Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Moin Uddin

59 Dicarbonyl Methylglyoxal Induces Structural Perturbations, Aggregation and Immunogenicity in IgG with Implications in Auto-Immune Response in Diabetes

Authors: Sidra Islam, Moin Uddin, Mir A. Rouf

Abstract:

A wide variety of pathological disorders owing to hyperglycemic conditions involves structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins. The implication of methylglyoxal (MG) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is studied in the present study. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches MG was found to perturb the structure of IgG, effect its microenvironment and leads to aggregate formation. Furthermore, MG-IgG was found to be highly immunogenic inducing high titre antibodies in female rabbits. Clinical studies revealed the presence of circulating anti-MG-IgG antibodies as analyzed by direct binding ELISA. The circulating auto antibodies were highly specific for MG-IgG as revealed by inhibition ELISA. Thus it can be concluded that MG is a powerful agent with a high damaging potential. To IgG. It is highly capable of generating immune response that contributes to the immunopathology associated with diabetes. Dicarbonyl adducts may emerge as potential biomarkers for T2DM.

Keywords: immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin G, methylglyoxal, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
58 Improving the Growth, Biochemical Parameters and Content and Composition of Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. through Soil-Applied N, P, and K

Authors: Bilal Bhat, M. Masroor A. Khan, Moin Uddin, M. Naeem

Abstract:

Aromatic herb, peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), is a natural hybrid (M. aquatica × M. spicata) with immense therapeutic uses, apart from other potential uses. Peppermint oil is one of the most popular and widely used essential oil (EO), because of its main components menthol and menthone. In view of enhancing growth, yield and quality of this medicinally important herb, a pot experiment was conducted in the net-house of the department. The experiment was aimed at studying the effect of graded levels of N, P, and K on growth, biochemical characteristics, and content and composition of EO in Mentha piperita L. Six NPK treatments (viz. N0P0K0, N20P20K20, N40P40K40, N20+20 P20+20 K20+20, N60P60K60, and N30+30 P30+30 K30+30) were tested. The plants were harvested 150 days after transplanting. The crop performance was assessed in terms of growth attributes, physiological activities, herbage yield and content as well as yield of active constituents of Mentha piperita L. Biochemical parameters were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The EO was extracted using Clevenger’s apparatus and the active constituents of the oil were determined using Gas Chromatography. Split-dose application of N, P and K (N30+30 P30+30 K30+30) ameliorated most of the parameters significantly including, fresh and dry weight of plant, NPK content, chlorophyll and carotenoids content, and the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in the leaves. It also enhanced the EO content (44.0%), EO yield (91.0%), menthol content (14.1%), menthone content (34.0%), menthyl acetate content (16.9%) and 1, 8-cineole content (43.7%) but decreased the pulegone content (36.8%). Conclusively, the fertilization proved useful in enhancing the EO content, yield and other EO components of the plant. Thus, the yield and quality of EO of peppermint may be improved by this agricultural strategy.

Keywords: mentha piperita, menthol, menthone, EO

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
57 Rhizome-Soaking with Plant-Derived Smoke-Water (Pdsw) And Karrikinolide Boosts the Essential-Oil Yield, Active Constituents and Leaf Physiological Parameters of Mentha Arvensis L

Authors: Sarika Singh, Moin Uddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Aman Sobia Chishti, Sangram Singh, Urooj Hassan Bhatt

Abstract:

Mentha arvensis L. (Japanese mint) is a perennial plant carrying medicinal, aromatic, antiseptic, and anaesthetic properties. Plant-derived smoke-water (PDSW) plays a significant role in seed germination, seedling growth, and other physiological attributes. To ascertain the effect of PDSW and karrikinolide on Mentha arvensis L., a rhizome-soaking experiment was conducted on Mentha arvensis. Prior to planting, mint rhizomes were soaked for 24 hours with aqueous solutions of various concentrations of PDSW (1:125v/v, 1:250 v/v, 1:500 v/v, and 1:1000 v/v), karrikinolide (10-6M, 10⁻⁷M, 10⁻⁸M, and 10⁻⁹M) using double distilled water as control treatment. Rhizome soaking with 1:500 v/v concentration of PDSW and 10⁻⁸M concentration of KAR1 increased the growth attributes, including plant height, fresh weight, dry, leaf area, and leaf yield per plant of Mentha arvensis. Leaf physiological-parameters, viz. chlorophyll fluorescence, PSII activity, and total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, were also increased as a result of the application of this treatment PDSW (1:500 v/v) and KAR1 (10⁻⁸M). In addition, treatment with 1:500 v/v and 10⁻⁸M significantly increased the essential oil yield and active constituents of Mentha arvensis compared to the control. Results indicated that PDSW, being a cheap source of karrikins, might be successfully used to augment mint essential oil production.

