Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 595

Search results for: sound

595 Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials

Authors: Fangying Wang, Zhang Sanming, Ni Qian


In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.

Keywords: acoustic performance, application prospect personalized sound-absorbing materials

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594 Comparing the Effect of Virtual Reality and Sound on Landscape Perception

Authors: Mark Lindquist


This paper presents preliminary results of exploratory empirical research investigating the effect of viewing 3D landscape visualizations in virtual reality compared to a computer monitor, and how sound impacts perception. Five landscape types were paired with three sound conditions (no sound, generic sound, realistic sound). Perceived realism, preference, recreational value, and biodiversity were evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Results indicate that sound has a larger perceptual impact than display mode regardless of sound source across all perceptual measures. The results are considered to assess how sound can impact landscape preference and spatiotemporal understanding. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact on designers, planners, and the public and targets future research endeavors in this area.

Keywords: landscape experience, perception, soundscape, virtual reality

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593 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic


In this paper, subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, 'meta-diegetic' sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which 'mimic' those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: oneiric, ASC, film, sound

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592 Research on the Two-Way Sound Absorption Performance of Multilayer Material

Authors: Yang Song, Xiaojun Qiu


Multilayer materials are applied to much acoustics area. Multilayer porous materials are dominant in room absorber. Multilayer viscoelastic materials are the basic parts in underwater absorption coating. In most cases, the one-way sound absorption performance of multilayer material is concentrated according to the sound source site. But the two-way sound absorption performance is also necessary to be known in some special cases which sound is produced in both sides of the material and the both sides especially might contact with different media. In this article, this kind of case was research. The multilayer material was composed of viscoelastic layer and steel plate and the porous layer. The two sides of multilayer material contact with water and air, respectively. A theory model was given to describe the sound propagation and impedance in multilayer absorption material. The two-way sound absorption properties of several multilayer materials were calculated whose two sides all contacted with different media. The calculated results showed that the difference of two-way sound absorption coefficients is obvious. The frequency, the relation of layers thickness and parameters of multilayer materials all have an influence on the two-way sound absorption coefficients. But the degrees of influence are varied. All these simulation results were analyzed in the article. It was obtained that two-way sound absorption at different frequencies can be promoted by optimizing the configuration parameters. This work will improve the performance of underwater sound absorption coating which can absorb incident sound from the water and reduce the noise radiation from inside space.

Keywords: different media, multilayer material, sound absorption coating, two-way sound absorption

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591 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi


High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: automobile, acoustics, porous material, transfer matrix method

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590 The Effect of Floor Impact Sound Insulation Performance Using Scrambled Thermoplastic Poly Urethane and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

Authors: Bonsoo Koo, Seong Shin Hong, Byung Kwon Lee


Most of apartments in Korea have wall type structure that present poor performance regarding floor impact sound insulation. In order to minimize the transmission of floor impact sound, flooring structures are used in which an insulating material, 30 mm thickness pad of EPS or EVA, is sandwiched between a concrete slab and the finished mortar. Generally, a single-material pad used for insulation has a heavyweight impact sound level of 44~47 dB with 210 mm thickness slab. This study provides an analysis of the floor impact sound insulation performance using thermoplastic poly urethane (TPU), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and expanded polystyrene (EPS) materials with buffering performance. Following mock-up tests the effect of lightweight impact sound turned out to be similar but heavyweight impact sound was decreased by 3 dB compared to conventional single material insulation pad.

Keywords: floor impact sound, thermoplastic poly urethane, ethylene vinyl acetate, heavyweight impact sound

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589 A Review on Predictive Sound Recognition System

Authors: Ajay Kadam, Ramesh Kagalkar


The proposed research objective is to add to a framework for programmed recognition of sound. In this framework the real errand is to distinguish any information sound stream investigate it & anticipate the likelihood of diverse sounds show up in it. To create and industrially conveyed an adaptable sound web crawler a flexible sound search engine. The calculation is clamor and contortion safe, computationally productive, and hugely adaptable, equipped for rapidly recognizing a short portion of sound stream caught through a phone microphone in the presence of frontal area voices and other predominant commotion, and through voice codec pressure, out of a database of over accessible tracks. The algorithm utilizes a combinatorial hashed time-recurrence group of stars examination of the sound, yielding ordinary properties, for example, transparency, in which numerous tracks combined may each be distinguished.

