Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3696

Search results for: plasma cell myeloma

3696 IgA/λ Plasma Cell Myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis: A Case Report

Authors: Kai Pei Huang, Ting Chung Hung, Li Ching Wu


Amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions wherein amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organ or tissues and cause harm. Among the several forms of amyloidosis, the principal types of that in inpatient medical services are the AL amyloidosis (primary) and AA amyloidois (secondary). AL Amyloidois is due to deposition of protein derived from overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain in plasma cell myeloma. Furthermore, it is a systemic disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, including heavy proteinemia and edema, heptosplenomegaly, otherwise unexplained heart failure. We reported a 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria (UPCR:1679.8), leukocytosis (WBC:16.2 x 10^3/uL), results of serum urea nitrogen (39mg/dL), creatinine (0.76 mg/dL), IgG (748 mg/dL.), IgA (635 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), kappa light chain(18.8 mg/dL), lambda light chain (110.0 mg/dL) and kappa/lambda ratio (0.17). Renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in glomerular mesangial area, and Congo red stain highlights amyloid deposition in glomeruli. Additional lab studies included serum protein electrophoresis, which shows a major monoclonal peak in β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. We treated sample with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to clarify two IgA/λ are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Later examination confirmed it existed plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow, and the immunohistochemical staining showed monotypic for λ light chain and are positive for IgA. All findings mentioned above reveal it is a case of plasma cell myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain, plasma cell myeloma, serum protein electrophoresis

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3695 The Effect of Metformin in Combination with Dexamethasone on the CXCR4 Level in Multiple Myeloma Cell Line

Authors: Seyede Sanaz Seyedebrahimi, Shima Rahimi, Shohreh Fakhari, Ali Jalili


Background: CXCR4, as a chemokine receptor, plays well-known roles in various types of cancers. Several studies have been conducted to overcome CXCR4 axis acts in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and progression. Dexamethasone, a standard treatment for multiple myeloma, has been shown to increase CXCR4 levels in multiple myeloma cell lines. Herein, we focused on the effects of metformin and dexamethasone on CXCR4 at the cellular level and the migration rate of cell lines after exposure to a combination compared to single-agent models. Materials and Method: Multiple myeloma cell lines (U266 and RPMI8226) were cultured with different metformin and dexamethasone concentrations in single-agent and combination models. The simultaneous combination doses were calculated by CompuSyn software. Cell surface and mRNA expression of CXCR4 were determined using flow cytometry and the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay, respectively. The Transwell cell migration assay evaluated the migration ability. Results: In concurred with previous studies, our results showed a dexamethasone up-regulation effect on CXCR4 in a dose-dependent manner. Although, the metformin single-agent model could reduce CXCR4 expression of U266 and RPMI8226 in cell surface and mRNA expression level. Moreover, the administration of metformin and dexamethasone simultaneously exerted a higher suppression effect on CXCR4 expression than the metformin single-agent model. The migration rate through the combination model's matrigel membrane was remarkably lower than the metformin and dexamethasone single-agent model. Discussion: According to our findings, the combination of metformin and dexamethasone effectively inhibited dexamethasone-induced CXCR4 expression in multiple myeloma cell lines. As a result, metformin may be counted as an alternative medicine combined with other chemotherapies to combat multiple myeloma. However, more research is required.

Keywords: CXCR4, dexamethasone, metformin, migration, multiple myeloma

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3694 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak


A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

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3693 Expression of Ki-67 in Multiple Myeloma: A Clinicopathological Study

