Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: angiogenesis

72 The Investigation of the Active Constituents, Danshen for Angiogenesis

Authors: Liang Zhou, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu

Abstract:

Danshen can induce the angiogenesis in advanced ischemic heart disease while inhibiting the angiogenesis in cancer. Additionally, Danshen mainly contains two groups of ingredients: the hydrophilic phenolic acids (danshensu, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B), and the lipophilic tanshinones (dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone II A, and cryptotanshinone). The lipophilic tanshinones reduced the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of HUVECs in dose-dependent manner, but cannot perform in others. Conversely, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B had the opposite effect. Danshensu inhibited the VEGF- and bFGF-induced migration of HUVECs, and others were not. Most of them interrupted the forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs, except the danshensu and caffeic acid. Oppositely, caffeic acid enhanced the ability of forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs. Ultimately, the lipophilic tanshinones, danshensu and salvianolic acid B inhibited the angiogenesis, whereas the caffeic acid induced the angiogenesis. These data provide useful information for the classification of ingredients of Danshen for angiogenesis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, Danshen, HUVECs, ingredients

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71 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng

Abstract:

Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, curcumin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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70 The MSC-MCF-7 Duet Playing Tumor Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis Onto the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Serban Comsa, Amalia-Raluca Ceausu, Roxana Popescu, Simona Sarb, Anca-Maria Cimpean, Marius Raica

Abstract:

Background/Aim: The human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a versatile cell population, able to modulate the tumor microenvironment Our aim was to recreate an open scene for the in vivo interaction between hMSC and the MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7), in order to enlighten the intimate involvement of hMSC in tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Materials and Methods: hMSC and MCF-7 were seeded onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and incubated for seven days. Consecutively, the morphology and the immunohistochemical profile of CAM were assessed. Results: Following this complex interaction, MCF-7 acquired a more aggressive phenotype, hMSC switched to a vascular precursor phenotype whileCAM underwent a major reset to an earlier stage, with hotspots of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis. Conclusion: The hallmark of this study was the establishment of a veritable in vivo experimental model of MSC involvement in tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, allowing further analysis in the field.

Keywords: angiogenesis, chorioallantoic membrane, MCF-7, mesenchymal stem cells, vasculogenesis

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69 Antiangiogenic Potential of Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract Observed on Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Ľudmila Ballová, Slavomír Kurhajec, Eva Petrovová, Jarmila Eftimová

Abstract:

Angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature, plays an important role in pathologic processes such as the growth and metastasis of tumours. Tumours cannot grow beyond a few millimetres without blood supply from the newly formed blood vessels from the host tissue, a process called tumour-induced angiogenesis. The successful research of antiangiogenic treatment of cancer has focused on nutraceuticals with angiogenesis-modulating properties. Berberine, as a major active component of the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., has shown antitumour activity by intervening into different steps of carcinogenesis. The influence of ethanolic extract of Phellodendron amurese bark on the angiogenesis was tested in vivo on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The irritancy of the CAM after the application of the crude bark extract dissolved in normal saline (10 mg/mL) was investigated on embryonic day 7. No significant signs of the irritancy, such as vasoconstriction, hyperaemia, haemorrhage or coagulation were observed which indicates the harmless character of the extract. A significant reduction in vessel sprouting and higher percentage of avascular zone was observed in the case of CAM treated with the extract in comparison with non-treated CAM (control), which is a proof of the antiangiogenic potential of the extract. These results could contribute to the development of novel drugs for the treatment of cancer or other diseases, in which angiogenesis plays a significant role.

Keywords: angiogenesis, berberine, chorioallantoic membrane, irritancy, phellodendron amurense

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68 A Mathematical Analysis of a Model in Capillary Formation: The Roles of Endothelial, Pericyte and Macrophages in the Initiation of Angiogenesis

Authors: Serdal Pamuk, Irem Cay

Abstract:

Our model is based on the theory of reinforced random walks coupled with Michealis-Menten mechanisms which view endothelial cell receptors as the catalysts for transforming both tumor and macrophage derived tumor angiogenesis factor (TAF) into proteolytic enzyme which in turn degrade the basal lamina. The model consists of two main parts. First part has seven differential equations (DE’s) in one space dimension over the capillary, whereas the second part has the same number of DE’s in two space dimensions in the extra cellular matrix (ECM). We connect these two parts via some boundary conditions to move the cells into the ECM in order to initiate capillary formation. But, when does this movement begin? To address this question we estimate the thresholds that activate the transport equations in the capillary. We do this by using steady-state analysis of TAF equation under some assumptions. Once these equations are activated endothelial, pericyte and macrophage cells begin to move into the ECM for the initiation of angiogenesis. We do believe that our results play an important role for the mechanisms of cell migration which are crucial for tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we estimate the long time tendency of these three cells, and find that they tend to the transition probability functions as time evolves. We provide our numerical solutions which are in good agreement with our theoretical results.

Keywords: angiogenesis, capillary formation, mathematical analysis, steady-state, transition probability function

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67 Angiogenesis and Blood Flow: The Role of Blood Flow in Proliferation and Migration of Endothelial Cells

Authors: Hossein Bazmara, Kaamran Raahemifar, Mostafa Sefidgar, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

Angiogenesis is formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels. Due to flow of blood in vessels, during angiogenesis, blood flow plays an important role in regulating the angiogenesis process. Multiple mathematical models of angiogenesis have been proposed to simulate the formation of the complicated network of capillaries around a tumor. In this work, a multi-scale model of angiogenesis is developed to show the effect of blood flow on capillaries and network formation. This model spans multiple temporal and spatial scales, i.e. intracellular (molecular), cellular, and extracellular (tissue) scales. In intracellular or molecular scale, the signaling cascade of endothelial cells is obtained. Two main stages in development of a vessel are considered. In the first stage, single sprouts are extended toward the tumor. In this stage, the main regulator of endothelial cells behavior is the signals from extracellular matrix. After anastomosis and formation of closed loops, blood flow starts in the capillaries. In this stage, blood flow induced signals regulate endothelial cells behaviors. In cellular scale, growth and migration of endothelial cells is modeled with a discrete lattice Monte Carlo method called cellular Pott's model (CPM). In extracellular (tissue) scale, diffusion of tumor angiogenic factors in the extracellular matrix, formation of closed loops (anastomosis), and shear stress induced by blood flow is considered. The model is able to simulate the formation of a closed loop and its extension. The results are validated against experimental data. The results show that, without blood flow, the capillaries are not able to maintain their integrity.