Keywords: fingerprinting, pure tone, white noise, hash function

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588 Finding the Free Stream Velocity Using Flow Generated Sound

Authors: Saeed Hosseini, Ali Reza Tahavvor


Sound processing is one the subjects that newly attracts a lot of researchers. It is efficient and usually less expensive than other methods. In this paper the flow generated sound is used to estimate the flow speed of free flows. Many sound samples are gathered. After analyzing the data, a parameter named wave power is chosen. For all samples, the wave power is calculated and averaged for each flow speed. A curve is fitted to the averaged data and a correlation between the wave power and flow speed is founded. Test data are used to validate the method and errors for all test data were under 10 percent. The speed of the flow can be estimated by calculating the wave power of the flow generated sound and using the proposed correlation.

Keywords: the flow generated sound, free stream, sound processing, speed, wave power

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587 Analysis of Sound Loss from the Highway Traffic through Lightweight Insulating Concrete Walls and Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Sound Transmission

Authors: Mustafa Tosun, Kevser Dincer


In this study, analysis on whether the lightweight concrete walled structures used in four climatic regions of Turkey are also capable of insulating sound was conducted. As a new approach, first the wall’s thermal insulation sufficiency’s were calculated and then, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was used on their cross sections to check if they are sound transmitters too. The ANN was trained and tested by using MATLAB toolbox on a personal computer. ANN input parameters that used were thickness of lightweight concrete wall, frequency and density of lightweight concrete wall, while the transmitted sound was the output parameter. When the results of the TS analysis and those of ANN modeling are evaluated together, it is found from this study, that sound transmit loss increases at higher frequencies, higher wall densities and with larger wall cross sections.

Keywords: artificial neuron network, lightweight concrete, sound insulation, sound transmit loss

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586 The Optimization Design of Sound Absorbing for Automotive Interior Material

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park


Nonwoven fabric such as an automobile interior material becomes consists of several material layers required for the sound-absorbing function. Because several material layers, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, a lot of time and money is spent in the development of the car interior materials. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound-absorbing performance of the various layers with physical properties of each material. and we will verify it with the measured value of a prototype. If the sound absorption can be estimated, it can be optimized without a number of tuning tests of the interiors. So, it can reduce the development cost and time during development

Keywords: automotive interior material, sound absorbing, optimization design, nonwoven fabric

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585 Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft

Authors: Yan Rongxin, Sun Wei, Li Weidan


Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.

Keywords: leak testing, manned spacecraft, sound transmitting, ultrasonic

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584 Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Authors: S. Ghafoori, A. Al-Harbi, B. Al-Ajmi, A. Al-Shaalan, A. Al-Ajmi, M. Ali Juma


Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Keywords: experimental design, octane, speed of sound, toluene

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583 The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park


Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.

Keywords: sound absorption material, sound impedance tube, sound absorption coefficient, optimization design

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582 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike


In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new Finite Element Method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit

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581 Implementation of Real-Time Multiple Sound Source Localization and Separation

Authors: Jeng-Shin Sheu, Qi-Xun Zheng


This paper mainly discusses a method of separating speech when using a microphone array without knowing the number and direction of sound sources. In recent years, there have been many studies on the method of separating signals by using masking, but most of the separation methods must be operated under the condition of a known number of sound sources. Such methods cannot be used for real-time applications. In our method, this paper uses Circular-Integrated-Cross-Spectrum to estimate the statistical histogram distribution of the direction of arrival (DOA) to obtain the number of sound sources and sound in the mixed-signal Source direction. In calculating the relevant parameters of the ring integrated cross-spectrum, the phase (Phase of the Cross-Power Spectrum) and phase rotation factors (Phase Rotation Factors) calculated by the cross power spectrum of each microphone pair are used. In the part of separating speech, it uses the DOA weighting and shielding separation method to calculate the sound source direction (DOA) according to each T-F unit (time-frequency point). The weight corresponding to each T-F unit can be used to strengthen the intensity of each sound source from the T-F unit and reduce the influence of the remaining sound sources, thereby achieving voice separation.

Keywords: real-time, spectrum analysis, sound source localization, sound source separation

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580 The Prediction of Sound Absorbing Coefficient for Multi-Layer Non-Woven

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park


Automotive interior material consisting of several material layers has the sound-absorbing function. It is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because of several material layers. So, many experimental tunings are required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, while the car interior materials are developed, so much time and money is spent. In this study, we present a method to predict the sound absorbing performance of the material with multi-layer using physical properties of each material. The properties are predicted by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Then, we will compare and analyze the predicted sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If the method is used instead of experimental tuning in the development of car interior material, the time and money can be saved, and then, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation.