Keywords: active constituents, essential oil, medicinal plant, mentha arvensis L

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
56 A Cost Effective Solar Powered Water Pump Solution for Household Application in the Rural Area of Bangladesh

Authors: Khosru M. Salim, Md. Jasim Uddin, Mohammad Rejwan Uddin

Abstract:

Developing countries like Bangladesh has huge population lives in the rural areas out of electricity. They are using manually operated tube well for collecting underground water to meet their daily demand. A human labour is required to lift water from tube well. Sometimes, it is impossible for a elementary school going child to operate a tube well in the school. Solar powered water pump could be a sustainable water pumping solution in the rural area of Bangladesh. To minimize the cost, a 0.5 horse power solar water pump is designed considering the requirement of water for a typical house hold in this research. A prototype of the 0.5 hp capacity system is implemented and tested in the rooftop of the university lab to validate the performances. Based on the experimental data, the performance of the system is analyzed and presented in this paper.

Keywords: water pump, solar photovoltaic module, performance analysis, feasibility study

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
55 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

Abstract:

The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
54 Depolymerised Natural Polysaccharides Enhance the Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Their Active Constituents

Authors: M. Masroor Akhtar Khan, Moin Uddin, Lalit Varshney

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a rapidly expanding interest in finding applications of natural polymers in view of value addition to agriculture. It is now being realized that radiation processing of natural polysaccharides can be beneficially utilized either to improve the existing methodologies used for processing the natural polymers or to impart value addition to agriculture by converting them into more useful form. Gamma-ray irradiation is employed to degrade and lower the molecular weight of some of the natural polysaccharides like alginates, chitosan and carrageenan into small sized oligomers. When these oligomers are applied to plants as foliar sprays, they elicit various kinds of biological and physiological activities, including promotion of plant growth, seed germination, shoot elongation, root growth, flower production, suppression of heavy metal stress, etc. Furthermore, application of these oligomers can shorten the harvesting period of various crops and help in reducing the use of insecticides and chemical fertilizers. In recent years, the oligomers of sodium alginate obtained by irradiating the latter with gamma-rays at 520 kGy dose are being employed. It was noticed that the oligomers derived from the natural polysaccharides could induce growth, photosynthetic efficiency, enzyme activities and most importantly the production of secondary metabolite in the plants like Artemisia annua, Beta vulgaris, Catharanthus roseus, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Geranium sp., Mentha arvensis, Mentha citrata, Mentha piperita, Mentha virdis, Papaver somniferum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. As a result of the application of these oligomers, the yield and/or contents of the active constituents of the aforesaid plants were significantly enhanced. The productivity, as well as quality of medicinal and aromatic plants, may be ameliorated by this novel technique in an economical way as a very little quantity of these irradiated (depolymerised) polysaccharides is needed. Further, this is a very safe technique, as we did not expose the plants directly to radiation. The radiation was used to depolymerize the polysaccharides into oligomers.

Keywords: essential oil, medicinal and aromatic plants, plant production, radiation processed polysaccharides, active constituents

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
53 Irradiated-Chitosan and Methyl Jasmonate Modulate the Growth, Physiology and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus (l.) G. Don.