Keywords: angiogenesis, endothelial cells, multi-scale model, cellular Pott's model, signaling cascade

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66 The Angiogenic Activity of α-Mangostin in the Development of Zebrafish Embryo In Vivo

Authors: Titis Indah Adi Rahayu

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Angiogenesis is the process of generating new capillary from pre-existing blood vessels. VEGFA is a major regulator in angiogenesis that binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1/KDR) which regulate pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Disruption of VEGFA and VEGFR2 regulation lead to many diseases. The study of α-Mangostin (derivate of xanthone) as anti-oxidant and anti inflammation has been explored recently and both of them have relation to vasculature however the effect of α-Mangostin in blood vessel formation in healthy tissue in vivo has not been studied. Zebrafish is a powerful model in studying angiogenesis and shared many advantages that is a viable whole animal model for screening small molecules that affect blood vessel formation. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate angiogenic activity of α-Mangostin in healthy tissue in vivo in zebrafish embryo in relation of patterning blood vessel. Blood vessel patterning is highly characteristic in the developing of zebrafish embryo and the subintestinal vessel (SIV) can be stained and visualized microscopically as a primary screen for α-Mangostin that effect angiogenesis. The zebrafish embryos are divided into 2 groups. Group one consists of the zebrafish embryos at 1 dpf for 4 days which are tested to α-Mangostin in several concentration 2 µM, 4 µM, 6 µM, 8 µM and 10 µM whereas in group two the zebrafish larva at 4 dpf are exposed to α-Mangostin 1,75 µM, 2,3 µM, 2,9 µM, 3,8 µM dan 5 µM for 2 days. DMSO is served as a control for each group. The level expression of vegfa and vegfr2 are observed quantitatively using real time q-PCR and patterning of SIV are then analized via alkaline phospatase staining. Result shows that the level expression of vegfa and vegfr2 is repressed quantitatively as shown in real time q-PCR in the group of 1-4 days of α-Mangostin exposure where it is increased in the group of 4-6 days of α-Mangostin exposure. The result is then compared to alkaline phospatase staining of SIV using stereo microscope. It indicates that α-Mangostin does not disturb the patterning of SIV formation in zebrafish.

Keywords: angiogenesis, Danio rerio, α-Mangostin, SIV, vegfa, vegfr2

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65 In vitro and in vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii

Authors: Venoos Iman, Suzita Mohd Noor, Syam Mohan, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin

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Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid was isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii and its structure and purity was identified by HPLC and LC-MS. Here we report that Girinimbine strongly inhibit angiogenesis activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT result showed that girinimbine inhibits cell proliferation of the HUVECS cell line in vitro. Result of endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation and wound healing assays also demonstrated significant time and does dependent inhibition by girinimbine. Moreover, girinibine mediates its anti-angiogenic activity through up- and down-regulation of angiogenic and anti-aniogenic proteins. Furthermore, anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was evidenced in vivo on zebrafish model. Girinimbine inhibited neo-vessels formation in zebrafish embryos during 24 hours exposure time. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis and strongly suggest that it might be a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

Keywords: anti-angiogenic, carbazole alkaloid, girinimbine, zebrafish

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64 The Extent of Proliferation, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis at the Site of Injury Determine the Course of Healing Either as Scar Free or as Scarred One in the Appendages of Lizard

Authors: Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Suresh Balakrishnan

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It has been observed that in lizards wound can be healed by either a scar free mechanism or by scarring. The animal model used to study both these healing processes was Northern House Gecko. In lizard, the tail when amputated heals by scar free mechanism which allows it to regenerate, the same is not seen when the limb is amputated. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis are the main events which succeed an injury. We observed that proliferation of the cells beneath the wound epidermis was much higher in case of wound healing in tail. This could be because after the wound gets covered by the epithelium, it enters in to a cross-talk with the underlying mesenchyme to recruit a pool of blastemal cells which proliferate and later differentiate to form the lost part through epimorphic regeneration. This was substantiated by mRNA expression levels of various FGFs which facilitate the cross-talk and also by PCNA which is a marker for proliferation. Western blot result reaffirms the same notion. However, in case of the limb, the rate of apoptosis was more than proliferation as there are a lot of debris that needs to be removed. We came to this conclusion as we observed that p53 the apoptotic gene was highly upregulated in case of the scarred tissue. Further, we confirmed this result by checking the anti-apoptotic gene bcl2 and found it to be significantly down-regulated. As we noticed heightened proliferation in the case of scar-free wound healing in tail, angiogenesis was targeted for the study. This is because, when the cells are proliferating they require constant supply of blood and hence neo-vascularization is inevitable. It was observed that the marker of angiogenesis, VEGF, was expressed more during wound healing as compared to the resting stage of tail. Moreover, a high up-regulation was seen in KDR, a receptor of VEGF. Thus, this study reveals how proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a key role in the scar-free as well as scarred wound healing.

