Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Talal Shamma

22 Immunomodulation by Interleukin-10 Therapy in Mouse Airway Transplantation

Authors: Mohammaad Afzal Khan, Ghazi Abdulmalik Ashoor , Fatimah Alanazi, Talal Shamma, Abdullah Altuhami, Hala Abdalrahman Ahmed, Abdullah Mohammed Assiri, Dieter Clemens Broering

Abstract:

Microvascular injuries during inflammation are key causes of transplant malfunctioning and permanent failure, which play a major role in the development of chronic rejection of the transplanted organ. Inflammation-induced microvascular loss is a promising area to investigate the decisive roles of regulatory and effector responses. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of IL-10 on immunotolerance, in particular, the microenvironment of the allograft during rejection. Here, we investigated the effects of IL-10 blockade/ reconstitution and serially monitored regulatory T cells (Tregs), graft microvasculature, and airway epithelium in rejecting airway transplants. We demonstrated that the blocking/reconstitution of IL-10 significantly modulates CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs, microvasculature, and airway epithelium during rejection. Our findings further highlighted that blockade of IL-10 upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-2, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-15, and IL-23, but suppressed IL-5 secretion during rejection; however, reconstitution of IL-10 significantly upregulated CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs, tissue oxygenation/blood flow and airway repair. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a potential reparative modulation of IL-10 during microvascular and epithelial repair, which could provide a vital therapeutic window to rejecting transplants in clinical practice.

Keywords: interleukin -10, regulatory T cells, allograft rejection, immunotolerance

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21 The Application of the Enterprise Systems through the Cloud Computing in Company: A Review and Suggestions

Authors: Mohanaad Talal Shakir, Saad AJAJ Khalaf, Nawar Ahmed Aljumaily, Mustafa Talal Shakere

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Objectives of this paper are to investigate the role of the Enterprise System and Cloud Computing Services to assist and guide him to ensure the initiative become successful. The cloud computing technology offers great potential for Enterprise such as the speed of dealing with data and product introductions, innovations and speed of response. The use of cloud computing technology leads to the rapid development and competitiveness of enterprises in various fields.

Keywords: cloud computing, information management, marketing, enterprise systems

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20 iPSC-derived MSC Mediated Immunosuppression during Mouse Airway Transplantation

Authors: Mohammad Afzal Khan, Fatimah Alanazi, Hala Abdalrahman Ahmed, Talal Shamma, Kilian Kelly, Mohammed A. Hammad, Abdullah O. Alawad, Abdullah Mohammed Assiri, Dieter Clemens Broering

Abstract:

Lung transplantation is a life-saving surgical replacement of diseased lungs in patients with end-stage respiratory malfunctions. Despite the remarkable short-term recovery, long-term lung survival continues to face several significant challenges, including chronic rejection and severe toxic side-effects due to global immunosuppression. Stem cell-based immunotherapy has been recognized as a crucial immunoregulatory regimen in various preclinical and clinical studies. Despite initial therapeutic outcomes, conventional stem cells face key limitations. The Cymerus™ manufacturing facilitates the production of a virtually limitless supply of consistent human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which could play a key role in selective immunosuppression and graft repair during rejection. Here, we demonstrated the impact of iPSC-derived human MSCs on the development of immune-tolerance and long-term graft survival in mouse orthotopic airway allografts. BALB/c→C57BL/6 allografts were reconstituted with iPSC-derived MSCs (2 million/transplant/ at d0), and allografts were examined for regulatory T cells (Tregs), oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, airway epithelium and collagen deposition during rejection. We demonstrated that iPSC-derived MSC treatment leads to significant increase in tissue expression of hTSG-6 protein, followed by an upregulation of mouse Tregs and IL-5, IL-10, IL-15 cytokines, which augments graft microvascular blood flow and oxygenation, and thereby maintained a healthy airway epithelium and prevented the subepithelial deposition of collagen at d90 post-transplantation. Collectively, these data confirmed that iPSC-derived MSC-mediated immunosuppression has potential to establish immune-tolerance and rescue allograft from sustained hypoxic/ischemic phase and subsequently limits long-term airway epithelial injury and collagen progression, which therapeutically warrant a study of Cymerus iPSC-derived MSCs as a potential management option for immunosuppression in transplant recipients.