Authors: Moin Uddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Faisal Rasheed, Tariq Ahmad Dar, Akbar Ali, Lalit Varshney

Abstract:

Oligomers, obtained by exposing the natural polysaccharides (alginate, carrageenan, chitosan, etc.) to cobalt-60 generated gamma radiation may prove as potent plant growth promoters when applied as foliar sprays to the plants. They function as endogenous growth elicitors, triggering the synthesis of different enzymes and modulating various plant responses by exploiting the gene expression. Exogenous application of Jasmonic acid or of its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) has been reported to increase the secondary metabolites production in medicinal and aromatic plants. Keeping this in mind, three pot experiments were conducted to test whether the foliar application of irradiated-chitosan (IC) and MeJ, applied alone or in combination, could augment the active constituents as well as growth, physiological and yield attributes of Catharanthus roseus, which carries anticancer alkaloids, viz. vincristine and vinblastine, in its leaves in addition to various other useful alkaloids. Totally, 5 spray treatments, comprising various aqueous solutions of IC [20, 40, 80 and 160 mg L-1 (Experiment 1)], MeJ (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg L-1 (Experiment 2)] and those of IC+MeJ [40+20, 40+30, 80+20, 80+30, 160+20 and 160+30 mg L-1 (Experiment 3)], were applied at seven days interval. Total leaf-alkaloids content as well as growth, physiological and yield parameters, evaluated at 120 days after sowing, were significantly enhanced by IC application. IC application could not increase the leaf-content of vincristine and vinblastine; nonetheless, it significantly augmented the yield of these alkaloids owing to enhancing the dry mass of leaves per plant. MeJ application, particularly at 30 mg L-1, increased both content (17%) and yield (48%) of total leaf-alkaloids as well as the content and yield of vincristine ( 29 and 63%, respectively) and vinblastine (14 and 44%, respectively) alkaloids, though it significantly decreased most other parameters studied, particularly at higher concentrations (30 and 40 mg L-1 of MeJ). As compared to the control (water-spray treatment), collective application of IC (80 mg L-1) and MeJ (20 mg L-1) resulted in the highest values of most of the parameters studied. However, 80 mg L-1 of IC applied with 30 mg L-1 of MeJ gave the best results for the content and yield of total as well as anticancer leaf-alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine). Comparing the control, it increased the content and yield of total leaf-alkaloids (37 and 118%, respectively) and those of vincristine (65 and 163%, respectively) and vinblastine (31 and 107%, respectively). Conclusively, the applied technique significantly enhanced the production of total as well as anticancer alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus.

Keywords: anticancer alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine), catharanthus roseus, irradiated chitosan, methyl jasmonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
52 Integrated Dynamic Analysis of Semi-Submersible Flap Type Concept

Authors: M. Rafiur Rahman, M. Mezbah Uddin, Mohammad Irfan Uddin, M. Moinul Islam

Abstract:

With a rapid development of offshore renewable energy industry, the research activities in regards of harnessing power from offshore wind and wave energy are increasing day by day. Integration of wind turbines and wave energy converters into one combined semi-submersible platform might be a cost-economy and beneficial option. In this paper, the coupled integrated dynamic analysis in the time domain (TD) of a simplified semi-submersible flap type concept (SFC) is accomplished via state-of-the-art numerical code referred as Simo-Riflex-Aerodyn (SRA). This concept is a combined platform consisting of a semi-submersible floater supporting a 5 MW horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) and three elliptical shaped flap type wave energy converters (WECs) on three pontoons. The main focus is to validate the numerical model of SFC with experimental results and perform the frequency domain (FD) and TD response analysis. The numerical analysis is performed using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum (BEM) theory for aerodynamics. A variety of environmental conditions encompassing the functional & survival conditions for short-term sea (1-hour simulation) are tested to evaluate the sustainability of the SFC. The numerical analysis is performed in full scale. Finally, the time domain analysis of heave, pitch & surge motions is performed numerically using SRA and compared with the experimental results. Due to the simplification of the model, there are some discrepancies which are discussed in brief.

Keywords: coupled integrated dynamic analysis, SFC, time domain analysis, wave energy converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
51 A Study on the Synthesis of Boron Nitride Microtubes

Authors: Pervaiz Ahmad, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Yusoff Mohd Amin

Abstract:

A unique cone-like morphologies of boron nitride microtubes with larger internal space and thin walls structure are synthesized in a dual zone quartz tube furnace at 1200 ° C with ammonia as a reaction atmosphere. The synthesized microtubes are found to have diameter in the range of 1 to ̴ 2 μm with walls thickness estimated from 10 – 100 nm. XPS survey shows N 1s and B 1s peaks at 398.7 eV and 191 eV that represent h-BN in the sample. Raman spectroscopy indicates a high intensity peak at 1372.53 (cm-1) that corresponds to the E2g mode of h-BN.

