Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 492

Search results for: Ting Chung Hung

492 The Development of the Self-concept Scale for Elders in Taiwan

Authors: Ting-Chia Lien, Tzu-Yin Yen, Szu-Fan Chen, Tai-chun Kuo, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Chen Chung, Hock-Sen Gwee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the result of the survey by developing “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”, which could provide community counseling and guidance institution for practical application. The sample of this study consisted of 332 elders in Taiwan (male: 33.4%; female: 66.6%). The mean age of participants was 65-98 years. The measurements applied in this study is “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”. After item and factor analyses, the preliminary version of the Self-Concept Scale for Elders was revised to the final version. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There were 10 items in Self-Concept Scale for Elders. 2) The variance explained for the scale accounted for 77.15%, with corrected item-total correlations Cronbach’s alpha=0.87. 3) The content validity, criterion validity and construct validity have been found to be satisfactory. Based on the findings, the implication and suggestions are offered for reference regarding counselor education and future research.

Keywords: self-concept, elder, development scale, applied psychology

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491 Distributed Perceptually Important Point Identification for Time Series Data Mining

Authors: Tak-Chung Fu, Ying-Kit Hung, Fu-Lai Chung

Abstract:

In the field of time series data mining, the concept of the Perceptually Important Point (PIP) identification process is first introduced in 2001. This process originally works for financial time series pattern matching and it is then found suitable for time series dimensionality reduction and representation. Its strength is on preserving the overall shape of the time series by identifying the salient points in it. With the rise of Big Data, time series data contributes a major proportion, especially on the data which generates by sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. According to the nature of PIP identification and the successful cases, it is worth to further explore the opportunity to apply PIP in time series ‘Big Data’. However, the performance of PIP identification is always considered as the limitation when dealing with ‘Big’ time series data. In this paper, two distributed versions of PIP identification based on the Specialized Binary (SB) Tree are proposed. The proposed approaches solve the bottleneck when running the PIP identification process in a standalone computer. Improvement in term of speed is obtained by the distributed versions.

Keywords: distributed computing, performance analysis, Perceptually Important Point identification, time series data mining

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490 IgA/λ Plasma Cell Myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis: A Case Report

Authors: Kai Pei Huang, Ting Chung Hung, Li Ching Wu

Abstract:

Amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions wherein amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organ or tissues and cause harm. Among the several forms of amyloidosis, the principal types of that in inpatient medical services are the AL amyloidosis (primary) and AA amyloidois (secondary). AL Amyloidois is due to deposition of protein derived from overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain in plasma cell myeloma. Furthermore, it is a systemic disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, including heavy proteinemia and edema, heptosplenomegaly, otherwise unexplained heart failure. We reported a 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria (UPCR:1679.8), leukocytosis (WBC:16.2 x 10^3/uL), results of serum urea nitrogen (39mg/dL), creatinine (0.76 mg/dL), IgG (748 mg/dL.), IgA (635 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), kappa light chain(18.8 mg/dL), lambda light chain (110.0 mg/dL) and kappa/lambda ratio (0.17). Renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in glomerular mesangial area, and Congo red stain highlights amyloid deposition in glomeruli. Additional lab studies included serum protein electrophoresis, which shows a major monoclonal peak in β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. We treated sample with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to clarify two IgA/λ are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Later examination confirmed it existed plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow, and the immunohistochemical staining showed monotypic for λ light chain and are positive for IgA. All findings mentioned above reveal it is a case of plasma cell myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain, plasma cell myeloma, serum protein electrophoresis

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489 Deteriorating Ambient Air Quality Resulted from Invasion of Foreign Air Pollutants

Authors: Kuo-C. Lo, Chung-H. Hung

Abstract:

Invasion of foreign air pollutants to deteriorate local air quality has become an emerging international issue of concern. This study aimed to apply meteorological and air quality model, WRF-Chem (V3.1), for simulating and analyzing the phenomenon of forming of high-concentrated particulate matters, PM10 and PM2.5, in ambient air of Taiwan during January 17th to 19th, 2014. The foreign air pollutants were mainly from long-distance transport of air pollutants of China being transported with a strong continental cold high. It was observed that PM10 and PM2.5 peaked as high as 182~588 μg/m3 and 95~165 μg/m3, respectively, in the ambient air of west side of Taiwan. They were about 2~3 folds higher than the usual concentrations of particulate matters in these seasons.

Keywords: WRF-Chem, air pollution, PM2.5, ambient air quality

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488 Association between Levels of Volatile Organic Compound Metabolites and Cigarette Smoking-Related Urothelial Carcinoma

Authors: Chi-Jung Chung, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chiu-Shong Liu, Sheng-Wei Li, Mu-Chi Chung, Ting-Jie Wen, Hui-Ling Lee

Abstract:

Cigarette smoke contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene. This study aimed to explore the associations between the urinary levels of cotinine and VOC metabolites and the risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC). A hospital-based case–control study involving two groups matched on the basis of age ( ± 3 years) and gender was designed. UC was clinically diagnosed through urological examinations and pathologically verified. Smoking-related information was collected through questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with all study participants. Urine samples were collected for the analysis of the urinary levels of VOC metabolites, cotinine, and 8-hydroxydeoxygua- nosine (8-OHdG), which was selected as a proxy of oxidative stress. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to estimate the risk of UC. The urinary cotinine and 8-OHdG levels of the UC group were higher than those of the control group. The urinary levels of VOC metabolites, including N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), N- acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine, N-acetyl-S- (4- hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl)-Lcysteine-3, trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t- MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) increased as the urinary levels of cotinine increased. Relevant dose-response relationships between the risk of UC risk and the urinary levels of AAMA , t,t-MA, SPMA, and 8-OHdG were found after adjusting for potential risk factors. The UC risk of participants with high urinary levels of cotinine, AAMA, t,t-MA, SPMA, and 8-OHdG were 3.5–6-fold higher than those of other participants. Increased urinary levels of VOC metabolites were associated with smoking-related UC risk. The development of UC should be explored in large-scale in vitro or in vivo studies with the repeated measurement of VOC metabolites.