Keywords: stem cell therapy, immunotolerance, regulatory T cells, hypoxia and ischemia, microvasculature

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19 3D Multimedia Model for Educational Design Engineering

Authors: Mohanaad Talal Shakir

Abstract:

This paper tries to propose educational design by using multimedia technology for Engineering of computer Technology, Alma'ref University College in Iraq. This paper evaluates the acceptance, cognition, and interactiveness of the proposed model by students by using the statistical relationship to determine the stage of the model. Objectives of proposed education design are to develop a user-friendly software for education purposes using multimedia technology and to develop animation for 3D model to simulate assembling and disassembling process of high-speed flow.

Keywords: CAL, multimedia, shock tunnel, interactivity, engineering education

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18 Google Translate: AI Application

Authors: Shaima Almalhan, Lubna Shukri, Miriam Talal, Safaa Teskieh

Abstract:

Since artificial intelligence is a rapidly evolving topic that has had a significant impact on technical growth and innovation, this paper examines people's awareness, use, and engagement with the Google Translate application. To see how familiar aware users are with the app and its features, quantitative and qualitative research was conducted. The findings revealed that consumers have a high level of confidence in the application and how far people they benefit from this sort of innovation and how convenient it makes communication.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, google translate, speech recognition, language translation, camera translation, speech to text, text to speech

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17 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Andy Shaw, Al Shamma'A Ahmed

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, microwave, plasma reactor, syngas

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16 The Job of Rhetoric in Public Relations Practice

Authors: Talal Alqahtani

Abstract:

For all institutions, either public or private, communication is important now more than ever. This is because the importance of communication has grown over the years, and it has the ability to either break or make an organization. With globalization, the changing technology, and other emergent issues that affect organizations, the communication given out has had to be better, sharper, and both proactive and reactive. This is the reason why the importance of public relations has been on the increase. Institutions realize the importance of having a good image and having public relations experts who can effectively manage communication in an institution easily in times of crisis. Public relations itself is not, however, effective, and this has led to the adoption of rhetoric in communication. Rhetoric use has had a long transformation because, in the past, it was only used in politics. Rhetoric in communication has come to be appreciated and adopted by many diverse fields and sectors. This study looks at the job of rhetoric in public relations practice and how it can identify with the administration of an institution's notoriety.

Keywords: communication, notoriety, rhetoric, public relation

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15 Impact of Welding Distortion on the Design of Fabricated T-Girders Using Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Ahmed Hammad, Yehia Abdel-Nasser, Mohamed Shamma

Abstract:

The main configuration of ship construction consists of standard and fabricated stiffening members which are commonly used in shipbuilding such as fabricated T-sections. During the welding process, the non-uniform heating and rapid cooling lead to the inevitable presence of out-of-plane distortion and welding induced residual stresses. Because of these imperfections, the fabricated structural members may not attain their design load to be carried. The removal of these imperfections will require extra man-hours. In the present work, controlling these imperfections has been investigated at both design and fabrication stages. A typical fabricated T-girder is selected to investigate the problem of these imperfections using double-side welding. A numerical simulation based on finite element (FE) modeling has been used to investigate the effect of different parameters of the selected fabricated T-girder such as geometrical properties and welding sequences on the magnitude of welding imperfections. FE results were compared with the results of experimental model of a double-side fillet weld. The present work concludes that: Firstly, in the design stage, the optimum geometry of the fabricated T- girder is determined based on minimum steel weight and out- of- plane distortion. Secondly, in the fabrication stage, the best welding sequence is determined on the basis of minimum welding out- of- plane distortion.

Keywords: fabricated T-girder, FEM, out-of-plane distortion, section modulus, welding residual stresses

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14 BigCrypt: A Probable Approach of Big Data Encryption to Protect Personal and Business Privacy

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun, Talal Alkharobi

Abstract:

As data size is growing up, people are became more familiar to store big amount of secret information into cloud storage. Companies are always required to need transfer massive business files from one end to another. We are going to lose privacy if we transmit it as it is and continuing same scenario repeatedly without securing the communication mechanism means proper encryption. Although asymmetric key encryption solves the main problem of symmetric key encryption but it can only encrypt limited size of data which is inapplicable for large data encryption. In this paper we propose a probable approach of pretty good privacy for encrypt big data using both symmetric and asymmetric keys. Our goal is to achieve encrypt huge collection information and transmit it through a secure communication channel for committing the business and personal privacy. To justify our method an experimental dataset from three different platform is provided. We would like to show that our approach is working for massive size of various data efficiently and reliably.