Keywords: multi-layer nonwoven, sound absorption coefficient, scaled reverberation chamber, impedance tubes

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579 Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption

Authors: P. Sam Vimal Rajkumar, K. Priyanga


Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.

Keywords: acoustics, fibre, non-woven, noise, sound absorption properties, sound absorption coefficient

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578 Prediction of Physical Properties and Sound Absorption Performance of Automotive Interior Materials

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Seong-Jin Cho, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park


Sound absorption coefficient is considered important when designing because noise affects emotion quality of car. It is designed with lots of experiment tunings in the field because it is unreliable to predict it for multi-layer material. In this paper, we present the design of sound absorption for automotive interior material with multiple layers using estimation software of sound absorption coefficient for reverberation chamber. Additionally, we introduce the method for estimation of physical properties required to predict sound absorption coefficient of car interior materials with multiple layers too. It is calculated by inverse algorithm. It is very economical to get information about physical properties without expensive equipment. Correlation test is carried out to ensure reliability for accuracy. The data to be used for the correlation is sound absorption coefficient measured in the reverberation chamber. In this way, it is considered economical and efficient to design automotive interior materials. And design optimization for sound absorption coefficient is also easy to implement when it is designed.

Keywords: sound absorption coefficient, optimization design, inverse algorithm, automotive interior material, multiple layers nonwoven, scaled reverberation chamber, sound impedance tubes

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577 Slice Bispectrogram Analysis-Based Classification of Environmental Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Katsumi Hirata


Certain systems can function well only if they recognize the sound environment as humans do. In this research, we focus on sound classification by adopting a convolutional neural network and aim to develop a method that automatically classifies various environmental sounds. Although the neural network is a powerful technique, the performance depends on the type of input data. Therefore, we propose an approach via a slice bispectrogram, which is a third-order spectrogram and is a slice version of the amplitude for the short-time bispectrum. This paper explains the slice bispectrogram and discusses the effectiveness of the derived method by evaluating the experimental results using the ESC‑50 sound dataset. As a result, the proposed scheme gives high accuracy and stability. Furthermore, some relationship between the accuracy and non-Gaussianity of sound signals was confirmed.

Keywords: environmental sound, bispectrum, spectrogram, slice bispectrogram, convolutional neural network

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576 FEM Analysis of an Occluded Ear Simulator with Narrow Slit Pathway

Authors: Manabu Sasajima, Takao Yamaguchi, Yoshio Koike, Mitsuharu Watanabe


This paper discusses the propagation of sound waves in air, specifically in narrow rectangular pathways of an occluded-ear simulator for acoustic measurements. In narrow pathways, both the speed of sound and the phase of the sound waves are affected by the damping of the air viscosity. Herein, we propose a new finite-element method (FEM) that considers the effects of the air viscosity. The method was developed as an extension of existing FEMs for porous, sound-absorbing materials. The results of a numerical calculation for a three-dimensional ear-simulator model using the proposed FEM were validated by comparing with theoretical lumped-parameter modeling analysis and standard values.

Keywords: ear simulator, FEM, simulation, viscosity

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575 Classification of Traffic Complex Acoustic Space

Authors: Bin Wang, Jian Kang


After years of development, the study of soundscape has been refined to the types of urban space and building. Traffic complex takes traffic function as the core, with obvious design features of architectural space combination and traffic streamline. The acoustic environment is strongly characterized by function, space, material, user and other factors. Traffic complex integrates various functions of business, accommodation, entertainment and so on. It has various forms, complex and varied experiences, and its acoustic environment is turned rich and interesting with distribution and coordination of various functions, division and unification of the mass, separation and organization of different space and the cross and the integration of multiple traffic flow. In this study, it made field recordings of each space of various traffic complex, and extracted and analyzed different acoustic elements, including changes in sound pressure, frequency distribution, steady sound source, sound source information and other aspects, to make cluster analysis of each independent traffic complex buildings. It divided complicated traffic complex building space into several typical sound space from acoustic environment perspective, mainly including stable sound space, high-pressure sound space, rhythm sound space and upheaval sound space. This classification can further deepen the study of subjective evaluation and control of the acoustic environment of traffic complex.