Authors: Kangana Sengar, Sanjay Deb, Ramesh Dawar


Introduction: Ki-67 can be a useful marker in determining proliferative activity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, using Ki-67 alone results in the erroneous inclusion of non-myeloma cells leading to false high counts. We have used Dual IHC (immunohistochemistry) staining with Ki-67 and CD138 to enhance specificity in assessing proliferative activity of bone marrow plasma cells. Aims and objectives: To estimate the proportion of proliferating (Ki-67 expressing) plasma cells in patients with MM and correlation of Ki-67 with other known prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty FFPE (formalin fixed paraffin embedded) blocks of trephine biopsies of cases diagnosed as MM from 2010 to 2015 are subjected to H & E staining and Dual IHC staining for CD 138 and Ki-67. H & E staining is done to evaluate various histological parameters like percentage of plasma cells, pattern of infiltration (nodular, interstitial, mixed and diffuse), routine parameters of marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Clinical data is collected from patient records from Medical Record Department. Each of CD138 expressing cells (cytoplasmic, red) are scored as proliferating plasma cells (containing a brown Ki¬67 nucleus) or non¬proliferating plasma cells (containing a blue, counter-stained, Ki-¬67 negative nucleus). Ki-67 is measured as percentage positivity with a maximum score of hundred percent and lowest of zero percent. The intensity of staining is not relevant. Results: Statistically significant correlation of Ki-67 in D-S Stage (Durie & Salmon Stage) I vs. III (p=0.026) and ISS (International Staging System) Stage I vs. III (p=0.019), β2m (p=0.029) and percentage of plasma cells (p < 0.001) is seen. No statistically significant correlation is seen between Ki-67 and hemoglobin, platelet count, total leukocyte count, total protein, albumin, S. calcium, S. creatinine, S. LDH, blood urea and pattern of infiltration. Conclusion: Ki-67 index correlated with other known prognostic parameters. However, it is not determined routinely in patients with MM due to little information available regarding its relevance and paucity of studies done to correlate with other known prognostic factors in MM patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in India using Dual IHC staining for Ki-67 and CD138 in MM patients. Routine determination of Ki-67 will help to identify patients who may benefit with more aggressive therapy. Recommendation: In this study follow up of patients is not included, and the sample size is small. Studying with larger sample size and long follow up is advocated to prognosticate Ki-67 as a marker of survival in patients with multiple myeloma.

Keywords: bone marrow, dual IHC, Ki-67, multiple myeloma

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3692 Comparison with Two Clinical Cases of Plasma Cell Neoplasm by Using the Method of Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Kai Pai Huang


Background: There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are found in our lab. Today, we want to compare with two cases using the method of capillary electrophoresis. Method: Serum is prepared and electrophoresis is performed at alkaline PH in a capillary using the Sebia® Capillary 2. Albumin and globulins are detected by the detector which is located in the cathode of the capillary and the signals are transformed to peaks. Serum was treated with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to monomer immunoglobulin to clarify two M-protein are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Result: Case 1: A 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria, leukocytosis, results of high serum IgA and lambda light chain. A renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in the glomerular mesangial area. Serum protein electrophoresis shows a major monoclonal peak in the β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. Case 2: A 55-year-old male presenting abdominal distension and low back pain for more than one month. Laboratory data showed T12 T8 compression fracture, results of high serum IgM and kappa light chain. Bone marrow aspiration showed the cells from the bone marrow are B cells with monotypic kappa chain expression. Bone marrow biopsy found this is lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom macroglobulin). Serum protein electrophoresis shows a monoclonal peak in the β region and the immunotyping studies for serum showed IgM/κ type. Conclusion: Plasma cell neoplasm can be diagnosed by many examinations. Among them, using capillary electrophoresis by a lab can separate several types of gammopathy and the quantification of a monoclonal peak can be used to evaluate the patients’ prognosis or treatment.

Keywords: plasma cell neoplasm, capillary electrophoresis, serum protein electrophoresis, immunotyping

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3691 Simulation Study on Spacecraft Surface Charging Induced by Jovian Plasma Environment with Particle in Cell Method

Authors: Meihua Fang, Yipan Guo, Tao Fei, Pengyu Tian


Space plasma caused spacecraft surface charging is the major space environment hazard. Particle in cell (PIC) method can be used to simulate the interaction between space plasma and spacecraft. It was proved that surface charging level of spacecraft in Jupiter’s orbits was high for its’ electron-heavy plasma environment. In this paper, Jovian plasma environment is modeled and surface charging analysis is carried out by PIC based software Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System (SPIS). The results show that the spacecraft charging potentials exceed 1000V at 2Rj, 15Rj and 25Rj polar orbits in the dark side at worst case plasma model. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the large Jovian magnetic field increases the surface charging level for secondary electron gyration.

Keywords: Jupiter, PIC, space plasma, surface charging

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3690 Protein and MDA (Malondialdehyde) Profil of Bull Sperm and Seminal Plasma After Freezing

Authors: Sri Rahayu, M. Dwi Susan, Aris Soewondo, W. M. Agung Pramana


Semen is an organic fluid (seminal plasma) that contain spermatozoa. Proteins are one of the major seminal plasma components that modulate sperm functionality, influence sperm capacitation and maintaining the stability of the membrane. Semen freezing is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. The process causes decrease in sperm viability due to temperature shock and oxidation stress. Oxidation stress is a disturbance on phosphorylation that increases ROS concentration, and it produces lipid peroxide in spermatozoa membrane resulted in high MDA (malondialdehyde) concentration. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of freezing on protein and MDA profile of bovine sperm cell and seminal plasma after freezing. Protein and MDA of sperm cell and seminal plasma were isolated from 10 sample. Protein profiles was analyzed by SDS PAGE with separating gel 12,5 %. The concentration of MDA was measured by spectrophotometer. The results of the research indicated that freezing of semen cause lost of the seminal plasma proteins with molecular with 20, 10, and 9 kDa. In addition, the result research showed that protein of the sperm (26, 10, 9, 7, and 6 kDa) had been lost. There were difference MDA concentration of seminal plasma and sperm cell were increase after freezing. MDA concentration of seminal plasma before and after freezing were 2.2 and 2.4 nmol, respectively. MDA concentration of sperm cell before and after freezing were 1,5 and 1.8 nmol, respectively. In conclusion, there were differences protein profiles of spermatozoa before and after semen freezing and freezing cause increasing of the MDA concentration.