Keywords: BNMTs, synthesis, reaction atmosphere, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
50 An Efficient Approach to Optimize the Cost and Profit of a Tea Garden by Using Branch and Bound Method

Authors: Abu Hashan Md Mashud, M. Sharif Uddin, Aminur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we formulate a new problem as a linear programming and Integer Programming problem and maximize profit within the limited budget and limited resources based on the construction of a tea garden problem. It describes a new idea about how to optimize profit and focuses on the practical aspects of modeling and the challenges of providing a solution to a complex real life problem. Finally, a comparative study is carried out among Graphical method, Simplex method and Branch and bound method.

Keywords: integer programming, tea garden, graphical method, simplex method, branch and bound method

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
49 Prevalence and Pattern of Modern Contraceptive Use among Chittagong City Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh

Authors: Tahera Begum, Sabina Yeasmin, Jalal Uddin

Abstract:

Ten slums of ten wards of Chittagong city corporation of Bangladesh were conveniently selected to know about modern contraceptive use by the slum dwellers. Total 300 family heads or their wives were interviewed with a questionnaire in February 2014. Family size was 4.62. Among 300 families 248 eligible couples were found. 57% eligible couples use different modern contraceptive measures. Remaining 43% eligible couples do not use modern contraceptive measures. Among the users 58% use oral pill, 30% injectables, 8% use condom, 3% were found with ligation and only 1% with vasectomy. Contraceptive prevalence rate has been increased and pattern as changed. A discussion is made with literature review.

Keywords: conraceptive, Bangladesh, family, pill

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
48 DNA Multiplier: A Design Architecture of a Multiplier Circuit Using DNA Molecules

Authors: Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Nitish Biswas, Sarreha Tasmin Rikta, Nuzmul Hossain Nahid

Abstract:

Nanomedicine and bioengineering use biological systems that can perform computing operations. In a biocomputational circuit, different types of biomolecules and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) are used as active components. DNA computing has the capability of performing parallel processing and a large storage capacity that makes it diverse from other computing systems. In most processors, the multiplier is treated as a core hardware block, and multiplication is one of the time-consuming and lengthy tasks. In this paper, cost-effective DNA multipliers are designed using algorithms of molecular DNA operations with respect to conventional ones. The speed and storage capacity of a DNA multiplier are also much higher than a traditional silicon-based multiplier.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA multiplier, large storage, parallel processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
47 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano

Abstract:

In Ecuador honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini). We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, meliponini

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
46 Heat Transfer Enhancement by Turbulent Impinging Jet with Jet's Velocity Field Excitations Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Naseem Uddin

Abstract:

Impinging jets are used in variety of engineering and industrial applications. This paper is based on numerical simulations of heat transfer by turbulent impinging jet with velocity field excitations using different Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations models. Also Detached Eddy Simulations are conducted to investigate the differences in the prediction capabilities of these two simulation approaches. In this paper the excited jet is simulated in non-commercial CFD code OpenFOAM with the goal to understand the influence of dynamics of impinging jet on heat transfer. The jet’s frequencies are altered keeping in view the preferred mode of the jet. The Reynolds number based on mean velocity and diameter is 23,000 and jet’s outlet-to-target wall distance is 2. It is found that heat transfer at the target wall can be influenced by judicious selection of amplitude and frequencies.

Keywords: excitation, impinging jet, natural frequency, turbulence models

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
45 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Abdul Qayyum, Atif Zafar

Abstract:

Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
44 Risk Factors for Significant Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury in a District General Hospital

Authors: A. Wahid Uddin

Abstract:

Obstetric anal sphincter injury carries significant morbidity for a woman and affects the quality of life to the extent of permanent damage to anal sphincter musculature. The study was undertaken in a district general hospital by retrospectively reviewing random 63 case notes of patients diagnosed with a significant third or fourth-degree perineal tear admitted between the year of 2015 to 2018. The observations were collected by a pre-designed questionnaire. All variables were expressed as percentages. The major risk factors noted were nulliparity (37%), instrumental delivery (25%), and birth weight of more than 4 kg (14%). Forceps delivery with or without episiotomy was the major contributing factor (75%). In the majority of the cases (71%), no record of any perineal protection measures undertaken. The study concluded that recommended perineal protection measures should be adopted as a routine practise.