Keywords: soundscape, traffic complex, cluster analysis, classification

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574 Quantum Technologies, the Practical Challenges to It, and Ideas to Build an Inclusive Quantum Platform, Shoonya Ecosystem (Zero-Point Energy)

Authors: Partha Pratim Kalita


As sound can be converted to light, light can also be deduced to sound. There are technologies to convert light to sound, but there are not many technologies related to the field where sound can be converted to a distinct vibrational sequence of light. Like the laws under which the principles of sound work, there are principles for the light to become quantum in nature. Thus, as we move from sound to the subtler aspects of light, we are moving from 3D to 5D. Either we will be making technologies of 3D in today’s world, or we will be really interested in making technologies of the 5D, depends on our understanding of how quantum 5D works. Right now, the entire world is talking about quantum, which is about the nature and behavior of subatomic particles, which is 5D. In practice, they are using metals and machines based on atomic structures. If we talk of quantum without taking note of the technologies of 5D and beyond, we will only be reinterpreting relative theories in the name of quantum. This paper, therefore, will explore the possibilities of moving towards quantum in its real essence with the Shoonya ecosystem (zero-point energy). In this context, the author shall highlight certain working models developed by him, which are currently in discussion with the Indian government.

Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum technologies, healthcare, shoonya ecosystem, energy, human consciousness

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573 Intelligent Production Machine

Authors: A. Şahinoğlu, R. Gürbüz, A. Güllü, M. Karhan


This study in production machines, it is aimed that machine will automatically perceive cutting data and alter cutting parameters. The two most important parameters have to be checked in machine control unit are progress feed rate and speeds. These parameters are aimed to be controlled by sounds of machine. Optimum sound’s features introduced to computer. During process, real time data is received and converted by Matlab software. Data is converted into numerical values. According to them progress and speeds decreases/increases at a certain rate and thus optimum sound is acquired. Cutting process is made in respect of optimum cutting parameters. During chip remove progress, features of cutting tools, kind of cut material, cutting parameters and used machine; affects on various parameters. Instead of required parameters need to be measured such as temperature, vibration, and tool wear that emerged during cutting process; detailed analysis of the sound emerged during cutting process will provide detection of various data that included in the cutting process by the much more easy and economic way. The relation between cutting parameters and sound is being identified.

Keywords: cutting process, sound processing, intelligent late, sound analysis

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572 Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid

Authors: S. Levitsky, R. Bergman


Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.

Keywords: elastic tube, sound propagation, temperature effect, viscoelastic liquid

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571 Engineering Method to Measure the Impact Sound Improvement with Floor Coverings

Authors: Katarzyna Baruch, Agata Szelag, Jaroslaw Rubacha, Bartlomiej Chojnacki, Tadeusz Kamisinski


Methodology used to measure the reduction of transmitted impact sound by floor coverings situated on a massive floor is described in ISO 10140-3: 2010. To carry out such tests, the standardised reverberation room separated by a standard floor from the second measuring room are required. The need to have a special laboratory results in high cost and low accessibility of this measurement. The authors propose their own engineering method to measure the impact sound improvement with floor coverings. This method does not require standard rooms and floor. This paper describes the measurement procedure of proposed engineering method. Further, verification tests were performed. Validation of the proposed method was based on the analytical model, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model and empirical measurements. The received results were related to corresponding ones obtained from ISO 10140-3:2010 measurements. The study confirmed the usefulness of the engineering method.

Keywords: building acoustic, impact noise, impact sound insulation, impact sound transmission, reduction of impact sound

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570 Analyzing the Sound of Space - The Glissando of the Planets and the Spiral Movement on the Sound of Earth, Saturn and Jupiter

