors, which include the collectivist orientation and sense of kapwa of Filipinos, a role reversal in the methodology and the lack of Chameleon Effect, and a weak priming of self-construal with respect to self-relatedness.

Keywords: behavior, mimicry, prosocial, self-construal

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
135 Investigation of The Effects of Hydroxytyrosol on Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, PI3K/Akt, and ERK 1/2 Pathways in Ovarian Cancer Cell Cultures

Authors: Latife Merve Oktay, Berrin Tugrul

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Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic phytochemical molecule derived from the hydrolysis of oleuropein, which originates during the maturation of the olives. It has recently received particular attention because of its antioxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of hydroxytyrosol and its effects on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) signaling pathways in human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774. XTT cell proliferation kit, Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) and Human Apoptosis Array (R&D Systems) were used to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HT in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cell lines at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Effect of HT on PI3K/Akt and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways were investigated by using specific inhibitors of these pathways. IC50 values of HT were found to be 102.3 µM in MDAH-2774 cells at 72 h and 51.5 µM in OVCAR-3 cells at 96 h. Apoptotic effect of HT in MDAH-2774 cells was the highest at 50 µM at 72 h, and kept decreasing at 100 and 150 µM concentrations and was not seen at 200 µM and higher concentrations. Highest apoptotic effect was seen at 100 µM concentration in OVCAR-3 cells at 96 h, however apoptotic effect was decreased over 100 µM concentrations. According to antibody microarray results, HT increased the levels of pro-apoptotic molecules Bad, Bax, active caspase-3, Htra2/Omi by 2.0-, 1.4-, 1.2-, 4.2-fold, respectively and also increased the levels of pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, FAS/TNFRSF6 by 2.1-, 1.7-, 1.6-fold, respectively, however, it decreased the level of Survivin by 1.6-fold which is one of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family in MDAH-2774 cells. In OVCAR-3 cells, HT decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, pro-caspase 3 by 3.1-, 8.2-fold, respectively and IAP family proteins CIAP-1, CIAP-2, XIAP, Livin, Survivin by 6.5-, 6.0-, 3.2-, 2.2-, 2.7-fold, respectively and increased the level of cytochrome-c by 1.2-fold. We have shown that HT shows its cytotoxic and apoptotic effect through inhibiting ERK 1/2 signaling pathway in both OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cells. Further studies are needed to investigate molecular mechanisms and modulatory effects of hydroxytyrosol.

Keywords: apoptosis, cytotoxicity, hydroxytyrosol, ovarian cancer

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134 Pathogenic Effects of IgG and IgM Apoptotic Cell-Reactive Monoclonal Auto-Antibodies on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Lupus

Authors: Monika Malik, Pooja Arora, Ruchi Sachdeva, Vishnampettai G. Ramachandran, Rahul Pal

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Apoptotic debris is believed to be the antigenic trigger in lupus. Whether such debris and autoantibodies induced in lupus-prone mice which specifically recognize its constituents can mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in such mice was assessed. The influence of apoptotic blebs and apoptotic cell-reactive monoclonal antibodies on phenotypic markers expressed on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and secreted cytokines were evaluated. Sera from lupus-prone and healthy mice immunized with the antibodies were analyzed for anti-self reactivity. Apoptotic blebs, as well as somatically-mutated IgG and non-mutated IgM apoptotic-cell reactive monoclonal antibodies, induced the preferential maturation of BMDCs derived from lupus-prone mice relative to BMDCs derived from healthy mice; antibody specificity and cell genotype both influenced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Immunization of lupus-prone mice with IgM and IgG antibodies led to hypergammaglobulinemia; elicited antibodies were self-reactive, and exhibited enhanced recognition of lupus-associated autoantigens (dsDNA, Ro60, RNP68, and Sm) in comparison with adjuvant-induced sera. While ‘natural’ IgM antibodies are believed to contribute to immune homeostasis, this study reveals that apoptotic cell-reactive IgM antibodies can promote inflammation and drive anti-self responses in lupus. Only in lupus-prone mice did immunization with IgG auto-antibodies enhance the kinetics of humoral anti-self responses, resulting in advanced-onset glomerulosclerosis. This study reveals that preferential innate and humoral recognition of the products of cell death in an autoimmune milieu influences the indices associated with lupus pathology.

Keywords: antigen spreading, apoptotic cell-reactive pathogenic IgG, and IgM autoantibodies, glomerulosclerosis, lupus

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133 A Desire to be ‘Recognizable and Reformed’: Natives’ Identity in Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”

Authors: S. Khurram, N. Mubashar

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The paper examines, through the lens of Postcolonial Theory, how natives resist and react in Derrek Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”. It aims at how natives, for being ‘recognized and reformed’, mimic and adapt the white’s ways of living. It also focuses how Walcott expresses natives’ reaction when they cannot construct their identity. Moreover, the paper exploits the Homi. K Bhaba’s concept of Mimicry and Berry’s concepts of Hybridity to explain Caribbean native’s plight. Furthermore, it bring forth Walcott’s deep insight into the psychology of the Caribbean natives. He digs deep into the colonial discourse to reconstruct post-colonial identity and he, as a post-colonial writer, does so by deconstructing colonial ideology of racism by resisting against it.