Keywords: volatile organic compound, urothelial carcinoma, cotinine, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine

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487 Development of a Three-Dimensional-Flywheel Robotic System

Authors: Chung-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Kai, Ting, Kai-Yuan Liu, Pang-Wei Yen, Jia-Ying Tu

Abstract:

In this paper, a new design of spherical robotic system based on the concepts of gimbal structure and gyro dynamics is presented. Robots equipped with multiple wheels and complex steering mechanics may increase the weight and degrade the energy transmission efficiency. In addition, the wheeled and legged robots are relatively vulnerable to lateral impact and lack of lateral mobility. Therefore, the proposed robotic design uses a spherical shell as the main body for ground locomotion, instead of using wheel devices. Three spherical shells are structured in a similar way to a gimbal device and rotate like a gyro system. The design and mechanism of the proposed robotic system is introduced. In addition, preliminary results of the dynamic model based on the principles of planar rigid body kinematics and Lagrangian equation are included. Simulation results and rig construction are presented to verify the concepts.

Keywords: gyro, gimbal, lagrange equation, spherical robots

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486 New Insight into Fluid Mechanics of Lorenz Equations

Authors: Yu-Kai Ting, Jia-Ying Tu, Chung-Chun Hsiao

Abstract:

New physical insights into the nonlinear Lorenz equations related to flow resistance is discussed in this work. The chaotic dynamics related to Lorenz equations has been studied in many papers, which is due to the sensitivity of Lorenz equations to initial conditions and parameter uncertainties. However, the physical implication arising from Lorenz equations about convectional motion attracts little attention in the relevant literature. Therefore, as a first step to understand the related fluid mechanics of convectional motion, this paper derives the Lorenz equations again with different forced conditions in the model. Simulation work of the modified Lorenz equations without the viscosity or buoyancy force is discussed. The time-domain simulation results may imply that the states of the Lorenz equations are related to certain flow speed and flow resistance. The flow speed of the underlying fluid system increases as the flow resistance reduces. This observation would be helpful to analyze the coupling effects of different fluid parameters in a convectional model in future work.

Keywords: Galerkin method, Lorenz equations, Navier-Stokes equations, convectional motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
485 Recovery of Iodide Ion from TFT-LCD Wastewater by Forward Osmosis

Authors: Yu-Ting Chen, Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray

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Forward osmosis (FO) is a crucial technology with low operating pressure and cost for water reuse and reclamation. In Taiwan, with the advance of science and technology, thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD) based industries are growing exponentially. In the optoelectronic industry wastewater, the iodide is one of the valuable element; it is also used in the medical industry. In this study, it was intended to concentrate iodide by utilizing FO system and can be reused for TFT-LCD production. Cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were used for all these FO experiments, and potassium iodide solution was used as the feed solution. It has been found that EDTA-2Na as draw solution at pH 8 produced high water flux and minimized salt leakage. The result also demonstrated that EDTA-2Na of concentration 0.6M could achieve the highest water flux (6.69L/m2 h). Additionally, from the recovered iodide ion from pH 3-8, the I- species was found to be more than 99%, whereas I2 was measured to be less than 1%. When potassium iodide solution was used from low to high concentration (1000 ppm to 10000 ppm), the iodide rejection was found to be than more 90%. Since, CTA membrane is negatively charged and I- is anionic in nature, so it will from electrostatic repulsion and hence there will be higher rejection. The overall performance demonstrates that recovery of concentrated iodide using FO system is a promising technology.

Keywords: draw solution, EDTA-2Na, forward osmosis, potassium iodide

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484 The Role of Reading Self-Efficacy and Perception of Difficulty in English Reading among Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Kevin Chan, Kevin K. H. Chung, Patcy P. S. Yeung, H. L. Ip, Bill T. C. Chung, Karen M. K. Chung

Abstract:

Purpose: Recent evidence shows that reading self-efficacy and students perceived difficulty in reading are significantly associated with word reading and reading fluency. However, little is known about these relationships among students learning to read English as a second language, particularly in Chinese students. This study examined the contributions of reading self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, and cognitive-linguistic skills to performance on English word reading and reading fluency in Chinese students. Method: A sample of 122 second-and third-grade students in Hong Kong, China, participated in this study. Students completed the measures of reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading. They were assessed on their English cognitive-linguistic and reading skills: rapid automatized naming, nonword reading, phonological awareness, word reading, and one-minute word reading. Results: Results of path analysis indicated that when students’ grades were controlled, reading self-efficacy was a significant correlate of word reading and reading fluency, whereas perception of difficulty in reading negatively predicted word reading. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of taking students’ reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading and their cognitive-linguistic skills into consideration when designing reading intervention and instructions for students learning English as a second language.