Authors: L. Tonia, I. Daglis, W. Kurth


The sound of the universe creates an affinity with the sounds of music. The analysis of the sound of space focuses on the existence of a tone material, the microstructure and macrostructure, and the form of the sound through the signals recorded during the flight of the spacecraft Van Allen Probes and Cassini’s mission. The sound becomes from the frequencies that belong to electromagnetic waves. Plasma Wave Science Instrument and Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) recorded the signals from space. A transformation of that signals to audio gave the opportunity to study and analyze the sound. Due to the fact that the musical tone pitch has a frequency and every electromagnetic wave produces a frequency too, the creation of a musical score, which appears as the sound of space, can give information about the form, the symmetry, and the harmony of the sound. The conversion of space radio emissions to audio provides a number of tone pitches corresponding to the original frequencies. Through the process of these sounds, we have the opportunity to present a music score that “composed” from space. In this score, we can see some basic features associated with the music form, the structure, the tone center of music material, the construction and deconstruction of the sound. The structure, which was built through a harmonic world, includes tone centers, major and minor scales, sequences of chords, and types of cadences. The form of the sound represents the symmetry of a spiral movement not only in micro-structural but also to macro-structural shape. Multiple glissando sounds in linear and polyphonic process of the sound, founded in magnetic fields around Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, but also a spiral movement appeared on the spectrogram of the sound. Whistles, Auroral Kilometric Radiations, and Chorus emissions reveal movements similar to musical excerpts of works by contemporary composers like Sofia Gubaidulina, Iannis Xenakis, EinojuhamiRautavara.

Keywords: space sound analysis, spiral, space music, analysis

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569 Another Beautiful Sounds: Building the Memory of Sound of Peddling in Beijing with Digital Technology

Authors: Dan Wang, Qing Ma, Xiaodan Wang, Tianjiao Qi


The sound of peddling in Beijing, also called “yo-heave-ho” or “cry of one's ware”, is a unique folk culture and usually found in Beijing hutong. For the civilians in Beijing, sound of peddling is part of their childhood. And for those who love the traditional culture of Beijing, it is an old song singing the local conditions and customs of the ancient city. For example, because of his great appreciation, the British poet Osbert Stewart once put sound of peddling which he had heard in Beijing as a street orchestra performance in the article named "Beijing's sound and color".This research aims to collect and integrate the voice/photo resources and historical materials of sound concerning peddling in Beijing by digital technology in order to protect the intangible cultural heritage and pass on the city memory. With the goal in mind, the next stage is to collect and record all the materials and resources based on the historical documents study and interviews with civilians or performers. Then set up a metadata scheme (which refers to the domestic and international standards such as "Audio Data Processing Standards in the National Library", DC, VRA, and CDWA, etc.) to describe, process and organize the sound of peddling into a database. In order to fully show the traditional culture of sound of peddling in Beijing, web design and GIS technology are utilized to establish a website and plan holding offline exhibitions and events for people to simulate and learn the sound of peddling by using VR/AR technology. All resources are opened to the public and civilians can share the digital memory through not only the offline experiential activities, but also the online interaction. With all the attempts, a multi-media narrative platform has been established to multi-dimensionally record the sound of peddling in old Beijing with text, images, audio, video and so on.

Keywords: sound of peddling, GIS, metadata scheme, VR/AR technology

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568 Sound Noise Control of a Steam Ejector in a Typical Power Plant: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing a Silencer-Muffler

Authors: Ali Siami, Masoud Asayesh, Asghar Najafi, Amirhosein Hamedanian


There are so many noise sources in power generation units that these sources can produce high-level sound noise. Therefore, sound noise reduction methods can assist these industries, especially in these days that laws related to environmental issues become more strict. In a typical power plant, so many machines and devices with high-level sound noise are arranged beside of each others. Therefore, the sound source identification and reducing the noise level can be very vital. In this paper, the procedure for designing, manufacturing and testing of a silencer-muffler used for a power plant steam vent is mentioned. This unit is placed near the residential area and so it is very important to reduce the noise emission. For this purpose, in the first step, measurements have done to identify the sound source and the frequency content of noise. The overall level of noise was so high and it was more than 120dB. Then, the appropriate noise control device is designed according to the measurement results and operational conditions. In the next step, the designed silencer-muffler has been manufactured and installed on the steam discharge of the ejector. For validation of the silencer-muffler effect, the acoustic test was done again in operating mode. Finally, the measurement results before and after the installation are compared. The results have confirmed a considerable reduction in noise level resultant of using silencer-muffler in the designed frequency range.

Keywords: silencer-muffler, sound noise control, sound measurement, steam ejector

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567 Transmission Loss Analysis for Panels Laminated with Felt and Film

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa


To reduce the interior noise of cars in high-frequency region, sound proof materials are laminated with the body panels and the interior trims. Therefore, sound proof properties of the laminates play an important role for the efficient acoustical design. A program code which predicts both sound absorption properties and sound insulation properties of the laminates are developed. This program code is used for transfer matrix method by Biot theory. This report described the outline of this program code, and the calculation results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: porous media, transmission loss, Biot theory, transfer matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
566 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky


Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

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