Keywords: epimorphic regeneration, injury, northern house gecko, wound healing

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63 Angiomotin Regulates Integrin Beta 1-Mediated Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis

Authors: Yuanyuan Zhang, Yujuan Zheng, Giuseppina Barutello, Sumako Kameishi, Kungchun Chiu, Katharina Hennig, Martial Balland, Federica Cavallo, Lars Holmgren

Abstract:

Angiogenesis describes that new blood vessels migrate from pre-existing ones to form 3D lumenized structure and remodeling. During directional migration toward the gradient of pro-angiogenic factors, the endothelial cells, especially the tip cells need filopodia to sense the environment and exert the pulling force. Of particular interest are the integrin proteins, which play an essential role in focal adhesion in the connection between migrating cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding how these biomechanical complexes orchestrate intrinsic and extrinsic forces is important for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving angiogenesis. We have previously identified Angiomotin (Amot), a member of Amot scaffold protein family, as a promoter for endothelial cell migration in vitro and zebrafish models. Hence, we established inducible endothelial-specific Amot knock-out mice to study normal retinal angiogenesis as well as tumor angiogenesis. We found that the migration ratio of the blood vessel network to the edge was significantly decreased in Amotec- retinas at postnatal day 6 (P6). While almost all the Amot defect tip cells lost migration advantages at P7. In consistence with the dramatic morphology defect of tip cells, there was a non-autonomous defect in astrocytes, as well as the disorganized fibronectin expression pattern correspondingly in migration front. Furthermore, the growth of transplanted LLC tumor was inhibited in Amot knockout mice due to fewer vasculature involved. By using MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model, there was a significantly longer period before tumors arised when Amot was specifically knocked out in blood vessels. In vitro evidence showed that Amot binded to beta-actin, Integrin beta 1 (ITGB1), Fibronectin, FAK, Vinculin, major focal adhesion molecules, and ITGB1 and stress fibers were distinctly induced by Amot transfection. Via traction force microscopy, the total energy (force indicater) was found significantly decreased in Amot knockdown cells. Taken together, we propose that Amot is a novel partner of the ITGB1/Fibronectin protein complex at focal adhesion and required for exerting force transition between endothelial cell and extracellular matrix.

Keywords: angiogenesis, angiomotin, endothelial cell migration, focal adhesion, integrin beta 1

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62 Anti-Angiogenic Effects of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snake Crude Venom and Obtustatin

Authors: Narine Ghazaryan, Joana Catarina Macedo, Sara Vaz, Naira Ayvazyan, Elsa Logarinho

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Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (MLO) is a poisonous snake in Armenia. Obtustatin represents the shortest known monomeric disintegrin, isolated from the snake venom of MLO, and is known to specifically inhibit α1β1 integrin. Its oncostatic effect is due to the inhibition of angiogenesis, which likely arises from α1β1 integrin inhibition in the endothelial cells. To explore the therapeutic potential of the MLO snake venom and obtustatin, we studied activity of obtustatin and MLO venom in vitro, by testing their efficacy in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-D) and in vivo, using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Our in vitro results showed that obtustatin in comparison with MLO venom did not exhibit cytotoxic activity in HMVEC-D cells in comparison to MLO venom. But in vivo results have shown that 4µg /embryo (90 µM) of obtustatin inhibited angiogenesis induced by FGF2 by 17% while MLO snake venom induced 22% reduction of the angiogenic index. The concentration of obtustatin in the crude MLO venom was 0.3 nM, which is 300.000 times less than the concentration of the obtustatin itself. Given this enormous difference in concentration, it is likely that some components of the crude venom contribute to the observed anti-angiogenic effect. Hypotheses will be ascertained to justify this action: components in the MLO venom may increase obtustatin efficacy or have independent but synergic anti-angiogenic activities.

Keywords: angiogenesis, alpa1 beta 1 integrin, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, obtustatin

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61 Construction of a Fusion Gene Carrying E10A and K5 with 2A Peptide-Linked by Using Overlap Extension PCR

Authors: Tiancheng Lan

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E10A is a kind of replication-defective adenovirus which carries the human endostatin gene to inhibit the growth of tumors. Kringle 5(K5) has almost the same function as angiostatin to also inhibit the growth of tumors since they are all the byproduct of the proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen. Tumor size increasing can be suppressed because both of the endostatin and K5 can restrain the angiogenesis process. Therefore, in order to improve the treatment effect on tumor, 2A peptide is used to construct a fusion gene carrying both E10A and K5. Using 2A peptide is an ideal strategy when a fusion gene is expressed because it can avoid many problems during the expression of more than one kind of protein. The overlap extension PCR is also used to connect 2A peptide with E10A and K5. The final construction of fusion gene E10A-2A-K5 can provide a possible new method of the anti-angiogenesis treatment with a better expression performance.

Keywords: E10A, Kringle 5, 2A peptide, overlap extension PCR

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60 Investigating Anti-Tumourigenic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Resveratrol in Breast Carcinogenesis Using in-Silico Algorithms