Keywords: big data, cloud computing, cryptography, hadoop, public key

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13 Thermodynamically Predicting the Impact of Temperature on the Performance of Drilling Bits as a Function of Time

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali

Abstract:

Air drilling has recently received increasing acceptance by the oil and gas industry due to its unique advantages. The main advantages of air drilling include the higher rate of penetration, less formation damage, lower risk of loss of circulation. However, these advantages cannot be fully realized if thermal effects in air drilling are not well understood and minimized. Due to its high frictional coefficient, low heat conductivity, and high compressibility, air can impact the temperature distribution of bit and thus affect its bit performances. Based on energy and mass balances, a transient thermal model that predicts bit temperature is presented along with numerical solutions in this paper. In addition, several important parameters that influence bit temperature distribution are analyzed. Simulation results show that the bit temperature increases with increasing weight on bit and rotary speed but decreases as the standpipe pressure and flow rate increase. These results can be used to optimize drilling operations and flow parameters for an improved bit performance as shown in this paper.

Keywords: air drilling, rate of penetration, temperature, rotary speed

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12 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach

Abstract:

This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: retrofitting, seismic, finite element, micropiles, elastic

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11 Structuring of Multilayer Aluminum Nickel by Lift-off Process Using Cheap Negative Resist

Authors: Muhammad Talal Asghar

Abstract:

The lift-off technique of the photoresist for metal patterning in integrated circuit (IC) packaging has been widely utilized in the field of microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor component manufacturing. The main advantage lies in cost-saving, reduction in complexity, and maturity of the process. The selection of photoresist depends upon many factors such as cost, the thickness of the resist, comfortable and valuable parameters extraction. In the present study, an extremely cheap dry film photoresist E8015 of thickness 38-micrometer is processed for the first time for edge profiling, according to the author's best knowledge. Successful extraction of the helpful parameter range for resist processing is performed. An undercut angle of 66 to 73 degrees is realized by parameter variation like exposure energy and development time. Finally, 10-micrometer thick metallic multilayer aluminum nickel is lifted off on the plain silicon wafer. Possible applications lie in controlled self-propagating reactions within structured metallic multilayer that may be utilized for IC packaging in the future.

Keywords: lift-off, IC packaging, photoresist, multilayer

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10 Numerical Investigation on Feasibility of Electromagnetic Wave as Water Hardness Detection in Water Cooling System Industrial

Authors: K. H. Teng, A. Shaw, M. Ateeq, A. Al-Shamma'a, S. Wylie, S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew

Abstract:

Numerical and experimental of using novel electromagnetic wave technique to detect water hardness concentration has been presented in this paper. Simulation is powerful and efficient engineering methods which allow for a quick and accurate prediction of various engineering problems. The RF module is used in this research to predict and design electromagnetic wave propagation and resonance effect of a guided wave to detect water hardness concentration in term of frequency domain, eigenfrequency, and mode analysis. A cylindrical cavity resonator is simulated and designed in the electric field of fundamental mode (TM010). With the finite volume method, the three-dimensional governing equations were discretized. Boundary conditions for the simulation were the cavity materials like aluminum, two ports which include transmitting and receiving port, and assumption of vacuum inside the cavity. The design model was success to simulate a fundamental mode and extract S21 transmission signal within 2.1 – 2.8 GHz regions. The signal spectrum under effect of port selection technique and dielectric properties of different water concentration were studied. It is observed that the linear increment of magnitude in frequency domain when concentration increase. The numerical results were validated closely by the experimentally available data. Hence, conclusion for the available COMSOL simulation package is capable of providing acceptable data for microwave research.