Keywords: postcolonial theory, mimicry, hybridity, reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
132 Apoptotic Induction Ability of Harmalol and Its Binding: Biochemical and Biophysical Perspectives

Authors: Kakali Bhadra

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Harmalol administration caused remarkable reduction in proliferation of HepG2 cells with GI50 of 14.2 mM, without showing much cytotoxicity in embryonic liver cell line, WRL-68. Data from circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetric analysis of harmalol-CT DNA complex shows conformational changes with prominent CD perturbation and stabilization of CT DNA by 8 oC. Binding constant and stoichiometry was also calculated using the above biophysical techniques. Further, dose dependent apoptotic induction ability of harmalol was studied in HepG2 cells using different biochemical assays. Generation of ROS, DNA damage, changes in cellular external and ultramorphology, alteration of membrane, formation of comet tail, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and a significant increase in Sub Go/G1 population made the cancer cell, HepG2, prone to apoptosis. Up regulation of p53 and caspase 3 further indicated the apoptotic role of harmalol.

Keywords: apoptosis, beta carboline alkaloid, comet assay, cytotoxicity, ROS

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131 Anticancer and Anti-Apoptotic Potential of Tridham and 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: R. Stalin, D. Karthick, H. Haseena Banu, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi

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Background: Breast cancer is emerging as one of the leading cause of cancer related deaths and hence there arises the need to look out for drugs which are more targets specific with minimal side effects. In recent times, there is a shift towards alternative medicine due to low cost and less side effects. Siddha system of medicine is one the oldest system of medicine practiced against various ailments. Tridham (TD) is a herbal formulation prepared in our laboratory consisting of Terminalia chebula, Elaeocarpus ganitrus and Prosopis cineraria in a definite ratio (TD) and its anticancer potential is evaluated in terms of induction of apoptosis. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the anti proliferative effect of TD and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (PGG), a pure compound isolated from TD on human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Materials and Methods: Cell viability was studied using MTT analysis and trypan blue staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was studied using DAPI staining. The protein and mRNA expressions of pro-apoptotic and anti- apoptotic markers namely Bax, Bad, Bcl-2 and caspases were also assessed by Western Blotting and RT PCR. Results: Viability studies of TD and PGG treated MCF-7 cells showed an inhibition in cell growth in time and dose dependent manner. The alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential was restored through treatment with TD and PGG which was confirmed by DAPI staining. The protein and mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic markers was found to be significantly increased in TD and PGG treated cells with a concomitant decrease in anti-apoptotic markers. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that TD and PGG exhibit their anticancer effect through its membrane stabilizing property and activation of apoptotic cascade in MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, mammary carcinoma, MCF-7, penta galloyl glucose, Tridham

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130 Protective Effect of Vitamin D on Cardiac Apoptosis in Obese Rats

Authors: Kadeejah Alsolami, Zainab Alrefay, Husaam Awad

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Obesity and vitamin D deficiency have both been related to cardiovascular disease. The present work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin D on cardiac apoptosis in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats included in this study. They were allocated into 4 groups: Control (n=5), animal were fed standard diet for 3 months: Control + vitamin D (VD) (n=5),animals were fed a standard diet with 400IU VD/kg for 3 months: hypercaloric diets group (n=10), animals were fed a high fat diet for 3 months: hypercaloric diet with VD group (n=10), animals were fed a high fat diet with 400IU VD/kg for 3 months. At the beginning of the experiment, the weight and length were measured to assess body mass index (BMI) and repeated every 45 days. Food intake and body weight were monitored throughout the study period. Then rats were sacrificed and heart tissues collected for Quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR used to detect different genetic markers of apoptosis (anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2), a pro-apoptotic gene(BAX), pro-apoptotic genes (FAS, FAS-L), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Results: FAS and FAS-L gene expression were significantly upregulated in rats fed with high fat diet. And FAS-L gene expression was significantly upregulated in all groups on comparison with control. Whereas Bax gene expression was significantly downregulated in rats fed with high-fat diet supplied with vitamin D. TNF was significantly upregulated in rats fed with high-fat diet treated with vitamin D. MAPK was significantly upregulated in rats fed with high fat diet group, and in rats fed with high-fat diet supplied with vitamin D. Conclusion: The cardiac apoptotic pathways were more activated in rats fed with high-fat than lean rats. And vitamin D protect the heart from the cardiac mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

Keywords: apoptosis, heart, obesity, Vitamin D

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129 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Methidathion Pesticide

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi

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Methidathion (MTD) (Trade name Supracide®) is a non-systemic organophosphorus insecticide used intensively worldwide including Saudi Arabia. However, there is a lack in published studies about it's genotoxicity. In this study we evaluated MTD toxicity in rat bone marrow cells (in vivo) and in lymphocytes (in vitro) using different doses based on LD50. MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells were recorded in rat's bone marrow samples. CA, MI (number of cells undergoing mitosis) necrotic, and apoptotic cells recorded in lymphocytes. Results showed that there was a slight increase in the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells. However, no structural chromosomal aberrations were detected in vivo or in vitro. On the other hand, the results showed significant increase in necrotic and apoptotic cells following MTD administration in a dose-dependent manner comparing to positive and negative control groups. In light of these results, MTD can be considered highly cytotoxic and moderate genotoxic, and precaution should be taken when using MTD.