Authors: Asma Zaib, Saeed Khan, Ayaz Ahmed Noonari, Sehrish Bint-e-Mohsin

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and is estimated that more than 450,000 deaths are reported each year. It accounts for about 14% of all female cancer deaths. Angiogenesis plays an essential role in Breast cancer development, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer predominantly begins in luminal epithelial cells lining the normal breast ducts. Breast carcinoma likely requires coordinated efforts of both increased proliferation and increased motility to progress to metastatic stages.Resveratrol: a natural stilbenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects that inhibits proliferation of variety of human cancer cell lines, including breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers.The objective of this study is:To investigate anti-neoangiogenesis effects of Resveratrol in breast cancer and to analyze inhibitory effects of resveratrol on aromatase, Erα, HER2/neu, and VEGFR.Docking is the computational determination of binding affinity between molecule (protein structure and ligand).We performed molecular docking using Swiss-Dock and to determine docking effects of (1) Resveratrol with Aromatase, (2) Resveratrol with ERα (3) Resveratrol with HER2/neu and (4) Resveratrol with VEGFR2.Docking results of resveratrol determined inhibitory effects on aromatase with binding energy of -7.28 kcal/mol which shows anticancerous effects on estrogen dependent breast tumors. Resveratrol also show inhibitory effects on ERα and HER2/new with binging energy -8.02, and -6.74 respectively; which revealed anti-cytoproliferative effects upon breast cancer. On the other hand resveratrol v/s VEGFR showed potential inhibitory effects on neo-angiogenesis with binding energy -7.68 kcal/mol, angiogenesis is the important phenomenon that promote tumor development and metastasis. Resveratrol is an anti-breast cancer agent conformed by in silico studies, it has been identified that resveratrol can inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation by acting as competitive inhibitor of aromatase, ERα and HER2 neo, while neo-angiogemesis is restricted by binding to VEGFR which authenticates the anti-carcinogenic effects of resveratrol against breast cancer.

Keywords: angiogenesis, anti-cytoproliferative, molecular docking, resveratrol

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59 Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes from Laggera alata Inhibiting Angiogenesis

Authors: Liang Ning, Chung Hau Yin

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Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel development. It has been recognized as a therapeutic target for blocking cancer growth four decades ago. Vascular sprouting is initiated by pro-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenic initiation, many patients with cancer or ocular neovascularization have been benefited from anti-VEGF therapy. Emerging approaches impacting in the later stages of vessel remodeling and maturation are expected to improve clinical efficacy. TIE receptor as well as the corresponding angiopoietin ligands, were identified as another endothelial cell specific receptor tyrosine kinase signaling system. Much efforts were made to reduce the activity of angiopoietin-TIE receptor axis. Two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes from laggera alata, namely, 15-dihydrocostic acid and ilicic acid were found with strong anti-angiogenic properties in zebrafish model. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of VEGFR2 and TIE2 pathway related genes were down-regulated in the sesquiterpenes treated zebrafish embryos. Besides, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the sesquiterpenes have the ability to inhibit VEGF-induced HUVECs proliferation and migration at non-toxic concentration. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 induced TIE2 phosphorylation was inhibited by the sesquiterpenes, the inhibitory effect was detected in angiopoietin-1 induced HUVECs proliferation as well. Thus, we hypothesized the anti-angiogenic activity of the compounds may via the inhibition of VEGF and TIE2 related pathways. How the compounds come into play as the pathways inhibitors need to be evaluated in the future.

Keywords: Laggera alata, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, anti-angiogenesis, VEGF, angiopoietin, TIE2

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58 The Effect of Different Exercise Intensities on Plasma Endostatin in Healthy Volunteers

Authors: Inayat Shah, Muhammad Omar Malik, Ghareeb Alshuwaier, Ronald H. Baxendale

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Background: The balance between angiogenesis and angiostasis is important in growth and developmental processes in the body. Angiogenic and angiostatic mediators control this balance. Endostatin is one of the prominent angiostatic mediators. The marked angiostatic effect of endostatin includes inhibiting endothelial cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Physical activity decreases the risk and development of many angiogenesis related health problems including atherosclerosis and numerous cancers. Physiological influences of different physical activities on plasma endostatin concentration are controversial and not completely clear. Moreover, correlation of physical characteristics and metabolic predictors during physical activity on circulating endostatin is indistinct and poorly speculated. The study aimed to determine the effects of mild, moderate and vigorous exercise on the concentration of endostatin in plasma. Methodology: 22 participants, 16 males (age = 30.6 ± 7.8 years) and 6 females (age = 26.5 ± 5 years) were recruited. Weekly session of different intensities exercise based on the predicted maximum heart of the participants [60%(low), 70% (moderate) and 80% (vigorous)] were carried out. The duration and work rate for each participant was determined through sub-maximal exercise. Standardization of the session was done on total energy expenditure of the participants per session. One pre exercise and two post exercise samples were taken at intervals of 10 and 60 minutes. Results: Pre-exercise mean endostatin was 101 ± 20 ng/dl. Low intensity exercise insignificantly decreased the endostatin concentration in plasma at 10 and 60 minutes 97 ± 20 ng/dl (p= 0.5), 98 ± 23 ng/dl (p= 0.8)). However, moderate (p= 0.022, 0.004) and vigorous intensities (p ≤ 0.001, 0.02) increased the endostatin concentrations significantly at both 10 and 60 minutes intervals respectively. The effects were not significantly influenced by gender, exercise mode (walking vs. running), components of exercise (HR, Speed, Gradients, distance, duration) or metabolism during exercise (VO₂ max, VCO₂, RER, energy expenditure, rate of carbohydrate or fats oxidation). Conclusion: Low intensity exercises did not influence endostatin concentration. However, moderate to high intensity exercises significantly increase endostatin concentration and may have potential benefits.

Keywords: angiogenesis, exercise, endostatin, physical activity

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57 Positive Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Promotion of Angiogenesis Markers in the Striatum of Parkinsonian Rats

Authors: S. A. Hashemvarzi, A. Heidarianpour, Z. Fallahmohammadi, M. Pourghasem, M. Kaviani

Abstract:

Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative in the central nervous system characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in loss of dopamine release in the striatum. Non-drug treatment options such as Stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups: Normal (N), Sham (S), Parkinson’s (P), Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP), Exercised Parkinson’s (EP) and Stem cells transplanted + Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP). To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats with 6-8 weeks old. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells in 5 microliter of medium were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on the treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels. Results: VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP), especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The findings implicate that the BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats.