Keywords: electromagnetic wave technique, frequency domain, signal spectrum, water hardness concentration

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9 A Spiral Dynamic Optimised Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Unicycle Mobile Robot on Irregular Terrains

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Talal H. Alzanki

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy logic control strategy for a unicycle trajectory following robot on irregular terrains. In literature, researchers have presented the design of path tracking controllers of mobile robots on non-frictional surface. In this work, the robot is simulated to drive on irregular terrains with contrasting frictional profiles of peat and rough gravel. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is utilised to stabilise and drive the robot precisely with the predefined trajectory and overcome the frictional impact. The controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using spiral dynamics optimisation algorithm to minimise the mean square error of the linear and angular velocities of the unicycle robot. The robot was simulated on various frictional surfaces and terrains and the controller was able to stabilise the robot with a superior performance that is shown via simulation results.

Keywords: fuzzy logic control, mobile robot, trajectory tracking, spiral dynamic algorithm

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8 Experimental and Analytical Study of Various Types of Shear Connector Used for Cold-Formed Steel-Ferrocement Composite Beam

Authors: Talal Alhajri, Mahmood M. Tahir, Khaled Alenezi, Mohamad Ragaee

Abstract:

This work presents the experimental tests carried out to evaluate the behaviour of different types of shear connectors proposed for cold formed steel (CFS) section integrated with ferrocement slab as potential used for composite beam. Ten push-out test specimens of cold-formed steel lipped channel sections connected with ferrocement slab were tested. Three types of shear connectors were studied comprised of bolts, self-drilling-screw and bar angle. The connection behavior is analysed in terms of its load-slip relationship and the failure mode. The parametric studies were performed to investigate the effect on the shear connector’s capacity by varying the number of layers of wire mesh used in ferrocement slab and types of shear connector used. An analytical analysis using ANSYS program and theoretical analysis (Eurocode 4) were carried out to verify the experiment results. The results show that the experimental, theoretical, and numerical values proved to have good agreement with each other.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, composite beam, ferrocement, finite element method, push-out test, shear connector

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7 Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Activity Classification in Smart Home Environments

Authors: Talal Alshammari, Nasser Alshammari, Mohamed Sedky, Chris Howard

Abstract:

With the widespread adoption of the Internet-connected devices, and with the prevalence of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, there is an increased interest in machine learning techniques that can provide useful and interesting services in the smart home domain. The areas that machine learning techniques can help advance are varied and ever-evolving. Classifying smart home inhabitants’ Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), is one prominent example. The ability of machine learning technique to find meaningful spatio-temporal relations of high-dimensional data is an important requirement as well. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to classify ADLs in the smart home domain. Forty-two synthetic datasets and two real-world datasets with multiple inhabitants are used to evaluate and compare the performance of the identified machine learning techniques. Our results show significant performance differences between the evaluated techniques. Such as AdaBoost, Cortical Learning Algorithm (CLA), Decision Trees, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Structured Perceptron and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Overall, neural network based techniques have shown superiority over the other tested techniques.

Keywords: activities of daily living, classification, internet of things, machine learning, prediction, smart home

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6 The Impact of Temperature on the Threshold Capillary Pressure of Fine-Grained Shales

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali, S. Mohammad

Abstract:

The threshold capillary pressure of shale caprocks is an important parameter in CO₂ storage modeling. A correct estimation of the threshold capillary pressure is not only essential for CO₂ storage modeling but also important to assess the overall economical and environmental impact of the design process. A standard step by step approach has to be used to measure the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluids at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to assess the impact of high temperature on the threshold capillary pressure of four different shales as they interacted with four different oil based muds, air, CO₂, N₂, and methane. This study shows that the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluid is highly impacted by temperature. An empirical correlation for the dependence of threshold capillary pressure on temperature when different shales interacted with oil based muds and gasses has been developed. This correlation shows that the threshold capillary pressure decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. In this correlation, an experimental constant (α) appears, and this constant may depend on the properties of shale and non-wetting fluid. The value for α factor was found to be higher for gasses than for oil based muds. This is consistent with our intuition since the interfacial tension for gasses is higher than those for oil based muds. The author believes that measured threshold capillary pressure at ambient temperature is misleading and could yield higher values than those encountered at in situ conditions. Therefore one must correct for the impact of temperature when measuring threshold capillary pressure of shale at ambient temperature.