Keywords: self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, english as a second language, word reading

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483 Performance of On-site Earthquake Early Warning Systems for Different Sensor Locations

Authors: Ting-Yu Hsu, Shyu-Yu Wu, Shieh-Kung Huang, Hung-Wei Chiang, Kung-Chun Lu, Pei-Yang Lin, Kuo-Liang Wen

Abstract:

Regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are not suitable for Taiwan, as most destructive seismic hazards arise due to in-land earthquakes. These likely cause the lead-time provided by regional EEW systems before a destructive earthquake wave arrives to become null. On the other hand, an on-site EEW system can provide more lead-time at a region closer to an epicenter, since only seismic information of the target site is required. Instead of leveraging the information of several stations, the on-site system extracts some P-wave features from the first few seconds of vertical ground acceleration of a single station and performs a prediction of the oncoming earthquake intensity at the same station according to these features. Since seismometers could be triggered by non-earthquake events such as a passing of a truck or other human activities, to reduce the likelihood of false alarms, a seismometer was installed at three different locations on the same site and the performance of the EEW system for these three sensor locations were discussed. The results show that the location on the ground of the first floor of a school building maybe a good choice, since the false alarms could be reduced and the cost for installation and maintenance is the lowest.

Keywords: earthquake early warning, on-site, seismometer location, support vector machine

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482 A Study of Rapid Replication of Square-Microlens Structures

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, Jung-Ruey Tsai

Abstract:

This paper reports a method for the replication of micro-scale structures. By using electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting system with magnetic soft stamp written square-microlens cavity, a photopolymer square-microlens structures can be rapidly fabricated. Under the proper processing conditions, the polymeric square-microlens structures with feature size of width 100.3um and height 15.2um across a large area can be successfully fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profiler observations confirm that the micro-scale polymer structures are produced without defects or distortion and with good pattern fidelity over a 60x60mm2 area. This technique shows great potential for the efficient replication of the micro-scale structure array at room temperature and with high productivity and low cost.

Keywords: square-microlens structures, electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting, magnetic soft stamp

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481 The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Interpersonal Interaction on Mentoring Function

Authors: Ching-Yuan Huang, Rhay-Hung Weng, Yi-Ting Chen

Abstract:

Mentoring functions will improve new nurses' job performance, provide support with new nurses, and then reduce the turnover rate of them. This study explored the impact of transformational leadership and interpersonal interaction on mentoring functions. We employed a questionnaire survey to collect data and selected a sample of new nurses from three hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 306 valid surveys were obtained. Multiple regression model analysis was conducted to test the study hypothesis. Inspirational motivation, idealized influence, and individualized consideration had a positive influence on overall mentoring function, but intellectual stimulation had a positive influence on career development function only. Perceived similarity and interaction frequency also had positive influences on mentoring functions. When the shift overlap rate exceeded 80%, mentoring function experienced a negative result. The transformational leadership of mentors actually would improve the mentoring functions among new staff nurses. Perceived similarity and interaction frequency between mentees and mentors also had a positive influence on mentoring functions. Managers should enhance the transformational leadership of mentors by designing leadership training and motivation programs. Furthermore, nursing managers should promote the interaction between new staff nurses and their mentors, but the shift overlap rate should not exceed 80%.

Keywords: interpersonal interaction, mentoring function, mentor, new nurse, transformational leadership

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480 Yu Kwang-Chung vs. Yu Kwang-Chung: Untranslatability as the Touchstone of a Poet

Authors: Min-Hua Wu

Abstract:

The untranslatability of an established poet’s tour de force is thoroughly explored by Matthew Arnold (1822-1888). In his On Translating Homer (1861), Arnold lists the four most striking poetic qualities of Homer, namely his rapidity, plainness and directness of style and diction, plainness and directness of ideas, and nobleness. He concludes that such celebrated English translators as Cowper, Pope, Chapman, and Mr. Newman are all doomed, due to their respective failure in rendering the totality of the four Homeric poetic qualities. Why poetic translation always amounts to being proven such a mission impossible for the translator? According to Arnold, it is because there constantly exists a mist interposed between the translator’s own literary self-obsession and the objective artistic qualities that reside in the work of the original author. Foregrounding such a seemingly empowering yet actually detrimental poetic mist, he explains why the aforementioned translators fail in their attempts to bring the Homeric charm to the British reader. Drawing on Arnold’s analytical study on Homeric translation, the research attempts to bring Yu Kwang-chung the poet vis-à-vis Yu Kwang-chung the translator, with an aim not so much to find any similar mist as revealed by Arnold between his Chinese poetry and English translation as to probe into a latent and veiled literary and lingual mist interposed between Chinese and English, if not between Chinese and English literatures. The major work studied and analyzed for this study is Yu’s own Chinese poetry and his own English translation collected in The Night Watchman: Yu Kwang-chung 1958-2004. The research argues that the following critical elements that characterizes Yu’s poetics are to a certain extent 'transformed,' if not 'lost,' in his English translation: a. the Chinese pictographic and ideographic unit terms which so unfailingly characterize the poet’s incredible creativity, allowing him to habitually and conveniently coin concrete textual images or word-scapes almost at his own will; b. the subtle wordplay and punning which appear at a reasonable frequency; c. the parallel contrastive repetitive syntactic structure within a single poetic line; d. the ambiguous and highly associative diction in the adjective and noun categories; e. the literary allusion that harks back to the old times of Chinese literature; f. the alliteration that adds rhythm and smoothness to the lines; g. the rhyming patterns that bring about impressive sonority and lingering echo to the ears of the reader; h. the grandeur-imposing and sublimity-arousing word-scaping which hinges on the employment of verbs; i. the meandering cultural heritage that embraces such elements as Chinese medicine and kung fu; and j. other features of the like. Once we appeal to the Arnoldian tribunal and resort to the strict standards of such a Victorian cultural and literary critic who insists 'to see the object as in itself it really is,' we may serve as a potential judge for the tug of war between Yu Kwang-chung the poet and Yu Kwang-chung the translator, a tug of war that will not merely broaden our understating of Chinese poetics but deepen our apprehension of Chinese-English translatology.