Keywords: methidathion, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, toxicity, chromosomal aberrations

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128 Mechanistic Structural Insights into the UV Induced Apoptosis via Bcl-2 proteins

Authors: Akash Bera, Suraj Singh, Jacinta Dsouza, Ramakrishna V. Hosur, Pushpa Mishra

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Ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation induces apoptosis in mammalian cells and it is suggested that the mechanism by which this occurs is the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The Bcl-2 family of proteins pro-and anti-apoptotic is the regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Upon UVC irradiation, the proliferation of apoptosis is enhanced through the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax. Although the participation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in apoptosis appears responsive to UVC radiation, to the author's best knowledge, it is unknown how the structure and, effectively, the function of these proteins are directly impacted by UVC exposure. In this background, we present here a structural rationale for the effect of UVC irradiation in restoring apoptosis using two of the relevant proteins, namely, Bid-FL and Bcl-xl ΔC, whose solution structures have been reported previously. Using a variety of biophysical tools such as circular dichroism, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, we show that following UVC irradiation, the structures of Bcl-xlΔC and Bid-FL are irreversibly altered. Bcl-xLΔC is found to be more sensitive to UV exposure than Bid-FL. From the NMR data, dramatic structural perturbations (α-helix to β-sheet) are seen to occur in the BH3 binding region, a crucial segment of Bcl-xlΔC which impacts the efficacy of its interactions with pro-apoptotic tBid. These results explain the regulation of apoptosis by UVC irradiation. Our results on irradiation dosage dependence of the structural changes have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer.

Keywords: Bid, Bcl-xl, UVC, apoptosis

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127 The Molecular Rationale for Steroid Based Therapy of Leukemia: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

Authors: Eitan Yefenof

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Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, e.g. Dexamethasone and Prednisone, are widely used in the therapy of leukemia and lymphoma owing to their apoptogenic effect on lymphoid cells. However, the emergence of GC resistant cells during therapy is a major cause for treatment failure, urging the need for novel strategies that maintain leukemia sensitivity to the pro-apoptotic activity of GCs. GCs act by binding to the GC receptor (GR), which, in its inactive state, is sequestered in the cytosol by a multi-subunit complex of heat shock proteins. Upon ligand binding, the complex dissociates, allowing GR activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it regulates transcription of multiple genes. We demonstrated that in addition to gene expression, GR also regulates microRNA (miR) expression. Deep-sequencing analysis revealed 14 miRs that are regulated in GC-sensitive but resistant leukemias upon treatment with GC. GC up-regulates miR-103, miR-15~16 and miR-30e/d, while down-regulates miR-17, mir-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-92a (members of the miR-17∼92a multi-cistron). Upon transfection, miR-103 confers GC apoptotic sensitivity to otherwise GC-resistant cell. Furthermore, knocking down miR-103 expression reduces the GC apoptotic response of sensitive cells. miR-103 abrogates c-Myc expression, an oncogenic transcription factor which is deregulated in many cancers. In addition, miR-103 up-regulates Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein crucial for GC-induced death. Activated glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is also crucial for GC-induced apoptosis. GSK3 is active in GC-sensitive but not in GC-resistant cells. We found that GSK3 associates with the GR multi-subunit complex. Upon GC exposure, it dissociates from the GR and interacts with Bim to enable activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. miR-103 mediated c-Myc ablation is followed by down-regulation of the multi-cistron miR-17~92a, in particular miR-18a and miR-20a. miR-18a targets GR for degradation whereas miR-20a targets Bim degradation. Hence, miR-103 acts, in concert with Bim and GR, as a "tumor suppressor" that leads to reduced proliferation, cell-cycle arrest and cell death. We suggest that miR-103 can provide a diagnostic tool that predicts the sensitivity of leukemia to GC based therapy. Furthermore, exosomal delivery of miR-103 or up-regulation of the endogenous miR-103 could confer apoptotic sensitivity to resistant cells at the outset, thus becoming a useful therapeutic tool combined with GCs.

Keywords: apoptosis, leukemia, micro-RNA, steroids

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126 Correlation between Calpain 1 Expression and Proliferating/Apoptotic Index and Prognostic Factors in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Ruqaya Al-Rashdi, Shadia Al-Sinawi, Maya Al-Bahri

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Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and Human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. The role of clapins in pathogenesis and tumor progression has been studied in certain cancer types; however, its definite role is not yet established in breast cancer especially in the TNBC subtype. Objectives: This study aims to measure calpain-1 expression and correlate this measurement with the proliferating/apoptotic index as well with the prognostic factors in TNBC patients’ tissue. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine paraffin blocks from patients diagnosed with TNBC were used to measure the expression of calpain-1 and Ki-67 (proliferating marker) proteins using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed morphological and biochemically using conventional Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining method and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediate dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay respectively. Data was statistically analyzed using Pearson X2 test of association. Results: Calpain-1 content was visualized in the nucleus of the TNBC cells and its expression varied from low to high among the patients tissue. Calpain expression showed no significant correlation with the proliferating/apoptotic index as well with the clinicopathological variables. Apoptotic counts quantified by H&E staining showed significant association with the apoptotic TUNEL assay, validating both approaches. Conclusion: Although calpain-1 expression showed no significant association with the clinical outcome, its variable level of expression might indicate a hidden role in breast cancer tissue. Larger number of samples and different mode of assessments are needed to fully investigate such role. Exploring the involvement of calpain-1 in cancer progression might help in considering it as a biomarker of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, calpain, apoptosis, prognosis

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125 SOCS3 Reverses Multidrug Resistance by Inhibiting MDR1 in Mammary Cell Carcinoma

Authors: S. Pradhan, D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, T. Dasmohapatra

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Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS3), a newly indentified anti-apoptotic molecule is a downstream effecter of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signalling pathway. Current study has uncovered that SOCS3 may have wide and imperative capacities, particularly because of its close correlation with malignant tumors. To investigate the impact of SOCS3 on MDR, we analyzed the expression of P-gp and SOCS3 by immune-histochemistry and found there was positive correlation between them. At that point we effectively interfered with RNA translation by the contamination of siRNA of SOCS3 into MCF7/ADM breast cancer cell lines through a lentivirus, and the expression of the target gene was significantly inhibited. After RNAi the drug resistance was reduced altogether and the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp in MCF7/ADM cell lines demonstrated a significant decrease. Likewise the expression of P53 protein increased in a statistically significant manner (p ≤ 0.01) after RNAi exposure. Moreover, flowcytometry analysis uncovers that cell cycle and anti-apoptotic enhancing capacity of cells changed after RNAi treatment. These outcomes proposed SOCS3 may take part in breast cancer MDR by managing MDR1 and P53 expression, changing cell cycle and enhancing the anti-apoptotic ability.