Keywords: stem cells, treadmill training, neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

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56 Topical Negative Pressure for Autologous Fat Grafting in Breast Augmentation

Authors: Mohamed Eftal Bin Mohamed Ebrahim, Alexander Varey

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Aim: Topical negative pressure has been shown to enhance angiogenesis during wound healing, both for open and closed wounds. Since angiogenesis is a key requirement for successful fat grafting, there may be a role for topical negative pressure as a means of enhancing the take rate during autologous fat grafting to breasts. Here we present a systematic review of the literature on this topic. Methods: Ovid and Embase were utilized, with searches ranging between 1960 – 2019. Terms (“Liposculpting” OR “Fat grafting” OR “Lipofilling” OR “Lipograft” OR “Fat transfer”) AND (“Negative Pressure” OR “Brava” OR “Kiwi”) AND (“Breast”) were merged as keywords. Inclusion criteria were females, autologous fat graft to breast with topical negative pressure prior to the procedure. Studies were excluded if there was no primary endpoint or non-original article. Results: Upon reviewing 219 articles, 2 met inclusion criteria. A total of 565 and 46 breasts in each article were treated respectively using the negative pressure device BRAVA®, with each cohort having different pre-and post-operative pressure settings. Khouri et al. cohort had higher graft survival (79%) compared to Del Vecchio et al. cohort (64%); however, the latter had fewer complications compared to Khouri’s cohort, e.g., fat necrosis, pneumothorax and infection. Conclusion: There is limited evidence regarding the use of topical negative pressure for fat grafting to the breasts. However, in the two studies published, the reported rates of success are high, suggesting there may be a benefit. Consequently, a randomized controlled trial on this area is required.

Keywords: fat grafting, lipograft, negative pressure, breast, breast augmentation, brava

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55 Shark Cartilage Modulate IL-23/IL-17 Axis by Increasing IFN-γ and Decreasing IL-4 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zareia, Hassan ZMB, Darush Moslemic, Amrollah Mostafa-Zaded

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Introduction: Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, at least, in vitro. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the immune-effectiveness on imbalance between IL-23/IL-17 axis, as an inflammatory pathway and TGF/Foxp3 T regulatory as a inhibitory pathway of commercial shark cartilage that is available as a non-common dietary supplement in IRAN. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-4, and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: The simultaneously presented up-regulation IL-17A indicated, at least cytokine level without changing in TGF-β amount or CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T regulatory cells, that there are not a direct correlation between IL-23/IL-17 axis and Treg/TGF-β pathway in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage, but IL-23 was not expressed differentially in this group. So, accompany these changes, an imbalance between Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) evaluated in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we propose that shark cartilage, by reducing IL-4, decreasing IL-17 a central cytokine in angiogenesis and increasing γ-IFN amplify anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4+CD25+Foxp3high T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage, gastric cancer

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54 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Metastatic Effect of Aqueous Fraction from Euchelus Asper Methanolic Extract

Authors: Sweta Agrawal, Sachin Chaugule, Gargi Rane, Shashank More, Madhavi Indap

Abstract:

Angiogenesis and metastasis are two of the most important hallmarks of cancer. Hence, most of the cancer therapies nowadays are multi-targeted so as to reduce resistance and have better efficacy. As synthetic molecules arise with a burden of their toxicities and side-effects, more and more research is being focussed on exploiting the vast natural resources of drugs, in the form of plants and animals. Although, the idea of using marine organisms as a source of pharmaceuticals is not new, the pace at which marine drugs are being discovered, has definitely up surged! In the present study, we have assessed the anti-angiogenic and in vitro anti-metastatic activity of aqueous fraction from the extract of marine gastropod Euchelus asper. The soft body of Euchelus Asper was extracted with methanol and named EAME. Partition chromatography of EAME gave three fractions EAME I, II and III. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence of proteins in EAME III. Preliminary analysis had revealed the anti-angiogenic activity was exhibited by EAME III out of the three fractions. Hereafter, EAME III (concentration 25µg/ml-400µg/ml) was tested on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model for the detailed analysis of its potential anti-angiogenic effect. In vitro testing of the fraction (concentration 0.25µg/ml - 1µg/ml), involved cytotoxicity by SRB assay, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and anti-proliferative effect by scratch wound healing assay on A549 lung carcinoma cells. Apart from this, a portion of treated CAM as well as conditioned medium from treated A549 were subjected to gelatin zymography for assessment of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Our results revealed that EAME III exhibited significant anti-angiogenic activity on CAM which was also supported by histological observations. During histological studies of CAM, it was found that EAME III caused reduction in angiogenesis by altering the extracellular matrix of the CAM membrane. In vitro analysis disclosed that EAME III exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect on A549 cells and its effect was not dose-dependent. The results of flow cytometry confirmed that EAME III caused cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line as almost all of the treated cells were found in G1 phase. Further, the migration and proliferation of A549 was significantly reduced by EAME III as observed from the scratch wound assay. Moreover, Gelatin zymography analysis revealed that EAME III caused suppression of MMP-2 in CAM membrane and reduced MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression in A549 cells. This verified that the anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects of EAME III were correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 and -9. To conclude, EAME III shows dual anti-tumour action by reducing angiogenesis and exerting anti-metastatic effect on lung cancer cells, thus it has the potential to be used as an anti-cancer agent against lung carcinoma.