Keywords: capillary pressure, shale, temperature, thresshold

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5 Tri/Tetra-Block Copolymeric Nanocarriers as a Potential Ocular Delivery System of Lornoxicam: Experimental Design-Based Preparation, in-vitro Characterization and in-vivo Estimation of Transcorneal Permeation

Authors: Alaa Hamed Salama, Rehab Nabil Shamma

Abstract:

Introduction: Polymeric micelles that can deliver drug to intended sites of the eye have attracted much scientific attention recently. The aim of this study was to review the aqueous-based formulation of drug-loaded polymeric micelles that hold significant promise for ophthalmic drug delivery. This study investigated the synergistic performance of mixed polymeric micelles made of linear and branched poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (propylene oxide) for the more effective encapsulation of Lornoxicam (LX) as a hydrophobic model drug. Methods: The co-micellization process of 10% binary systems combining different weight ratios of the highly hydrophilic poloxamers; Synperonic® PE/P84, and Synperonic® PE/F127 and the hydrophobic poloxamine counterpart (Tetronic® T701) was investigated by means of photon correlation spectroscopy and cloud point. The drug-loaded micelles were tested for their solubilizing capacity towards LX. Results: Results showed a sharp solubility increase from 0.46 mg/ml up to more than 4.34 mg/ml, representing about 136-fold increase. Optimized formulation was selected to achieve maximum drug solubilizing power and clarity with lowest possible particle size. The optimized formulation was characterized by 1HNMR analysis which revealed complete encapsulation of the drug within the micelles. Further investigations by histopathological and confocal laser studies revealed the non-irritant nature and good corneal penetrating power of the proposed nano-formulation. Conclusion: LX-loaded polymeric nanomicellar formulation was fabricated allowing easy application of the drug in the form of clear eye drops that do not cause blurred vision or discomfort, thus achieving high patient compliance.

Keywords: confocal laser scanning microscopy, Histopathological studies, Lornoxicam, micellar solubilization

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4 Prevalence of Barodontalgia among Aircrews Working in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Knowledge of Dental Interns about This Phenomena

Authors: Ali Saleh Al-Rafedah, Ahmed Mohammed Al-Quthami, Tariq Jalal Al-Ashawi, Talal Nasser Motar Al-Enez

Abstract:

Introduction: Barodontalgia is essentially dental pain provoked by changes in atmospheric pressure which usually disappear when the affected person reaches normal pressure zone. Barodontalgia has been recognized as a potential cause of aircrew-member vertigo and sudden incapacitation, which could jeopardize the safety of flight. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the incidence of this phenomena among aircrews in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It also aimed to assess the knowledge of dental interns toward this phenomena. Material and Method: A 120 questionnaire consists of 17 questions were distributed to different of Aircrews working in commercial and governmental centers in different areas of KSA. Another questionnaire also distributed to 240 interns in different institutes in KSA. Results: Out of 120 questionnaire distributed to aircrews, 48 has been returned back (40%) and the participants were mainly pilots. The results showed that about 33% of the participants had this pain at least once during flying and the incidence of this pain was not associated with any age group. Most of the pain experience were during descending and at altitude between 10.000-20.000 feet (63%). The pain completely relieved after landing in most of the cases. Regarding pain scores, the majority of the participants reported moderate scores of severity (%65) and about 85% of them had visited the physician or dentist to investigate the existing oral problem. Among dental interns in KSA, our finding indicated lack of knowledge regarding this phenomena since only 23 % of the participants have an idea about this phenomena. Conclusion and recommendation: The incidence of Barodontalgia among aircrews in Saudi Arabia is considerably high and further studies should be carried out for better understanding of this phenomena. Significant lack of knowledge among dental interns about the Barodontalgia has been highlighted and inclusion of it in the teaching of clinical and preclinical curriculum is recommended.