Keywords: SOCS3gene, breast cancer, multidrug resistance, MDR1 gene, RNA interference

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124 The Effect of Combined Doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta on Apoptosis Induction in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Dina Fatmawati, Sofia Mubarika, Mae Sri Wahyuningsih

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Chemotherapy for breast cancer is largely ineffective, but innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. In our previous study, the combination of Doxorubicin (Dox) and ethanolic extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber ((EED) was found to have a synergistic effect on T47D human breast cancer cell line. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of the combination on T47D human breast cancer cells and normal fibroblasts cell line and its effects on the expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (cPARP-1) protein. T47D cell lines and fibroblasts cells were treated with the combination of Dox and EED. Apoptotic effect of the combination was determined using flow cytrometry assay. Protein expressions were determined by immunocytochemistry staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in T47D cell lines (75%) than that of in fibroblast cells (23%). The expression of Caspase 3 (84.53%) and cPARP-1 (83.36%) were significantly higher in the cancer cell lines than those of normal cells. These results indicate that the combination of doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta is a promising candidate for the treatment of breast cancer cells.

Keywords: Dioscorea esculenta, Doxorubicin, apoptosis, immunocytochemistry, cancer cells

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123 Natural Honey and Effect on the Activity of the Cells

Authors: Abujnah Dukali

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Natural honey was assessed in cell culture system for its anticancer activity. Human leukemic cell line HL 60 was treated with honey and cultured for 5 days and cytotoxicity was calculated by MTT assay. Honey showed cytotoxicity with CC50 value of 174.20 µg/ml. Radical modulation activities was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay using egg lecithin. Honey showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 159.73 µg/ml. In addition, treatment with HL60 cells also resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation, as seen in agarose gel electrophoresis. This is a hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis was performed by staining the cells with Annexin V and FACS analysis. Apoptosis is an active, genetically regulated disassembly of the cell form within. Disassembly creates changes in the phospholipid content of the cytoplasmic membrane outer leaflet. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer surface of the cell for phagocytic cell recognition. The human anticoagulant, annexin V, is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid protein with a high affinity for PS. Annexin V labeled with fluorescein can identify apoptotic cells in the population It is a confirmatory test for apoptosis. Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Since honey shows both antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity at almost the same concentration, it can prevent the free radical induced cancer as prophylactic agent and kill the cancer cells by apoptotic process as a chemotherapeutic agent. Everyday intake of honey can prevent the cancer induction.

Keywords: anticancer, cells, DNA, honey

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
122 Profiling of Apoptotic Protein Expressions after Trabectedin Treatment in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3 by Protein Array Technology

Authors: Harika Atmaca, Emir Bozkurt, Latife Merve Oktay, Selim Uzunoglu, Ruchan Uslu, Burçak Karaca

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Microarrays have been developed for highly parallel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) applications. The most common protein arrays are produced by using multiple monoclonal antibodies, since they are robust molecules which can be easily handled and immobilized by standard procedures without loss of activity. Protein expression profiling with protein array technology allows simultaneous analysis of the protein expression pattern of a large number of proteins. Trabectedin, a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid derived from a Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata, has been shown to have antitumor effects. Here, we used a novel proteomic approach to explore the mechanism of action of trabectedin in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 by apoptosis antibody microarray. XTT cell proliferation kit and Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) was used for measuring cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Human Apoptosis Protein Array (R&D Systems) which consists of 35 apoptosis related proteins was used to assess the omic protein expression pattern. Trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the death receptor pathway molecules, TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF R1/TNFRSF1A, FADD were significantly increased by 4.0-, 21.0-, 4.20- and 11.5-fold by trabectedin treatment in PC-3 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial pathway related pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, and Cleaved Caspase-3 expressions were induced by 2.68-, 2.07-, 2.8-, and 4.5-fold and the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were reduced by 3.5- and 5.2-fold in PC-3 cells. Proteomic (antibody microarray) analysis suggests that the mechanism of action of trabectedin may be exerted via the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The antibody microarray platform can be utilised to explore the molecular mechanism of action of novel anticancer agents.

Keywords: trabectedin, prostate cancer, omic protein expression profile, apoptosis

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121 Metformin Protects Cardiac Muscle against the Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Hyperglycaemia, Elevated Fatty Acid and Nicotine

Authors: Christopher R. Triggle, Hong Ding, Khaled Machaca, Gnanapragasam Arunachalam