Keywords: angiogenesis, anti-cancer, marine drugs, matrix metalloproteinases

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53 Assessment of the Association between Serum Thrombospondin-1 Levels at the Time of Admission and the Severity of Neurological Deficit in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

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Introduction: Despite improvements in stroke management, it remains the leading cause of disability worldwide. It has been suggested that enhancing brain angiogenesis after stroke will improve stroke outcome. Promoting post stroke angiogenesis requires the upregulation of angiogenic factors with a simultaneous reduction of anti-angiogenic factors. Thrombospondin-1 is the main anti-angiogenic protein in the living cells. Counterintuitively, it has been shown that animals with Thrombospondin-1 knockdown will have better stroke outcome. Data about the clinical significance of Thrombspondin-1 levels at the time of admission is still lacking. The objective of this work is to assess the association between serum Thrombospondin-1 levels measured at the time of admission and baseline neurologic severity after stroke. Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) with ischemic stroke at the time of admission and serum Thrombopsondin-1 levels were measured using ELISA. Patients neurologic severity was evaluated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Results: Samples from 50 patients admitted between January 2016 and December 2016 were collected. The median age of participants was 68 years and the median NIHSS was 3. Multinomial regression identified serum Thrombospondin-1 as an independent predictor of stroke outcome (p=0.003). Baseline serum Thrombsopondin-1 was negatively associated with NIHSS at the time of admission (spearman rho correlation coefficient=0.272, p=0.032). Conclusion: Serum Thrombospondin-1 at the time of admission may be a useful marker of stroke severity that predicts more severe neurologic severity.

Keywords: thrombospondin, stroke, neuroprotection, biomarkers

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52 The Effect of Endurance Training and Ginseng Consumption on VEGF and PDGF Plasma in Untrained Females

Authors: Barari Alireza, Seyed Hossein Alavi, Ghasemi Mohamad

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Objectives: VEGF and PDGF play central role in the processes of angiogenesis and vascular changes in most body tissues. The aim of the present study to determine effect of endurance training with ginseng on VEGF and PDGF levels is untrained female. Methods: Statistic society of this study was untraining male students of Azad University of Sari Branch in year of 2012-2013. Forty young untrained female (age 21.3 ± 0.90 year, height162.08±8.07cm , body weight 65.45± 7.6 kg and body mass index [BMI] 23.23 ± 2.64 kg/m2) were randomly divided into four groups: control(C), endurance(E), ginseng (G), endurance and ginseng (EG). Participants in training groups performed endurance training for 6 weeks and three sessions per week with 60-80% HRmax. Subjects perform endurance training and consumed ginseng for six weeks. Blood samples from the subjects before and after the test was performed. One wey ANOVA were used to test for differences between group and pair T-test were used for differences within groups. In all cases, P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A higher and significant Vo2 max was found in E and EG groups, while no change in other groups. BMI and Fat% were significantly decreased in EG group. No significant difference was found between and within groups in VEGF level. A higher and significant PDGF was only in endurance group, while there was significant reduction observed in G and EG groups. One-way ANOVA for PDGF showed significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicated that ginseng likely could through reducing of angiogenesis factors Such as VEGF and PDGF and reduced activity of tumor necrosis factor and inhibited inflammatory process.

Keywords: endurance, ginseng, VEGF, PDGF, untrained female

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51 Modulation of Tamoxifen-Induced Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 3-Bromopyruvate

Authors: Yasmin M. Attia, Hanan S. El-Abhar, Mahmoud M. Al Marzabani, Samia A. Shouman

Abstract:

Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is the most commonly used hormone therapy for the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. Although it significantly decreases the tumor recurrence rate and provides an overall benefit, as much as 20–30% of women still relapse during or after long-term therapy. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors and cell lines. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the combined effect of (TAM) and (3-BP) in breast cancer cells and to explore their molecular interaction via assessment of apoptotic, angiogenic, and metastatic markers. Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity study was carried out for both compounds to determine the combination regimen producing a synergistic effect and mechanistic pathways were studied using RT-PCR and western techniques. Moreover, the anti-oncolytic and anti-angiogenic potentials were assessed in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). Results: The combined treatment significantly increased the expressions and protein levels of caspase 7, 9, and 3 and decreased of angiogenic markers VEGF, HIF-1α, and HK2 compared to cells treated with either drug individually. However, there were no significant changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels. Interestingly, the in vivo results supported the in vitro findings; there was a decrease in the tumor volume and VEFG using immunohistochemistry in the combination-treated groups compared to either TAM or 3-BP treated one. Conclusion: 3-BP synergizes the cytotoxic effect of TAM by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis which makes this combination a promising regimen to be applied clinically.

Keywords: tamoxifen, 3-bromopyruvate, breast cancer, cytotoxicity, angiogenesis

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50 The Influence of Aerobic Physical Exercise with Different Frequency to Concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Brain Tissue of Wistar Rat

Authors: Rostika Flora, Muhammad Zulkarnain, Syokumawena

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Background: Aerobic physical exercises are recommended to keep body fit and healthy although physical exercises themselves can increase body metabolism and oxygen and can lead into tissue hypoxia. Oxygen pressure can serve as Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulator. Hypoxia increases gene expression of VEGF through ascendant regulation of HIF-1. VEGF is involved in regulating angiogenesis process. Aerobic physical exercises can increase the concentration of VEGF in brain and enables angiogenesis process. We have investigated the influence of aerobic physical exercise to the VGEF concentration of wistar rat’s brain. Methods: This was experimental study using post test only control group design. Independent t-test was used as statistical test. The samples were twenty four wistar rat (Rattus Norvegicus) which were divided into four groups: group P1 (control group), group P2 (treatment group with once-a-week exercise), group P3 (treatment group with three time-a-week exercise), and group P4 (treatment group with seven time-a-week exercise). Group P2, P3, and P4 were treated with treadmil with speed of 20 m/minute for 30 minutes. The concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a significant increase of VEGF in treatment group compared with control one (<0.05). The maximum increase was found in group P2 (129.02±64.49) and the minimum increase was in group P4 (96.98±11.20). Conclusion: The frequency of aerobic physical exercises influenced the concentration of Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) of brain tissue of Rattus Norvegicus.