Keywords: Yu Kwang-chung, The Night Watchman, poetry translation, Chinese-English translation, translation studies, Matthew Arnold

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479 Development of Cationic Gelatin Nanoparticles as an Antigen-Carrier for Mucosal Immunization

Authors: Ping-Lun Jiang, Hung-Jun Lin, Shen-Fu Lin, Mei-Yin Chien, Ting-Wei Li, Chun-Han Lin, Der-Zen Liu

Abstract:

Mucosal vaccine induces both mucosal (secretory IgA) and systemic immune responses and it is considered an ideal vaccination strategy for prevention of infectious diseases. One important point to be considered in mucosal vaccination is effective antigen delivery system which can manage effective delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of mucosal. In the present study, cationic gelatin nanoparticles were prepared as ideal carriers for more efficient antigen delivery. The average diameter of cationic gelatin nanoparticle was approximate 190 nm, and the zeta potential was about +45 mV, then ovalbumin (OVA) was physically absorbed onto cationic gelatin nanoparticle. The OVA absorption rate was near 95% the zeta potential was about +20 mV. We show that cationic gelatin nanoparticle effectively facilitated antigen uptake by mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs) and RAW264.7 cells and induced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice twice immunized intranasally with OVA-absorbed cationic gelatin nanoparticle induced high levels of OVA-specific IgG in the serum and IgA in their in the nasal and lung wash fluid. These results indicate that nasal administration of cationic gelatin nanoparticles induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses and cationic gelatin nanoparticles might be a potential antigen delivery carrier for further clinical applications.

Keywords: antigen delivery, antigen-presenting cells, gelatin nanoparticle, mucosal vaccine

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478 Triadic Relationship of Icon Design for Semi-Literate Communities

Authors: Peng-Hui Maffee Wan, Klarissa Ting Ting Chang, Rax Suen Chun Lung

Abstract:

Icons, or pictorial and graphical objects, are commonly used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) fields as the mediator in order to communicate information to users. Yet there has been little studies focusing on a majority of the world’s population, semi-literate communities, in terms of the fundamental know-how for designing icons for such population. In this study, two sets of icons belonging in different icon taxonomy, abstract and concrete are designed for a mobile application for semi-literate agricultural communities. In this paper, we propose a triadic relationship of an icon, namely meaning, task and mental image, which inherits the triadic relationship of a sign. User testing with the application and a post-pilot questionnaire are conducted as the experimental approach in two rural villages in India. Icons belonging to concrete taxonomy perform better than abstract icons on the premise that the design of the icon fulfills the underlying rules of the proposed triadic relationship.

Keywords: icon, GUI, mobile app, semi-literate

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477 Enhancement of Light Out Efficiency of PLED Device Employing Designed Substrate Combined with Nano-Line Patterns

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, H. C. Lin

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This paper reports a study for the light outcoupling efficiency of the PLED device. In use of a designed substrate combined with nano-line patterns in PLED device, the light outcoupling efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The designed substrate was made by UV imprinting technology, such as triangular microlens arrays on the front and periodic corrugated patterns on the back surface. The nano-line patterns in PLED device was fabricated by advanced microstamping and ink-jet printing techniques. For high angles of observation with respect to the substrate surface normal, the light out intensity of the developed PLED device is increased from 0.05 (a.u.) up to 0.69 (a.u.) at the view angle 85 degree. The designed integration leads to 64% increase of the light out intensity compared with the conventional PLED device.

Keywords: triangular microlens, corrugation patterns, nano-line patterns, PLED device, UV imprinting technology, microstamping

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476 A Study of the Establishment of the Evaluation Index System for Tourist Attraction Disaster Resilience

Authors: Chung-Hung Tsai, Ya-Ping Li

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Tourism industry is highly depended on the natural environment and climate. Compared to other industries, it is more susceptible to environment and climate. Taiwan belongs to a sea island country and located in the subtropical monsoon zone. The events of climate variability, frequency of typhoons and rainfalls raged are caused regularly serious disaster. In traditional disaster assessment, it usually focuses on the disaster damage and risk assessment, which is short of the features from different industries to understand the impact of the restoring force in post-disaster resilience and the main factors that constitute resilience. The object of this study is based on disaster recovery experience of tourism area and to understand the main factors affecting the tourist area of disaster resilience. The combinations of literature review and interviews with experts are prepared an early indicator system of the disaster resilience. Then, it is screened through a Fuzzy Delphi Method and Analytic Network Process for weight analysis. Finally, this study will establish the tourism disaster resilience evaluation index system considering the Taiwan's tourism industry characteristics. We hope that be able to enhance disaster resilience after tourist areas and increases the sustainability of industrial development. It is expected to provide government departments the tourism industry as the future owner of the assets in extreme climates responses.