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The antidiabetic drug, metformin, has been in clinical use for over 50 years and remains the first choice drug for the treatment of type two diabetes. In addition to its effectiveness as an oral anti-hyperglycaemic drug metformin also possesses vasculoprotective effects that are assumed to be secondary to its ability to reduce insulin resistance and control glycated hemoglobin levels; however, recent data from our laboratory indicate that metformin also has direct vasoprotective effects that are mediated, at least in part, via the anti-ageing gene, SIRT1. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it is also well established that tobacco use further enhances the risk of CVD; however, it is not known whether treatment with metformin can offset the negative effects of diabetes and tobacco use on cardiac function. The current study was therefore designed to investigate 1: the effects of hyperglycaemia (HG) either alone or in the presence of elevated fatty acids (palmitate) and nicotine on the protein expression levels of the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (the protein product of SIRT1), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, pro-apoptotic BIM and the pro-apoptotic, tumour suppressor protein, acetylated p53 in cardiomyocytes. 2: the ability of metformin to prevent the detrimental effects of HG, palmitate and nicotine on cardiomyocyte survival. Cell culture protocols were designed using a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, H9c2, either under normal glycaemic (NG) conditions of 5.5mM glucose, or hyperglycaemic conditions (HG) of 25mM glucose with, or without, added palmitate (250μM) or nicotine (1.0mM) for 24h. Immuno-blotting was used to detect the expression of sirtuin 1, Bcl-2, BIM, acetylated (Ac)-p53, p53 with β-actin used as the reference protein. Exposure to HG, palmitate, or nicotine alone significantly reduced expression of sirtuin1, Bcl-2 and raised the expression levels of acetylated p53 and BIM; however, the combination of HG, palmitate and nicotine had a synergistic effect to significantly suppress the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and Bcl-2, but further enhanced the expression of Ac-p53, and BIM. The inclusion of 1000μM, but not 50μM, metformin in the H9c2 cell culture protocol prevented the effects of HG, palmitate and nicotine on the pro-apoptotic pathways. Collectively these data indicate that metformin, in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic and vasculoprotective properties, also has direct cardioprotective actions that offset the negative effects of hyerglycaemia, elevated free fatty acids and nicotine on cardiac cell survival. These data are of particular significance for the treatment of patients with diabetes who are also smokers as the inclusion of metformin in their therapeutic treatment plan should help reduce cardiac-related morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: apoptosis, cardiac muscle, diabetes, metformin, nicotine

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120 Induction of G1 Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Panaxydol

Authors: Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Sang Yoon Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we focused on the anti-proliferative effects of panaxydol, a C17 polyacetylenic compound derived from Panax ginseng roots, against various human cancer cells. We treated with panaxydol to various cancer cells and panaxydol treatment was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) and human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), of which AsPC-1 cells were most sensitive to its treatment. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that panaxydol blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in A549 cells, which accompanied by a parallel reduction of protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs), such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1, were gradually upregulated after panaxydol treatment at the protein levels. Furthermore, panaxydol induced the activation of p53 in A549 cells. In addition, panaxydol also induced apoptosis of AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, as shown by accumulation of subG1 and apoptotic cell populations. Panaxydol triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by panaxydol was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, panaxydol suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-2, and increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and Bad. In addition, panaxydol inhibited the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK). Our results suggest that panaxydol is an anti-tumor compound that causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in various cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, G1 arrest, panaxydol

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119 Antiangiogenic and Pro-Apoptotic Properties of Shemamruthaa: An Herbal Preparation in Experimental Mammary Carcinoma-Bearing Rats and Breast Cancer Cell Line In vitro

Authors: Nandhakumar Elumalai, Purushothaman Ayyakannu, Sachidanandam T. Panchanatham

Abstract:

Background: Understanding the basic mechanisms and factors underlying the tumor growth and invasion has gained attention in recent times. The processes of angiogenesis and apoptosis are known to play a vital role in various stages of cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as one of the key regulators of tumor angiogenesis while MMPs are known for their exclusive ability to degrade ECM. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the pro apoptotic and anti angiogenic activity of the herbal formulation Shemamruthaa. The anticancer activity of Shemamruthaa was tested in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Results of MTT, trypan blue and flow cytometric analysis of apoptotis suggested that Shemamruthaa can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, in a concentration- and time dependent manner and induce apoptosis. With these results, we further evaluated the antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic activities of Shemamruthaa in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague Dawley rats. Flavono tumour was induced in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by gastric intubation of 25 mg DMBA in 1ml olive oil. After 90 days of induction period, the rats were orally administered with Shemamruthaa (400 mg/kg body wt) for 45 days. Treatment with the drug SM significantly modulated the expression of p53, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and VEGF by means of its anti angiogenic and protease inhibiting activity. Conclusion: Based on these results, it might be concluded that the formulation, Shemamruthaa, constituted of dried flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, fruits of Emblica officinalis, and honey has been found to exhibit pronounced antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. This enhanced anticancer effect of Shemamruthaa might be attributed to the synergistic action of polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, vitamin C, niacin, pyrogallol, hydroxymethylfurfural, trilinolein, and other compounds present in the formulation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Shemamruthaa holds potential to be developed as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against mammary carcinoma.

Keywords: Shemamruthaa, flavonoids, MCF-7 cell line, mammary cancer

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118 Effect of Z-VAD-FMK on in Vitro Viability of Dog Follicles

Authors: Leda Maria Costa Pereira, Maria Denise Lopes, Nucharin Songsasen

Abstract:

Mammalian ovaries contain thousands of follicles that eventually degenerate or die after culture in vitro. Caspase-3 is a key enzyme that regulating cell death. Our objective was to examine the influence of anti-apoptotic drug Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) on in vitro viability of dog follicles within the ovarian cortex. Ovaries were obtained from prepubertal (age, 2.5–6 months) and adult (age, 8 months to 2 years) bitches and ovarian cortical fragments were recovered. The cortices were then incubated on 1.5% (w/v) agarose gel blocks within a 24-wells culture plate (three cortical pieces/well) containing Minimum Essential Medium Eagle - Alpha Modification (Alpha MEM) supplemented with 4.2 µg/ml insulin, 3.8 µg/ml transferrin, 5 ng/ml selenium, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 µg/mL of penicillin G sodium, 100 µg/mL of streptomycin sulfate, 0.05 mM ascorbic acid, 10 ng/mL of FSH and 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 5% O2. The cortices were divided in six treatment groups: 1) 10 ng/mL EGF (EGF V0); 2) 10 ng/mL of EGF plus 1 mM Z-VAD-FMK (EGF V1); 3) 10 ng/mL of EGF and 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK (EGF V10); 4) 1 mM Z-VAD-FMK; 5) 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK and (6) no EGF and Z-VAD-FMK supplementation. Ovarian follicles within the tissues were processed for histology and assessed for follicle density, viability (based on morphology) and diameter immediately after collection (Control) or after 3 or 7 days of in vitro incubation. Comparison among fresh and culture treatment group was performed using ANOVA test. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in follicle density and viability among different culture treatments. However, there were differences in this parameter between culture days. Specifically, culturing tissue for 7 days resulted in significant reduction in follicle viability and density, regardless of treatments. We found a difference in size between culture days when these follicles were cultured using 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK or 10 ng/mL EGF (EGF V0). In sum, the finding demonstrated that Z-VAD-FMK at the dosage used in the present study does not provide the protective effect to ovarian tissue during in vitro culture. Future studies should explore different Z-VAD-FMK dosages or other anti-apoptotic agent, such as surviving in protecting ovarian follicles against cell death.

Keywords: anti apoptotic drug, bitches, follicles, Z-VAD-FMK

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117 The Balancing of the Parental Responsibilities and Right and the Best Interest of the Child within the Parent-Child Relationship

Authors: R. Prinsloo

Abstract:

Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to contribute towards the amelioration of Acute Renal Failure (ARF), but the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the main goal of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC in a cisplatin-induced rat model of ARF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for its renoprotective effect. To study the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC, ARF was induced in Wistar rats by an intra-peritoneal injection of cisplatin, and five days after administration, the rats were randomized into two groups and injected with either AFSC or normal saline intravenously. On day 8 and 12 after cisplatin injection, i.e., day 3 and day7 post-therapy respectively, the blood biochemical parameters, histopathological changes, apoptosis, and expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in renal tissues were studied in both groups of rats. Administration of AFSC in ARF rats resulted in improvement of renal function and attenuation of renal damage as reflected by significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, tubular cell apoptosis as assessed by Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins viz. PUMA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 as compared to saline-treated group. Furthermore, in the AFSC-treated group as compared to saline-treated group, there was a significant increase in the activation of autophagy as evident by increased expression of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin1 and phospho-AMPK levels with a concomitant decrease in phospho-p70S6K and p62 expression levels. To further confirm whether the protective effects of AFSC on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were dependent on autophagy, chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor was administered by the intra-peritoneal route. Chloroquine administration led to significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic effects of the AFSC therapy and further deterioration in the renal structure and function caused by cisplatin. Collectively, our results put forth that AFSC ameliorates cisplatin-induced ARF through induction of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effects of AFSC were blunted by chloroquine, highlighting that activation of autophagy is an important mechanism of action for the protective role of AFSC in cisplatin-induced renal injury.

Keywords: best interest of the child, children's rights, parent and child relationship, parental responsibilities and rights

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116 Human LACE1 Functions Pro-Apoptotic and Interacts with Mitochondrial YME1L Protease

Authors: Lukas Stiburek, Jana Cesnekova, Josef Houstek, Jiri Zeman

Abstract:

Cellular function depends on mitochondrial function and integrity that is therefore maintained by several classes of proteins possessing chaperone and/or proteolytic activities. In this work, we focused on characterization of LACE1 (lactation elevated 1) function in mitochondrial protein homeostasis maintenance. LACE1 is the human homologue of yeast mitochondrial Afg1 ATPase, a member of SEC18-NSF, PAS1, CDC48-VCP, TBP family. Yeast Afg1 was shown to be involved in mitochondrial complex IV biogenesis, and based on its similarity with CDC48 (p97/VCP) it was suggested to facilitate extraction of polytopic membrane proteins. Here we show that LACE1, which is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein, exists as part of three complexes of approx. 140, 400 and 500 kDa and is essential for maintenance of fused mitochondrial reticulum and lamellar cristae morphology. Using affinity purification of LACE1-FLAG expressed in LACE1 knockdown background we show that the protein physically interacts with mitochondrial inner membrane protease YME1L. We further show that human LACE1 exhibits significant pro-apoptotic activity and that the protein is required for normal function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, our work establishes LACE1 as a novel factor with the crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis maintenance.

Keywords: LACE1, mitochondria, apoptosis, protease

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115 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Ameliorate Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure through Autophagy Induction and Inhibition of Apoptosis

Authors: Soniya Nityanand, Ekta Minocha, Manali Jain, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi

Abstract:

Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to contribute towards the amelioration of Acute Renal Failure (ARF), but the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the main goal of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC in a cisplatin-induced rat model of ARF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for its renoprotective effect. To study the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC, ARF was induced in Wistar rats by an intra-peritoneal injection of cisplatin, and five days after administration, the rats were randomized into two groups and injected with either AFSC or normal saline intravenously. On day 8 and 12 after cisplatin injection, i.e., day 3 and day7 post-therapy respectively, the blood biochemical parameters, histopathological changes, apoptosis and expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in renal tissues were studied in both groups of rats. Administration of AFSC in ARF rats resulted in improvement of renal function and attenuation of renal damage as reflected by significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, tubular cell apoptosis as assessed by Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins viz. PUMA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 as compared to saline-treated group. Furthermore, in the AFSC-treated group as compared to saline-treated group, there was a significant increase in the activation of autophagy as evident by increased expression of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin1 and phospho-AMPK levels with a concomitant decrease in phospho-p70S6K and p62 expression levels. To further confirm whether the protective effects of AFSC on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were dependent on autophagy, chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor was administered by the intra-peritoneal route. Chloroquine administration led to significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic effects of the AFSC therapy and further deterioration in the renal structure and function caused by cisplatin. Collectively, our results put forth that AFSC ameliorates cisplatin-induced ARF through induction of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effects of AFSC were blunted by chloroquine, highlighting that activation of autophagy is an important mechanism of action for the protective role of AFSC in cisplatin-induced renal injury.

Keywords: amniotic fluid stem cells, acute renal failure, autophagy, cisplatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
114 The Physiological Effect of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Cancer Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Jeongyeon Park, Yeo Jun Yoon, Jiyoung Seo, In Seok Moon, Hae Jun Lee, Kiwon Song

Abstract:

Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. CAPP generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy. With an annular type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) CAPP-generating device combined with a helium (He) gas feeding system, we showed that CAPP selectively induced apoptosis in various cancer cells while it promoted proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ASC). The apoptotic effect of CAPP was highly selective toward p53-mutated cancer cells. The intracellular ROS was mainly responsible for apoptotic cell death in CAPP-treated cancer cells. CAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of CAPP as a potent cancer therapy. With the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells, CAPP stimulated proliferation of the ASC, a kind of mesenchymal stem cell that is capable of self-renewing and differentiating into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and neurons. CAPP-treated ASCs expressed the stem cell markers and differentiated into adipocytes as untreated ASCs. The increase of proliferation by CAPP in ASCs was offset by a NO scavenger but was not affected by ROS scavengers, suggesting that NO generated by CAPP is responsible for the activated proliferation in ASCs. Usually, cancer stem cells are reported to be resistant to known cancer therapies. When we applied CAPP of the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells to liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) that express CD133 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) cancer stem cell markers, apoptotic cell death was not examined. Apoptotic cell death of liver CSCs was induced by the CAPP generated from a device with an air-based flatten type DBD. An exposure of liver CSCs to CAPP decreased the viability of liver CSCs to a great extent, suggesting plasma be used as a promising anti-cancer treatment. To validate whether CAPP can be a promising anti-cancer treatment or an adjuvant modality to eliminate remnant tumor in cancer surgery of vestibular schwannoma, we applied CAPP to mouse schwannoma cell line SC4 Nf2 ‑/‑ and human schwannoma cell line HEI-193. A CAPP treatment leads to anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. We are currently studying the molecular mechanisms of differential physiological effect of CAPP; the proliferation of ASCs and apoptosis of various cancer cells and CSCs.

Keywords: cold atmospheric pressure plasma, apoptosis, proliferation, cancer cells, adult stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
113 Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of an Enantiomerically Pure β-Dipeptide Derivative through PI3K/Akt-Dependent and -Independent Pathways in Human Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells

Authors: Mei-Ling Chan, Jin-Ming Wu, Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev, Jih-Hwa Guh

Abstract:

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant disease in men. KUD983 is an enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative, which may have anti-cancer effects. In the present study, KUD983 exhibits powerful activity against hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 and DU145 cells. The IC50 values of KUD983 in PC-3 and DU145 cells are 0.56±0.07M and 0.50±0.04 M respectively. KUD983 induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis associated with the down-regulation of several related proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin E and Cdk4, and the de-phosphorylation of RB. The protein expressions of nuclear and total c-Myc protein, which was able to regulate the expression of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E, were significantly suppressed by KUD983. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling pathway that influences the energy metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells, and is associated with numerous other signaling pathways. The Western Blot data revealed that KUD983 inhibited PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathways. The transient transfection of constitutively active myristylated Akt (myr-Akt) cDNA significantly reversed KUD983-induced caspase activation but did not abolish the suppression of mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling cascade indicating the presence of both Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, KUD983-induced effect was collaborated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (e.g., Bcl-2, and Mcl-1) and IAP family members (e.g., survivin). Furthermore, KUD983 induced autophagic cell death using confocal microscopic examination, investigating the level of conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and flow cytometric detection of AVO-positive cells. Taken together, the data suggest that KUD983 is an anticancer β-dipeptide against HRPCs through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death. The suppression of signaling pathways mediated by c-Myc, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and the collaboration with down-regulation of Mcl-1 and survivin may indicate the mechanism of KUD983 against HRPC.

Keywords: β-dipeptide, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, mTOR, PI3K/Akt

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112 SOCS1 Inhibits MDR1 in Mammary Cell Carcinoma Reverses Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Debasish Pradhan, Shaktiprasad Pradhan, Rakesh Kumar Pradhan, Gitanjali Tripathy

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Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS1), a newly indentified antiapoptotic molecule is a downstream effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signalling pathway. The current study has uncovered that SOCS1 may have wide and imperative capacities, particularly because of its close correlation with malignant tumors. To investigate the impact of SOCS1 on MDR, we analyzed the expression of P-gp and SOCS1 by immunohistochemistry and found there was a positive correlation between them. At that point, we effectively interfered with RNA translation by the contamination of siRNA of SOCS1 into MCF7/ADM breast cancer cell lines through a lentivirus, and the expression of the target gene was significantly inhibited. After RNAi, the drug resistance was reduced altogether and the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp in MCF7/ADM cell lines demonstrated a significant decrease. Likewise, the expression of P53 protein increased in a statistically significant manner (p ≤ 0.01) after RNAi exposure. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis uncovers that cell cycle and anti-apoptotic enhancing capacity of cells changed after RNAi treatment. These outcomes proposed SOCS1 may take part in breast cancer MDR by managing MDR1 and P53 expression, changing cell cycle and enhancing the anti-apoptotic ability.