Keywords: brain tissue, hypoxia, physical exercises, vascular endhothelial growth factor

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49 Sirt1 Activators Promote Skin Cell Regeneration and Cutaneous Wound Healing

Authors: Hussain Mustatab Wahedi, Sun You Kim

Abstract:

Skin acts as a barrier against the harmful environmental factors. Integrity and timely recovery of the skin from injuries and harmful effects of radiations is thus very important. This study aimed to investigate the importance of Sirt1 in the recovery of skin from UVB-induced damage and cutaneous wounds by using natural and synthetic novel Sirt1 activators. Juglone, known as a natural Pin1 inhibitor, and NED416 a novel synthetic Sirt1 activator were checked for their ability to regulate the expression and activity of Sirt1 and hence photo-damage and wound healing in cultured skin cells (NHDF and HaCaT cells) and mouse model by using Sirt1 siRNA knockdown, cell migration assay, GST-Pulldown assay, western blot analysis, tube formation assay, and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, Sirt1 knockdown inhibited skin cell migration in vitro. Juglone up regulated the expression of Sirt1 in both the cell lines under normal and UVB irradiated conditions, enhanced Sirt1 activity and increased the cell viability by reducing reactive oxygen species synthesis and apoptosis. Juglone promoted wound healing by increasing cell migration and angiogenesis through Cdc42/Rac1/PAK, MAPKs and Smad pathways in skin cells. NED416 upregulated Sirt1 expression in HaCaT and NHDF cells as well as increased Sirt1 activity. NED416 promoted the process of wound healing in early as well as later stages by increasing macrophage recruitment, skin cell migration, and angiogenesis through Cdc42/Rac1 and MAPKs pathways. So, both these compounds activated Sirt1 and promoted the process of wound healing thus pointing towards the possible role of Sirt1 in skin regeneration and wound healing.

Keywords: skin regeneration, wound healing, Sirt1, UVB light

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48 Investigating Combined Effect of Aerobic Training and Crataegus elbursensis Extract on Plasma Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Behnam Hasanzadeh, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ailin Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of Crataegus monogyna on VEGF variations and plasma angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: A number of 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control Crataegus monogyna (N=8), training Crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on the treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of Crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg Crataegus monogyna extract per gram of body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior verna cava. Results: the results showed that progressive endurance training caused insignificant reductions in plasma VEGF concentration in the training group, Crataegus monogyna group and training-Crataegus monogyna group comparing the control group. Plasma ANG-1 concentration reduced in the training, Crataegus monogyna and training-Crataegus monogyna groups while plasma ANG-2 concentration significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.022) comparing with the control group. The results showed that the ratio of plasma ANG-2 to ANG-1 significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.028) comparing with the control group. Conclusion: the findings suggest that combination of aerobic training and Crataegus monogyna extract has no synergistic effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators and Crataegus monogyna extract had a stronger effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators.

Keywords: angiopoetin-1/2, VEGF, Crataegus monogyna extract, aerobic training

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47 Angiogenic and Immunomodulatory Properties and Phenotype of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Be Regulated by Cytokine Treatment

Authors: Ekaterina Zubkova, Irina Beloglazova, Iurii Stafeev, Konsyantin Dergilev, Yelena Parfyonova, Mikhail Menshikov

Abstract:

Mesenchymal stromal cells from adipose tissue (MSC) currently are widely used in regenerative medicine to restore the function of damaged tissues, but that is significantly hampered by their heterogeneity. One of the modern approaches to overcoming this obstacle is the polarization of cell subpopulations into a specific phenotype under the influence of cytokines and other factors that activate receptors and signal transmission to cells. We polarized MSC with factors affecting the inflammatory signaling and functional properties of cells, followed by verification of their expression profile and ability to affect the polarization of macrophages. RT-PCR evaluation showed that cells treated with LPS, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), primarily express pro-inflammatory factors and cytokines, and after treatment with polyninosin polycytidic acid and interleukin-4 (IL4) anti-inflammatory factors and some proinflammatory factors. MSC polarized with pro-inflammatory cytokines showed a more robust pro-angiogenic effect in fibrin gel bead 3D angiogenesis assay. Further, we evaluated the possibility of paracrine effects of MSCs on the polarization of intact macrophages. Polarization efficiency was assesed by expression of M1/M2 phenotype markers CD80 and CD206. We showed that conditioned media from MSC preincubated in the presence of IL-4 cause an increase in CD206 expression similar to that observed in M2 macrophages. Conditioned media from MSC polarized in the presence of LPS or TNF-α increased the expression of CD80 antigen in macrophages, similar to that observed in M1 macrophages. In other cases, a pronounced paracrine effect of MSC on the polarization of macrophages was not detected. Thus, our study showed that the polarization of MSC along the pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory pathway allows us to obtain cell subpopulations that have a multidirectional modulating effect on the polarization of macrophages. (RFBR grants 20-015-00405 and 18-015-00398.)

Keywords: angiogenesis, cytokines, mesenchymal, polarization, inflammation

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46 Drug Delivery to Solid Tumor: Effect of Dynamic Capillary Network Induced by Tumor

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Kaamran Raahemifar, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

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The computational methods provide condition for investigation related to the process of drug delivery, such as convection and diffusion of drug in extracellular matrices, and drug extravasation from microvascular. The information of this process clarifies the mechanisms of drug delivery from the injection site to absorption by a solid tumor. In this study, an advanced numerical method is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport equations simultaneously to show how capillary network structure induced by tumor affects drug delivery. The effect of heterogeneous capillary network induced by tumor on interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery is investigated by this multi scale method. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network induced by tumor. Fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network and fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues. The Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. Finally, convection-diffusion-reaction equation is used to simulate drug delivery. The dynamic approach which changes the capillary network structure based on signals sent by hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli is used in this study for more realistic assumption. The study indicates that drug delivery to solid tumors depends on the tumor induced capillary network structure. The dynamic approach generates the irregular capillary network around the tumor and predicts a higher interstitial pressure in the tumor region. This elevated interstitial pressure with irregular capillary network leads to a heterogeneous distribution of drug in the tumor region similar to in vivo observations. The investigation indicates that the drug transport properties have a significant role against the physiological barrier of drug delivery to a solid tumor.