Keywords: forceps, obstetrics, perineal, sphincter

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
43 A Supervised Face Parts Labeling Framework

Authors: Khalil Khan, Ikram Syed, Muhammad Ehsan Mazhar, Iran Uddin, Nasir Ahmad

Abstract:

Face parts labeling is the process of assigning class labels to each face part. A face parts labeling method (FPL) which divides a given image into its constitutes parts is proposed in this paper. A database FaceD consisting of 564 images is labeled with hand and make publically available. A supervised learning model is built through extraction of features from the training data. The testing phase is performed with two semantic segmentation methods, i.e., pixel and super-pixel based segmentation. In pixel-based segmentation class label is provided to each pixel individually. In super-pixel based method class label is assigned to super-pixel only – as a result, the same class label is given to all pixels inside a super-pixel. Pixel labeling accuracy reported with pixel and super-pixel based methods is 97.68 % and 93.45% respectively.

Keywords: face labeling, semantic segmentation, classification, face segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
42 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
41 Tactile Cues and Spatial Navigation in Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin

Abstract:

The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated 'reward' arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: mice, radial arm maze, memory, spatial navigation, tactile cues, hippocampus, reward, sensory skills, Alzheimer’s, neurodegnerative disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 551
40 Flow Dynamics of Nanofluids in a Horizontal Cylindrical Annulus Using Nonhomogeneous Dynamic Model

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

Transient natural convective flow dynamics of nanofluids in a horizontal homocentric annulus using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been experimented numerically. The simulation is carried out for four different shapes of the inner wall, which is either cylindrical, elliptical, square or triangular. The outer surface of the annulus is maintained at constant low temperature while the inner wall is maintained at a uniform temperature; higher than the outer one. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic deposition phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To find the best performer, the local Nusselt number is demonstrated for different shapes of the inner wall. The heat transfer enhancement for different nanofluids for four different shapes of the inner wall is exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluids, annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
39 A Comparative Analysis of Hyper-Parameters Using Neural Networks for E-Mail Spam Detection

Authors: Syed Mahbubuz Zaman, A. B. M. Abrar Haque, Mehedi Hassan Nayeem, Misbah Uddin Sagor

Abstract:

Everyday e-mails are being used by millions of people as an effective form of communication over the Internet. Although e-mails allow high-speed communication, there is a constant threat known as spam. Spam e-mail is often called junk e-mails which are unsolicited and sent in bulk. These unsolicited emails cause security concerns among internet users because they are being exposed to inappropriate content. There is no guaranteed way to stop spammers who use static filters as they are bypassed very easily. In this paper, a smart system is proposed that will be using neural networks to approach spam in a different way, and meanwhile, this will also detect the most relevant features that will help to design the spam filter. Also, a comparison of different parameters for different neural network models has been shown to determine which model works best within suitable parameters.

Keywords: long short-term memory, bidirectional long short-term memory, gated recurrent unit, natural language processing, natural language processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
38 Efficacy of Sea Water with Reduced Rate Herbicide to Control Weeds in Tropical Turf

Authors: Md. Kamal Uddin, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md. Parvez Anwar

Abstract:

Seawater with reduced herbicide could be considered as a low cost environment friendly alternative method for weed control in turfgrass. Different concentration of sea water in combination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium and quinclorac were used to determine weed control level in turfgrass field. The weed species S. diander, C. aromaticus, and C. rotundus except E. atrovirens were fully controlled when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with ¾ sea water, ½ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended quinclorac with sea water and ¾ recommended quinclorac with ¾ sea water. Eragrostis atrovirens showed maximum 48% injury when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium and sea water. Among the tested turf grasses, P. vaginatum showed only 8% injury to sea water in combination with ¾ recommended quinclorac, indicating greater salt tolerance. Zoysia japonica also showed no more than 14% injury when treated with sea water in combination with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium or quinclorac.