Keywords: resilience, Fuzzy Delphi Method, Analytic Network Process, industrial development

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475 The Effect of Post-Acute Stroke Inpatient Rehabilitation under per Diem Payment: A Pilot Study

Authors: Chung-Yuan Wang, Kai-Chun Lee, Min-Hung Wang, Yu-Ren Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Sen-Shan Fan

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Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) was launched in 1995. It is an important social welfare policy in Taiwan. Regardless of the diversified social and economic status, universal coverage of NHI was assured. In order to regain better self-care performance, stroke people received in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation. Though NHI limited the rehabilitation frequency to one per day, the cost of rehabilitation still increased rapidly. Through the intensive rehabilitation during the post-stroke rehabilitation golden period, stroke patients might decrease their disability and shorten the rehabilitation period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. This study was started from 2014/03/01. The stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital or medical center were indicated to the study. The neurologists would check his modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Only patients with their mRS score between 2 and 4 were included to the study. Patients with unclear consciousness, unstable medical condition, unclear stroke onset date and no willing for 3 weeks in-patient intensive rehabilitation were excluded. After the physiatrist’s systemic evaluation, the subjects received intensive rehabilitation programs. The frequency of rehabilitation was thrice per day. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech/swallowing therapy were included in the programs for the needs of the stroke patients. Activity daily life performance (Barthel Index) and functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale) were used to measure the training effect. During 3/1 to 5/31, thirteen subjects (five male and eight female) were included. Seven subjects were aged below 60. Three subjects were aged over 70. Most of the subjects (seven subjects) received intensive post-stroke rehabilitation for three weeks. Three subjects drop out from the programs and went back home respectively after receiving only 7, 10, and 13 days rehabilitation. Among these 13 subjects, nine of them got improvement in activity daily life performance (Barthel Index score). Ten of them got improvement in functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale). The intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation did help stroke patients promote their health in our study. Not only their functional performance improved, but also their self-confidence improved. Furthermore, their family also got better health status. Stroke rehabilitation under per diem payment was noted in long-term care institution in developed countries. Over 95% populations in Taiwan were supported under the Taiwan's National Health Insurance system, but there was no national long-term care insurance system. Most of the stroke patients in Taiwan live with his family and continue their rehabilitation programs from out-patient department. This pilot study revealed the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. The number of the subjects and the study period were limited. Thus, further study will be needed.

Keywords: rehabilitation, post-acute stroke, per diem payment, NHI

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474 Finite Element Analysis of the Lumbar Spine after Unilateral and Bilateral Laminotomies and Laminectomy

Authors: Chih-Hsien Chen, Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Wei Chang, Yen-Nien Chen, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li

Abstract:

Laminotomy is a spinal decompression surgery compatible with a minimally invasive approach. However, the unilateral laminotomy for bilateral side decompression leads to more perioperative complications than the bilateral laminotomy. Although the unilateral laminotomy removes the least bone tissue among the spinal decompression surgeries, the difference of spinal stability between unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy is rarely investigated. This study aims to compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy on the lumbar spine by finite element (FE) simulation. A three-dimensional FE model of the lumbar spine (L1–L5) was constructed with the vertebral body, discs, and ligaments, as well as the sacrum was constructed. Three different surgical methods, namely unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy, at L3–L4 and L4–L5 were considered. Partial pedicle and entire ligamentum flavum were removed to simulate bilateral decompression in laminotomy. The entire lamina and spinal processes from the lower L3 to upper L5 were detached in the laminectomy model. Then, four kinds of loadings, namely flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation, were applied on the lumbar with various decompression conditions. The results indicated that the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy both increased the range of motion (ROM) compared with intact lumbar, while the laminectomy increased more ROM than both laminotomy did. The difference of ROM between the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy was very minor. Furthermore, bilateral laminotomy demonstrated similar poster element stress with unilateral laminotomy. Unilateral and bilateral laminotomy are equally suggested to bilateral decompression of lumbar spine with minimally invasive technique because limited effect was aroused due to more bone remove in the bilateral laminotomy on the lumbar stability. Furthermore, laminectomy is the last option for lumbar decompression.

Keywords: minimally invasive technique, lumbar decompression, laminotomy, laminectomy, finite element method

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473 A Vehicle Monitoring System Based on the LoRa Technique

Authors: Chao-Linag Hsieh, Zheng-Wei Ye, Chen-Kang Huang, Yeun-Chung Lee, Chih-Hong Sun, Tzai-Hung Wen, Jehn-Yih Juang, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Air pollution and climate warming become more and more intensified in many areas, especially in urban areas. Environmental parameters are critical information to air pollution and weather monitoring. Thus, it is necessary to develop a suitable air pollution and weather monitoring system for urban areas. In this study, a vehicle monitoring system (VMS) based on the IoT technique is developed. Cars are selected as the research tool because it can reach a greater number of streets to collect data. The VMS can monitor different environmental parameters, including ambient temperature and humidity, and air quality parameters, including PM2.5, NO2, CO, and O3. The VMS can provide other information, including GPS signals and the vibration information through driving a car on the street. Different sensor modules are used to measure the parameters and collect the measured data and transmit them to a cloud server through the LoRa protocol. A user interface is used to show the sensing data storing at the cloud server. To examine the performance of the system, a researcher drove a Nissan x-trail 1998 to the area close to the Da’an District office in Taipei to collect monitoring data. The collected data are instantly shown on the user interface. The four kinds of information are provided by the interface: GPS positions, weather parameters, vehicle information, and air quality information. With the VMS, users can obtain the information regarding air quality and weather conditions when they drive their car to an urban area. Also, government agencies can make decisions on traffic planning based on the information provided by the proposed VMS.