Keywords: breast cancer, multidrug resistance, SOCS1 gene, MDR1 gene, RNA interference

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
111 Cytotoxicity of Nano β–Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) on Human Osteoblast (hFOB1.19)

Authors: Jer Ping Ooi, Shah Rizal Bin Kasim, Nor Aini Saidin

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The objective of this study was to synthesize nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and assess its cytotoxic effects on human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) by using four cytotoxicity assays, namely, lactose dehydrogenase (LDHe), tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT), neutral red (NR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a calcium phosphate compound commonly used as an implant material. To date, bulk-sized β-TCP is reported to be readily tolerated by the osteogenic cells and body based on in vitro, in vivo experiments and clinical studies. However, to what extent of nano-sized β-TCP will react in models as compared to bulk β-TCP is yet to be investigated. Thus, in this project, the cells were treated with nano β-TCP powder within a range of concentrations from 0 to 1000 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 h. The cytotoxicity tests showed that loss of cell viability ( > 50%) was high for hFOB1.19 cells in all assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis of hFOB1.19 cells revealed that 50 μg/mL of the compound led to 30.5% of cells being apoptotic after 72 h of incubation, and the percentage was increased to 58.6% when the concentration was increased to 200 μg/mL. When the incubation time was increased from 24 to 72 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 17.3% to 58.6% when the hFOB1.19 were exposed with 200 μg/mL of nano β-TCP powder. Thus, both concentration and exposure duration affected the cytotoxicity effects of the nano β-TCP powder on hFOB1.19. We hypothesize that these cytotoxic effects on hFOB1.19 are related to the nano-scale size of the β-TCP.

Keywords: β-tricalcium phosphate, hFOB1.19, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, cytotoxicity

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110 Effect of Diindolylmethane on BBN-Induced Bladder Carcinogenesis in Rats

Authors: Sundaresan Sivapatham, B. Prabhu

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Cancer results from a multistage, multi-mechanism carcinogenesis process that involves mutagenic, cell death and epigenetic mechanisms, during the three distinguishable but closely allied stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Chemoprevention is promising in the realm of cancer prevention and it has been shown to reduce the risk of development of carcinoma in highly susceptible individuals such as those with known genetic mutations or high level of risk factors. The present study is aimed at the need of early detection of bladder cancer in order to improve performance in the treatment of this disease. Consumption of certain natural products like DIM is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence in humans. The study showed the protective effects of Diindolylmethane in N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine treated rats. Results of the study had shown the changes in the tumor markers, biomarkers and histopathological alterations in experimental rats when compared to control rats. The protective effects of DIM were shown from the results of cell proliferation, apoptotic markers and histopathological findings when compared with experimental control animals. Hence, our results speculate that the tumor markers, apoptotic markers, histopathological changes and cell proliferation index measured as PCNA serves as an indicator suggestive of protective effects of DIM in BBN induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Keywords: bladder cancer, N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, diindolylmethane, histopathology

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109 Amelioration of Over-Expression of bax, Nrf2 and NFК–β in Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide-Intoxicated Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry

Abstract:

The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products has aroused global concern regarding their fate in biological systems resulting in demand for parallel risk assessment. The objective of this study is investigating either the effect of individual or combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on amelioration of some biochemical indices of nano sized titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) induced metabolic disorders in mice liver. TiO2-NPS was administered in an oral dose of 150 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days followed by oral daily doses of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum level of ALT and AST, hepatic inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover, mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation-2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down-regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion, idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with a variable degree with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: idebenone, carnosine, vitamin E, TiO2 NPS, caspase-3, NrF2, NF-KB

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108 Ellagic Acid Enhanced Apoptotic Radiosensitivity via G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and γ-H2AX Foci Formation in HeLa Cells in vitro

Authors: V. R. Ahire, A. Kumar, B. N. Pandey, K. P. Mishra, G. R. Kulkarni

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Radiation therapy is an effective vital strategy used globally in the treatment of cervical cancer. However, radiation efficacy principally depends on the radiosensitivity of the tumor, and not all patient exhibit significant response to irradiation. A radiosensitive tumor is easier to cure than a radioresistant tumor which later advances to local recurrence and metastasis. Herbal polyphenols are gaining attention for exhibiting radiosensitization through various signaling. Current work focuses to study the radiosensitization effect of ellagic acid (EA), on HeLa cells. EA intermediated radiosensitization of HeLa cells was due to the induction γ-H2AX foci formation, G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and loss of reproductive potential, growth inhibition, drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential and protein expression studies that eventually induced apoptosis. Irradiation of HeLa in presence of EA (10 μM) to doses of 2 and 4 Gy γ-radiation produced marked tumor cytotoxicity. EA also demonstrated radio-protective effect on normal cell, NIH3T3 and aided recovery from the radiation damage. Our results advocate EA to be an effective adjuvant for improving cancer radiotherapy as it displays striking tumor cytotoxicity and reduced normal cell damage instigated by irradiation.

Keywords: apoptotic radiosensitivity, ellagic acid, mitochondrial potential, cell-cycle arrest

Procedia PDF Downloads 273