Keywords: sea water, trifloxysulfuron–sodium, quinclorac, turf

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
37 DNA PLA: A Nano-Biotechnological Programmable Device

Authors: Hafiz Md. HasanBabu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Md. IstiakJaman Ami, Rahat Hossain Faisal

Abstract:

Computing in biomolecular programming performs through the different types of reactions. Proteins and nucleic acids are used to store the information generated by biomolecular programming. DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) can be used to build a molecular computing system and operating system for its predictable molecular behavior property. The DNA device has clear advantages over conventional devices when applied to problems that can be divided into separate, non-sequential tasks. The reason is that DNA strands can hold so much data in memory and conduct multiple operations at once, thus solving decomposable problems much faster. Programmable Logic Array, abbreviated as PLA is a programmable device having programmable AND operations and OR operations. In this paper, a DNA PLA is designed by different molecular operations using DNA molecules with the proposed algorithms. The molecular PLA could take advantage of DNA's physical properties to store information and perform calculations. These include extremely dense information storage, enormous parallelism, and extraordinary energy efficiency.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA computing, parallel computing, programmable logic array, PLA, DNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
36 Exposure to Tactile Cues Does Not Influence Spatial Navigation in 129 S1/SvLm Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin, Rebecca Taylor, Emily Levesque

Abstract:

The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated “reward” arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: mice, radial arm maze, memory, spatial navigation, tactile cues, hippocampus, reward, sensory skills, Alzheimer's, neuro-degenerative diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 568
35 Level of Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Correlation with Disease Severity

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Mohammad Owais, Abdul Khan, Atif Zafar

Abstract:

In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impaired oxidative metabolism and imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for causing inflammation and the degradation of cartilage and bone. The present study was done to evaluate the level and hence the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA. The present study was performed in the blood of 80 RA patients and 55 age and sex-matched healthy controls. The level of ROS (in 5% hematocrit) and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-22] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) were monitored in healthy subjects and RA patients. For evaluating the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the pathogenesis of RA, patients were sub-divided on the basis of presence or absence of RF. Reactive species and inflammatory cytokines were correlated with disease activity measure-Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). The level of ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-22 were found to be significantly higher in RA patients as compared to the healthy controls, with the increase being more significant in patients positive for rheumatoid factor and those having high disease severity. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the level of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in RA patients compared with healthy controls, with the decrease being more prominent in severe cases of RA. Higher ROS (indicative of impaired anti-oxidant defence system) and pro-inflammatory cytokines level in RA patients may lead to the damage of biomolecules which in turn contributes to tissue damage and hence to the development of more severe RA. The imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the development of multi-system immune complications. ROS and inflammatory cytokines may also serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines

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34 Numerical Simulation of Convective Flow of Nanofluids with an Oriented Magnetic Field in a Half Circular-Annulus

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

The unsteady convective heat transfer flow of nanofluids in a half circular-annulus shape enclosure using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been investigated numerically. The round upper wall of the enclosure is maintained at constant low temperature whereas the bottom wall is heated by three different thermal conditions. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To discover the best performer, the average Nusselt number is demonstrated for different types of nanofluids. The heat transfer rate for different flow parameters, positions of the annulus, thicknesses of the half circular-annulus and thermal conditions is also exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluid, convection, semicircular-annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, finite element method

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33 Determining Association between Fatal Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Adiba Haque, Anika Nahian Binte Kabir, Maisha Islam, Mayesha Monjur, Moin Mostakim, Md. Khalilur Rhaman

Abstract:

A cardiorenal syndrome is a term that refers to a spectrum of heart and kidney disorders that demonstrate how a condition affecting one of the organs impairs the other. In this work, the association between two of the most persistent conditions: chronic kidney disease (CKD) and fatal heart failure (HF), was investigated using machine learning approaches. The research visualizes dependencies and identifies patterns in a subtype of cardiorenal syndrome with the primary goal of determining the risk of fatal heart failure in individuals with chronic kidney disease using state-of-the-art techniques. Firstly, heart failure and chronic kidney disease datasets were used for disease prediction with five classifiers: Random Forest (RF), XGBoost, CatBoost, Logistic Regression, and Support Vector Machine. The prediction accuracy for heart failure was between 70%-76%, and CKD was between 97%-99%. The top predicting models were random forest, XGBoost, and CatBoost classifiers. In the second stage, the feature importance scores of the best predictors were analyzed to gauge the relationship between the conditions. Numerous features of HF and CKD that were common and obtained high importance scores for the top classifiers were age, serum creatinine, serum sodium, and diabetes mellitus. Finally, a variety of visualization techniques were employed to acquire insight into the relevance of different features, resulting in medically sound findings. The analysis of the physiological attributes and their importance with the help of machine learning was aided in successfully reaffirming the medical findings of a crucial subtype of cardiorenal syndrome, associating fatal heart failure with chronic kidney disease.

Keywords: cardiorenal, chronic kidney disease, correlation matrix, feature importance, heart failure, machine learning, visualization

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32 Estimation of Coefficient of Discharge of Side Trapezoidal Labyrinth Weir Using Group Method of Data Handling Technique

Authors: M. A. Ansari, A. Hussain, A. Uddin

Abstract:

A side weir is a flow diversion structure provided in the side wall of a channel to divert water from the main channel to a branch channel. The trapezoidal labyrinth weir is a special type of weir in which crest length of the weir is increased to pass higher discharge. Experimental and numerical studies related to the coefficient of discharge of trapezoidal labyrinth weir in an open channel have been presented in the present study. Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) with the transfer function of quadratic polynomial has been used to predict the coefficient of discharge for the side trapezoidal labyrinth weir. A new model is developed for coefficient of discharge of labyrinth weir by regression method. Generalized models for predicting the coefficient of discharge for labyrinth weir using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network have also been developed. The prediction based on GMDH model is more satisfactory than those given by traditional regression equations.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, group method of data handling, open channel, side labyrinth weir

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31 Growth Pattern Analysis of Khagrachari Pourashava

Authors: Kutub Uddin Chisty, Md. Kamrul Islam, Md. Ashraful Islam

Abstract:

Growth pattern is an important factor for a city because it can help to predict future growth trend and development of a city. Khagrachari District is one of the three hill tracts districts in Bangladesh. It is bordered by the Indian State of Tripura on the north, Rangamati and Chittagong districts on the south, Rangamati district on the east, Chittagong district and the Indian State of Tripura on the west. Khagrachari Pourashava is surrounded by hills and waterways. The Pourashava area is mostly inhibited by non-tribal population, while tribal population lives in hilly regions within and around the Pourashava area. The hilly area growth is different. Based on questioners and expert opinions survey, growth pattern of Khagrachari is evaluated. Different culture, history, tribal people, non-tribal people enrich the hilly heritages. In our study, we analyse the city growth pattern and identify the prominent factors that influence the city growth. Thus, it can help us to identify growth trend of the city.

Keywords: growth pattern, growth trend, prominent factors, regional development

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30 Outcome of Induction of Labour by Cervical Ripening with an Osmotic Dilator in a District General Hospital

Authors: A. Wahid Uddin

Abstract:

Osmotic dilator for cervical ripening bypasses the initial hormonal exposure necessary for a routine method of induction. The study was a clinical intervention with an osmotic dilator followed by prospective observation. The aim was to calculate the percentage of women who had successful cervical ripening using modified BISHOP score as evidenced by artificial rupture of membrane. The study also estimated the delivery interval following a single administration of osmotic dilators. Randomly selected patients booked for induction of labour accepting the intervention were included in the study. The study population comprised singleton term pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membranes with a modified BISHOP score of less than 6. Initial sample recruited was 30, but 6 patients left the study and the study was concluded on 24 patients. The data were collected in a pre-designed questionnaire and analysis were expressed in percentages along with using mean value for continuous variables. In 70 % of cases, artificial rupture of the membrane was possible and the mean time from insertion of the osmotic dilator to the delivery interval was 30 hours. The study concluded that an osmotic dilator could be a suitable alternative for hormone-based induction of labour.

Keywords: dilator, induction, labour, osmotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 50