Keywords: MDA, semen freezing, SDS PAGE, protein profile

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3689 Characterization of PRL-3 Oncogenic Phosphatase in Its Role in Mediating Acquired Resistance to Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma

Authors: Shamill Amedot Udonwa, Phyllis S. Y. Chong, Lim S. L. Julia, Wee-Joo Chng


In this paper, we investigated how PRL-3 expression in H929 and U266 cells affects the efficacy of drug treatment. H929 and U266 cells were treated with Bortezomib (BTZ) of different concentrations, and it was observed that H929 cells were resistant to BTZ, while U266 cells were not viable. Investigations into how BTZ targets these cells were conducted, and it was observed that BTZ affects the PARP-Caspase3 pathway as well as PRL-3-Leo1 pathways. These pathways regulate cell proliferation and cell cycle, respectively. Hence, we are able to show the mechanism of how BTZ affects cells and also the role PRL-3 plays on downstream oncogenes such as cyclin-D1 and c-MYC. More importantly, this investigation into PRL-3 in BTZ resistance will be highly applicable in the future as the first clinical trials of PRL-3 antibody (PRL3-zumab) are ongoing at the National University Hospital, Singapore (NUHS). This would mean that understanding the mechanism of resistance through PRL-3, which has yet to be studied, will demonstrate the potential of PRL-3 in developing novel strategies to improve the treatment of MM.

Keywords: drug resistance, hematology, multiple myeloma, oncogene

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3688 Effect of Plasma Radiation on Keratinocyte Cells Involved in the Wound Healing Process

Authors: B. Fazekas, I. Korolov, K. Kutasi


Plasma medicine, which involves the use of gas discharge plasmas for medical applications is a rapidly growing research field. The use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas in dermatology to assist tissue regeneration by improving the healing of infected and/or chronic wounds is a promising application. It is believed that plasma can activate cells, which are involved in the wound closure. Non-thermal atmospheric plasmas are rich in chemically active species (such as O and N-atoms, O2(a) molecules) and radiative species such as the NO, N2+ and N2 excited molecules, which dominantly radiate in the 200-500 nm spectral range. In order to understand the effect of plasma species, both of chemically active and radiative species on wound healing process, the interaction of physical plasma with the human skin cells is necessary. In order to clarify the effect of plasma radiation on the wound healing process we treated keratinocyte cells – that are one of the main cell types in human skin epidermis – covered with a layer of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with a low power atmospheric pressure plasma. For the generation of such plasma we have applied a plasma needle. Here, the plasma is ignited at the tip of the needle in flowing helium gas in contact with the ambient air. To study the effect of plasma radiation we used a plasma needle configuration, where the plasma species – chemically active radicals and charged species – could not reach the treated cells, but only the radiation. For the comparison purposes, we also irradiated the cells using a UV-B light source (FS20 lamp) with a 20 and 40 mJ cm-2 dose of 312 nm. After treatment the viability and the proliferation of the cells have been examined. The proliferation of cells has been studied with a real time monitoring system called Xcelligence. The results have indicated, that the 20 mJ cm-2 dose did not affect cell viability, whereas the 40 mJ cm-2 dose resulted a decrease in cell viability. The results have shown that the plasma radiation have no quantifiable effect on the cell proliferation as compared to the non-treated cells.

Keywords: UV radiation, non-equilibrium gas discharges (non-thermal plasmas), plasma emission, keratinocyte cells

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3687 Effects of Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination

Authors: Yong Ho Jeon, Youn Mi Lee, Yong Yoon Lee


Effects of cold plasma treatment on various plant seed germination were studied. The seeds of hot pepper, cucumber, tomato and arabidopsis were exposed to plasma and the plasma was generated in various devices. The germination speed was evaluated compared to an unexposed control. A positive effect on germination speed was observed in all tested seeds but the effects strongly depended on the type of the used plasma device (Argon-DBD, surface-DBD or MARX generator), time of exposure (6s~10min or 1~10shots) and kind of seeds. The SEM images showed that arrays of gold particles along the cell wall were observed on the surface of cucumber seeds showed a germination-accelerating effect by plasma treatment, which was the same as untreated. However, when treated with the high dose plasma, gold particles were not arrayed at the seed surface, it seems that due to the surface etching. This may suggest that the germination is not promoted by etching or damage of surface caused by the plasma treatment. Seedling growth improvement was also observed by indirect plasma treatment. These lead to an important conclusion that the effect of charged particles on plasma play the essential role in plant germination and indirect plasma treatment offers new perspectives for large scale application.