Keywords: LoRa, monitoring system, smart city, vehicle

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472 Time-Series Analysis of Port State Control Inspections for Tankers

Authors: Chien-Chung Yuan, Cunqiang Cai, Wu-Hsun Chung, Shu-Te Sung

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A tanker is a critical vessel used to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk in maritime shipping. However, it is more dangerous than other types of vessels. Port State Control (PSC) inspection is an important measure to ensure maritime safety when such vessels traveling between ports. However, the current inspection system lacks a useful tool to observe the inspections for tankers and to identify non-random instances in PSC inspections. This study collects the inspection records in Taiwan’s ports from 2015 to 2018 and utilizes run charts to map the PSC inspections for tankers in terms of deficiencies. Based on these time-series charts, several patterns of deficiencies are identified. The results demonstrate that run charts are a useful tool to observe how the PSC inspections for tankers are performed. Also, the charts can help port administrations to identify abnormal phenomena for further investigation. Furthermore, with valuable information from the analysis, port administrations can take proactive improvement measures to ensure the safety of tanker shipping.

Keywords: port state control, tanker, run chart, deficiency

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471 Understanding the Semantic Network of Tourism Studies in Taiwan by Using Bibliometrics Analysis

Authors: Chun-Min Lin, Yuh-Jen Wu, Ching-Ting Chung

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The formulation of tourism policies requires objective academic research and evidence as support, especially research from local academia. Taiwan is a small island, and its economic growth relies heavily on tourism revenue. Taiwanese government has been devoting to the promotion of the tourism industry over the past few decades. Scientific research outcomes by Taiwanese scholars may and will help lay the foundations for drafting future tourism policy by the government. In this study, a total of 120 full journal articles published between 2008 and 2016 from the Journal of Tourism and Leisure Studies (JTSL) were examined to explore the scientific research trend of tourism study in Taiwan. JTSL is one of the most important Taiwanese journals in the tourism discipline which focuses on tourism-related issues and uses traditional Chinese as the study language. The method of co-word analysis from bibliometrics approaches was employed for semantic analysis in this study. When analyzing Chinese words and phrases, word segmentation analysis is a crucial step. It must be carried out initially and precisely in order to obtain meaningful word or word chunks for further frequency calculation. A word segmentation system basing on N-gram algorithm was developed in this study to conduct semantic analysis, and 100 groups of meaningful phrases with the highest recurrent rates were located. Subsequently, co-word analysis was employed for semantic classification. The results showed that the themes of tourism research in Taiwan in recent years cover the scope of tourism education, environmental protection, hotel management, information technology, and senior tourism. The results can give insight on the related issues and serve as a reference for tourism-related policy making and follow-up research.

Keywords: bibliometrics, co-word analysis, word segmentation, tourism research, policy

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470 Population Stereotype Production, User Factors, and Icon Design for Underserved Communities of Rural India

Authors: Avijit Sengupta, Klarissa Ting Ting Cheng, Maffee Peng-Hui Wan

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This study investigates the influence of user factors and referent characteristics on representation types generated using the stereotype production method for designing icons. Sixty-eight participants of farming communities were asked to draw images based on sixteen feature referents. Significant statistical differences were found between the types of representations generated for contextual and context-independent referents. Strong correlations were observed between years of formal education and total number of abstract representations produced for both contextual and context-independent referents. However, representation characteristics were not influenced by other user factors such as participants’ experience with mobile phone and years of farming experience. A statistically significant tendency of making concrete representations was observed for both contextual and context-independent referents. These findings provide insights on community members’ involvement in icon design and suggest a consolidated icon design strategy based on population stereotype, particularly for under-served rural communities of India.

Keywords: abstract representation, concrete representation, participatory design, population stereotype

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469 Understanding the Influence of Cross-National Distances on Tourist Expenditure

Authors: Wei-Ting Hung

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Inbound tourist expenditure might not only have influenced by individual tourist characteristics but may also be affected by nationality characteristics. The cross national distance effects on tourist consumption behavior should be incorporated in the analytical framework. Additionally, the often used factor analysis, cluster analysis and regression analysis overlook the hierarchical tourist consumption data structure and may lead to misleading results. The objectives of the present study were twofold. First, we propose a multilevel model that takes individual and cross-national differences into account under a hierarchical framework. Second, we further sought to determine the types of cross-national differences affecting tourist expenditure. Thus, this study incorporates the individual tourist effects and cross national distance effects simultaneously, uses the data of 2010 Annual Survey Report on Visitors’ Expenditure and Trends in Taiwan to investigate the determinants of inbound tourist expenditure. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate the influence of individual tourist effects and cross national distance effects on inbound tourist expenditure. The empirical results show that cross national distance plays a crucial role in tourist consumption behavior. Our findings also indicate age and income have positive influence on tourism expenditure., whereas education and gender do not have significant impact. Regarding macro-level factors, geographic and cultural differences exhibited significant positive relationships on tourism expenditure, while economic differences did not. Based on the above empirical results, it is suggested that tour operators should take tourists’ individual attributes, particularly their income and age, into consideration when arranging tours. In addition, nationality holds sway over tourists’ consumption behavior, of which geographic and cultural differences are the two major factors at play. The empirical results of this study serve as practical suggestions for tourism marketing strategies and policy implications for government policies.