Keywords: Barodontalgia/dental, atmospheric pressure, incapacitation, Saudi Arabia

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3 The Relation of Motivation and Reward with Volunteer Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Omani Non-Profit Organization

Authors: Ali Al Shamli, Talal AlMamari

Abstract:

Background: The relationship between motivation and satisfaction is posited to be mediated by reward. In this study, the motivation construct was measured by a motivation scale. The scale when factor analysed generated five factors. These factors were referred as; 1) leisure motivation, 2) egoistic motivation, 3) external motivation, 4) purposive, and 5) material motivation. The reward construct was measured by using a five-item scale whereas the satisfaction construct was measured by using a 13-item scale. The scale when factor analysed produced three factors which are referred as; 1) satisfaction A, 2) satisfaction B, and 3) satisfaction C. Objective: The main purpose of the present paper was to find out the relation of motivation and reward with volunteer satisfaction at national sports organizations (NPSOs) in Oman. Methods: This current study adopts a cross-sectional design as the data collection is done only once whereas the mode of administration was postal questionnaire where each questionnaire was posted, completed, and returned using the self-addressed envelope after its completion. The population of the study consisted of (160) boards and directors members of NPSOs (Non-Profit Sports Organization Services) in Oman from all 43 sports club. Results: The findings provided new empirical evidence that supported the argument of the relationship between motivation and satisfaction is indeed, mediated by reward. However, this study differs in that the relationship was tested based on the first-order constructs which were derived from the underlying dimensions of both motivation and satisfaction constructs. It was established that the relationships between motivation B and motivation C with satisfaction A are mediated by reward. Conclusion: In light of study findings, there is a direct relationship between developmental motivation and experiential satisfaction, a direct relationship between social motivation and relational satisfaction, as well as personal motivation and relational satisfaction, is mediated by reward. Therefore, Omani volunteers are less reliant on the reward as evidenced by the direct relationship between motivation A and satisfaction and between motivation C and satisfaction A. More tests in different settings will provide more understanding on volunteer motivation.

Keywords: non-profit sports organization, sport and reward, volunteers in sport, satisfaction in sport

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2 Bounded Rational Heterogeneous Agents in Artificial Stock Markets: Literature Review and Research Direction

Authors: Talal Alsulaiman, Khaldoun Khashanah

Abstract:

In this paper, we provided a literature survey on the artificial stock problem (ASM). The paper began by exploring the complexity of the stock market and the needs for ASM. ASM aims to investigate the link between individual behaviors (micro level) and financial market dynamics (macro level). The variety of patterns at the macro level is a function of the AFM complexity. The financial market system is a complex system where the relationship between the micro and macro level cannot be captured analytically. Computational approaches, such as simulation, are expected to comprehend this connection. Agent-based simulation is a simulation technique commonly used to build AFMs. The paper proceeds by discussing the components of the ASM. We consider the roles of behavioral finance (BF) alongside the traditionally risk-averse assumption in the construction of agent's attributes. Also, the influence of social networks in the developing of agents’ interactions is addressed. Network topologies such as a small world, distance-based, and scale-free networks may be utilized to outline economic collaborations. In addition, the primary methods for developing agents learning and adaptive abilities have been summarized. These incorporated approach such as Genetic Algorithm, Genetic Programming, Artificial neural network and Reinforcement Learning. In addition, the most common statistical properties (the stylized facts) of stock that are used for calibration and validation of ASM are discussed. Besides, we have reviewed the major related previous studies and categorize the utilized approaches as a part of these studies. Finally, research directions and potential research questions are argued. The research directions of ASM may focus on the macro level by analyzing the market dynamic or on the micro level by investigating the wealth distributions of the agents.

Keywords: artificial stock markets, market dynamics, bounded rationality, agent based simulation, learning, interaction, social networks

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1 Chronic Renal Failure Associated with Heavy Metal Contamination of Drinking Water in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Elsayed A. M. Shokr, A. Alhazemi, T. Naser, Talal A. Zuhair, Adel A. Zuhair, Ahmed N. Alshamary, Thamer A. Alanazi, Hosam A. Alanazi

Abstract:

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. A strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals from some of the stations of water shopping in Hail, KSA and chronic diseases such as renal failure, liver cirrhosis, and chronic anemia has been identified in this study. These diseases are apparently related to contaminant drinking water with heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. Renal failure is related to contaminate drinking water with lead and cadmium, liver cirrhosis to copper and molybdenum, and chronic anemia to copper and cadmium. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via drinking water being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. During the last century lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. Long-term exposure to lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to primarily in the form of kidney damage. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to toxic materials in the groundwater and thereby led to the contamination of drinking water in these areas.

Keywords: heavy metals, liver functions, kidney functions and chronic renal failure, hail, renal, water

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