Keywords: solid tumor, physiological barriers to drug delivery, angiogenesis, microvascular network, solute transport

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45 Angiogenic Potential of Collagen Based Biomaterials Implanted on Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane as Alternative Microenvironment for in Vitro and in Vivo Angiogenesis Assays

Authors: Anca Maria Cimpean, Serban Comsa

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Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a well vascularised in vivo experimental model used as a platform for testing the behavior of different implants inserted on it from tumor fragments to therapeutic agents or various biomaterials. Five types of collagen-based biomaterials with 2D and 3D structure (MotifMesh, Optimaix2D, Optimaix3D, Dual Layer Collagen and Xenoderm) were implanted on CAM and continuously evaluated by stereomicroscope for up to 5 days post-implant with an emphasis of their ability to requisite and develop new blood vessels (BVs) followed by microscopic analysis. MotifMEsh did not induce any angiogenic response lacking to be invaded by BVs from the CAM, but it induced intense inflammatory response necrosis and fibroblastic reaction around the implant. Optimaix2D has good adherence. CAM with minimal or no inflammatory reaction, a good integration of the CAM between the collagen mesh’s fibers, consistent adhesion of the cells to the collagen fibers,and a good ability to form pseudo-vascular channels filled with cells. Optimaix3D induced the highest angiogenic effects on CAM. The material shows good integration on CAM. The collagen fibers of the material show the ability to organize themselves into linear and tubular structures. It is possible to see blood elements, especially at the periphery of the implant. Dual-layer collagen behaves similar to Optimaix 3D, while Xenoderm induced a moderate angiogenic effect on CAM. Based on these data, we may conclude that collagen-based materials have variable ability to requisite and develop new blood vessels. A proper selection of collagen-based biomaterial scaffolds may crucially influence the acquisition and development of blood vessels during angiogenesis assays.

Keywords: chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane, collagen scaffolds, blood vessels, vascular microenvironment

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44 Influence of Cobalt Incorporation on the Structure and Properties of SOL-Gel Derived Mesoporous Bioglass Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmed El-Fiqi, Hae-Won Kim

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Incorporation of therapeutic elements such as Sr, Cu and Co into bioglass structure and their release as ions is considered as one of the promising approaches to enhance cellular responses, e.g., osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Here, cobalt as angiogenesis promoter has been incorporated (at 0, 1 and 4 mol%) into sol-gel derived calcium silicate mesoporous bioglass nanoparticles. The composition and structure of cobalt-free (CFN) and cobalt-doped (CDN) mesoporous bioglass nanoparticles have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The physicochemical properties of CFN and CDN have been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Furthermore, the textural properties, including specific surface area, pore-volume, and pore size, have been analyzed from N²⁻sorption analyses. Surface charges of CFN and CDN were also determined from surface zeta potential measurements. The release of ions, including Co²⁺, Ca²⁺, and SiO₄⁴⁻ has been analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Loading and release of diclofenac as an anti-inflammatory drug model were explored in vitro using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD results ensured the amorphous state of CFN and CDN whereas, XRF further confirmed that their chemical compositions are very close to the designed compositions. HR-TEM analyses unveiled nanoparticles with spherical morphologies, highly mesoporous textures, and sizes in the range of 90 - 100 nm. Moreover, N²⁻ sorption analyses revealed that the nanoparticles have pores with sizes of 3.2 - 2.6 nm, pore volumes of 0.41 - 0.35 cc/g and highly surface areas in the range of 716 - 830 m²/g. High-resolution XPS analysis of Co 2p core level provided structural information about Co atomic environment and it confirmed the electronic state of Co in the glass matrix. ICP-AES analysis showed the release of therapeutic doses of Co²⁺ ions from 4% CDN up to 100 ppm within 14 days. Finally, diclofenac loading and release have ensured the drug/ion co-delivery capability of 4% CDN.

Keywords: mesoporous bioactive glass, nanoparticles, cobalt ions, release

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43 IL-23, an Inflammatory Cytokine, Decreased by Shark Cartilage and Vitamin A Oral Treatment in Patient with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zarei, Hassan zm, Abolghasem Ajami, Darush Moslemi, Narges Afsary, Amrollah Mostafa-zade

Abstract:

Introduction: IL-23 is responsible for the differentiation and expansion of Th17/ThIL-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, may be IL-23/IL17 axis involve in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as RA, MS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asthma. TGF-β is also share for the differentiation Th17 producing IL-17 and CD4+CD25+Foxp3hiT regulatory cells from naïve CD4+ T cells which are involved in the regulation of immune response, maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis ,and the control of autoimmunity and cancer surveillance. Therefore, T regulatory cells play a key role in autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, infectious disease, and the induction of transplantation tolerance. Vitamin A and it's derivatives (retinoids) inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some types of cancers in oral cavity,head and neck, breast, skin, liver, and blood cells. Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, in vitro. Our purpose is whether simultaneous oral treatment vitamin A and shark cartilage can modulate IL-23/IL-17 and CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory cell/TGF-β pathways and Th1/Th2 immunity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23,IL-17,TGF-β,IL-4 and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: An imbalance between IL-17 secretion and TGF-β/Foxp3 t regulatory cell pathway and so, Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) was not seen in patients with gastric cancer treated by vitamin A and shark cartilage. But, the simultaneously presented down-regulation of IL-23 indicated, at least cytokine level. Conclusion: Il-23, as a pro-angiogenesis cytokine, probably, help to tumor growth. Hence, suggested that down-regulation of IL-23, at least cytokine level, is useful for anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage and gastric cancer

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