Keywords: cross national distance, inbound tourist, multilevel analysis, tourist expenditure

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468 The Fishery and Electricity Symbiosis Environment and Social Inspection in Taiwan: The Kaohsiung City Example

Authors: Bing-Shun Huang, Hung-Ju Chiu, Wen-Kai Hsieh, Hsiu-Chuan Lin, Ming-Lung Hung

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Taiwan's solar photovoltaic target in 2025 is 20 GW, of which the fish-electricity symbiosis target is 4 GW. In the future, many solar photovoltaic installations may cause local environmental or social impacts. Therefore, the Taiwan government inspects the fish-electricity symbiosis to reduce the impact of solar photovoltaics on the local environment or society. This stuy takes the symbiosis of fishery and electricity in Kaohsiung City as an example to explore Taiwan's environmental and social inspection practices. It mainly analyzes the two aspects of environmental ecology and social economy. The results show that the environmental inspection is mainly through site surveys, ecological information mapping, on-site interviews, and public consultation meetings. Social inspection mainly includes document analysis, on-site interviews, site surveys, expert discussions, and public consultations to identify possible local problems. Although the government had recognized the local issues, the future status may also change. It is recommended that future photoelectric companies should reconfirm the current situation of development sites when applying for the installation and propose countermeasures to solve the problem.

Keywords: taiwan, fish-electricity symbiosis, environment, society, inspection

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467 Leaf Epidermal Micromorphology as Identification Features in Accessions of Sesamum indicum L. Collected from Northern Nigeria

Authors: S. D. Abdul, F. B. J. Sawa, D. Z. Andrawus, G. Dan'ilu

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Fresh leaves of twelve accessions of S. indicum were studied to examine their stomatal features, trichomes, epidermal cell shapes and anticlinal cell-wall patterns which may be used for the delimitation of the varieties. The twelve accessions of S. indicum studied have amphistomatic leaves, i.e. having stomata on both surfaces. Four types of stomatal complex types were observed namely, diacytic, anisocytic, tetracytic and anomocytic. Anisocytic type was the most common occurring on both surfaces of all the varieties and occurred 100% in varieties lale-duk, ex-sudan and ex-gombe 6. One-way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between the stomatal densities of ex-gombe 6, ex-sudan, adawa-wula, adawa-ting, ex-gombe 4 and ex-gombe 2 . Accession adawa-ting (improved) has the smallest stomatal size (26.39µm) with highest stomatal density (79.08mm2) while variety adawa-wula possessed the largest stomatal size (74.31µm) with lowest stomatal density (29.60mm2), the exception was found in variety adawa-ting whose stomatal size is larger (64.03µm) but with higher stomatal density (71.54mm2). Wavy, curve or undulate anticlinal wall patterns with irregular and or isodiametric epidermal cell shapes were observed. These accessions were found to exhibit high degree of heterogeneity in their trichome features. Ten types of trichomes were observed: unicellular, glandular peltate, capitate glandular, long unbranched uniseriate, short unbranched uniseriate, scale, multicellular, multiseriate capitate glandular, branched uniseriate and stallate trichomes. The most frequent trichome type is short-unbranched uniseriate, followed by long-unbranched uniseriate (72.73% and 72.5%) respectively. The least frequent was multiseriate capitate glandular (11.5%). The high variation in trichome types and density coupled with the stomatal complex types suggest that these varieties of S. indicum probably have the capacity to conserve water. Furthermore, the leaf micromorphological features varied from one accession to another, hence, are found to be good diagnostic and additional tool in identification as well as nomenclature of the accessions of S. indicum.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum, stomata, trichomes, epidermal cells, taxonomy

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466 Morphological Characteristics and Development of the Estuary Area of Lam River, Vietnam

Authors: Hai Nguyen Tien

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On the basis of the structure of alluvial sediments explained by echo sounding data and remote sensing images, the following results can be given: The estuary of Lam river (from Ben Thuy bridge to Cua Hoi) is divided into 3 channel (location is calculated according to the river bank on the Nghe An province) : i) channel I (from Ben Thuy bridge to Hung Hoa) is the branching river; ii) channel II (from Hung Hoa to Nghi Thai is a channel develops in a meandering direction with a concave side toward Ha Tinh province; iii) channel III, from Nghi Thai to Cua Hoi is a channel develops in a meandering direction with a concave side toward Nghe An province. This estuary area is formed in the period from after the sea level dropped below 0m (current water level) to the present: i) Chanel II developed moving towards Ha Tinh provnce; ii) Chanel III developed moving towards Nghe An province; iii) In chanel I, a second river branch is formed because the flow of river cuts through the Hong Lam- Hong Nhat mudflat, at the same time creating an island. Morphological characteristics of the estuary area of Lam River are the main result of erosion and deposition activities corresponding to two water levels: low water level below 0 m and water level 0 m (current water level). Characteristics of the sediment layers on the riverbed in the estuary can be used to determine the sea levels in Late Holocene–Present.

Keywords: Lam River, development, Cua Hoi, river morphology

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465 Construction of Genetic Recombinant Yeasts with High Environmental Tolerance by Accumulation of Trehalose and Detoxication of Aldehyde

Authors: Yun-Chin Chung, Nileema Divate, Gen-Hung Chen, Pei-Ru Huang, Rupesh Divate

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Many environmental factors, such as glucose concentration, ethanol, temperature, osmotic pressure and pH, decrease the production rate of ethanol using yeast as a starter. Fermentation starters with high tolerance to various stresses are always demanded for brewing industry. Trehalose, a storage carbohydrate in cell wall of yeast, plays an important role in tolerance of environmental stress by preserving integrity of plasma membrane and stabilizing proteins. Furan aldehydes are toxic to yeast and the growth rate of yeast is significantly reduced if furan aldehydes were present in the fermentation medium. In yeast, aldehyde reductase is involved in the detoxification of reactive aldehydes and consequently the growth of yeast is improved. The aims of this study were to construct a genetic recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Pichia pastoris with furfural and HMF degrading and high ethanol tolerance capacities. Yeast strains were engineered by genetic recombination for overexpression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (tps1) and aldehyde reductase gene (ari1). TPS1 gene was cloned from S. cerevisiae by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then ligated with pGAPZαC vector. The constructed vector, pGAPZC-tps1, was transformed to recombinant yeasts strain with overexpression of ari1. The transformants with pGAPZC-tps1-ari1 were generated called STA (S. cerevisiae) and PTA (P. pastoris) with overexpression of tps1, ari1. PCR with tps1-specific primers and western blot with his-tag confirmed the gene insertion and protein expression of tps1 in the transformants, respectively. The neutral trehalase gene (nth1) of STA was successfully deleted and the novel strain STAΔN will be used for further study, including the measurement of trehalose concentration and ethanol, furfural tolerance assay.

Keywords: genetic recombinant, yeast, ethanol tolerance, trehalase, aldehyde reductase

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464 Air Pollutants Exposure and Blood High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Healthy Pregnant Women

Authors: Gwo-Hwa Wan, Tai-Ho Hung, Fen-Fang Chung, Wan-Ying Lee, Hui-Ching Yang

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Air pollutant exposure results in elevated concentrations of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in general populations. Increased concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in pregnant women would be associated with preterm labor and low birth weight. To our best knowledge, the associations between air pollutants exposure and inflammation in pregnant women and fetuses are unknown, as well as their effects on fetal growth. This study aimed to evaluate the influences of outdoor air pollutants in northern Taiwan areas on the inflammatory biomarker (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) concentration in the blood of healthy pregnant women and how the biomarker impacts fetal growth. In this study, 38 healthy pregnant women who are in their first trimester and live in northern Taiwan area were recruited from the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Personal characteristics and prenatal examination data (e.g., blood pressure) were obtained from recruited subjects. The concentrations of inflammatory mediators, hs-CRP, in the blood of healthy pregnant women were analyzed. Additionally, hourly data of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO) concentrations were obtained from air quality monitoring stations in Taipei area, established by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The definition of lag 0 and lag 01 are the exposure to air pollutants on the day of blood withdrawal, and the average exposure to air pollutants one day before and on the day of blood withdrawal, respectively. The statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS software version 22.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). This analytical result indicates that the healthy pregnant women aged between 28 and 42 years old. The body mass index before pregnancy averaged 21.51 (sd = 2.51) kg/m2. Around 90% of the pregnant women had never smoking habit, and 28.95% of them had allergic diseases. Approximately around 84% and 5.26% of the pregnant women worked at indoor and outdoor environments, respectively. The mean hematocrit level of the pregnant women was 37.10%, and the hemoglobin levels were ranged between 10.1 and 14.7 g/dL with 12.47 g/dL of mean value. The blood hs-CRP concentrations of healthy pregnant women in the first trimester ranged between 0.32 and 32.5 mg/L with 2.83 (sd = 5.69) mg/L of mean value. The blood hs-CRP concentrations were positively associated with ozone concentrations at lag 0-14 (r = 0.481, p = 0.017) in healthy pregnant women. Significant lag effects were identified in ozone at lag 0-14 with a positive excess concentration of blood hs-CRP.

Keywords: air pollutant, hs-CRP, pregnant woman, ozone, first trimester

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463 Utilization of Acupuncture in Palliative Care for Cancer Patients

Authors: Jui-Hung Hung, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

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Modern medicine highly emphasizes the importance of palliative treatment. The inception of palliative and hospice care recently developed into the concept of caring for the patients’ and families’ physical, psychological and spiritual problems. There are several benefits related to palliative care such as reducing medical expenses, decreasing patients’ suffer, and supporting patient go through the finale of the life. Nowadays, in Taiwan, over 60-70% terminal cancer patients were covered in hospice care, and the coverage rate increased annually. Acupuncture is a well-known therapy used more than thousand years to relieve symptoms of cancer patient. Many reports showed that, even in the Western society, many reputable medical centers can provide Acupuncture therapy for patients. Accordingly, using Acupuncture for cancer patient care is a global trend. There are increased evidences indicate that Acupuncture can relieve the symptoms for cancer patients including pain, reduce the dosage of anesthetic, improve the cancer-related fatigue, relieve the chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, ease anxiety mood and even improving the quality of life. Furthermore, some trials show that Acupuncture may help relieve xerostomia, hot flash, sleep disorders, and some GI discomfort and so on. Acupuncture therapy has many advantages for clinical use with effective, low-cost, minimal side effect, suitable for cancer patients and even for elderly population. Especially in nowadays, there are more diversified challenges in modern medicine, all of them will make the higher medical budget. We suggest that Acupuncture will be one of methods for palliative care for cancer patients.

Keywords: Acupuncture, cancer, integrative medicine, palliative care

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