Keywords: cold plasma, cucumber, germination, SEM

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3686 Plasma Engineered Nanorough Substrates for Stem Cells in vitro Culture

Authors: Melanie Macgregor-Ramiasa, Isabel Hopp, Patricia Murray, Krasimir Vasilev


Stem cells based therapies are one of the greatest promises of new-age medicine due to their potential to help curing most dreaded conditions such as cancer, diabetes and even auto-immune disease. However, establishing suitable in vitro culture materials allowing to control the fate of stem cells remain a challenge. Amongst the factor influencing stem cell behavior, substrate chemistry and nanotopogaphy are particularly critical. In this work, we used plasma assisted surface modification methods to produce model substrates with tailored nanotopography and controlled chemistry. Three different sizes of gold nanoparticles were bound to amine rich plasma polymer layers to produce homogeneous and gradient surface nanotopographies. The outer chemistry of the substrate was kept constant for all substrates by depositing a thin layer of our patented biocompatible polyoxazoline plasma polymer on top of the nanofeatures. For the first time, protein adsorption and stem cell behaviour (mouse kidney stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells) were evaluated on nanorough plasma deposited polyoxazoline thin films. Compared to other nitrogen rich coatings, polyoxazoline plasma polymer supports the covalent binding of proteins. Moderate surface nanoroughness, in both size and density, triggers cell proliferation. In association with polyoxazoline coating, cell proliferation is further enhanced on nanorough substrates. Results are discussed in term of substrates wetting properties. These findings provide valuable insights on the mechanisms governing the interactions between stem cells and their growth support.

Keywords: nanotopography, stem cells, differentiation, plasma polymer, oxazoline, gold nanoparticles

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3685 Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Babak Shokri


In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.

Keywords: cellular response, hydrophilicity, MTT assay, PMMA, RF plasma

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3684 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin


For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: endothelial differentiation, EGM-2, osteogenesis, plasma treatment, surface modification

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3683 A Validated UPLC-MS/MS Assay Using Negative Ionization Mode for High-Throughput Determination of Pomalidomide in Rat Plasma

Authors: Muzaffar Iqbal, Essam Ezzeldin, Khalid A. Al-Rashood


Pomalidomide is a second generation oral immunomodulatory agent, being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients with disease refractory to lenalidomide and bortezomib. In this study, a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for high-throughput determination of pomalidomide in rat plasma using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Liquid liquid extraction using dichloromethane as extracting agent was employed to extract pomalidomide and IS from 200 µL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried on Acquity BEHTM C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile:10 mM ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min. Both pomalidomide and IS were eluted at 0.66 ± 0.03 and 0.80 ± 0.03 min, respectively with a total run time of 1.5 min only. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in negative mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 272.01 → 160.89 for pomalidomide and m/z 380.08 → 316.01 for IS were used to quantify them respectively, using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The developed method was validated according to regulatory guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The linearity in plasma sample was achieved in the concentration range of 0.47–400 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.997). The intra and inter-day precision values were ≤ 11.1% (RSD, %) whereas accuracy values ranged from - 6.8 – 8.5% (RE, %). In addition, other validation results were within the acceptance criteria and the method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of pomalidomide in rats.

Keywords: pomalidomide, pharmacokinetics, LC-MS/MS, celecoxib

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3682 Neuromingeal Cryptococcosis Revealing IgA-λ Multiple Myeloma

Authors: L. Mtibaa, N. Baccouchi, S. Hannechi, R. Abid, R. Battikh, B. Jemli


Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection which is commonly associated with an immune-compomised state, especially HIV infection. Rare cases of cryptococcosis have been reported in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and they are all at a late stage of the disease. However, the inaugural character of cryptococcosis revealing the MM at an early stage has never been reported to our best knowledge. We presented here a case of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in a patient without any apparent underlying conditions, who has revealed IgA-λ MM. Early detection and treatment of cryptococcosis are essential to reduce morbidity and for a better outcome.

Keywords: Cryptococcosis, Cryptococcus, hematologic, malignancy

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3681 Magnetic Field Generation in Inhomogeneous Plasma via Ponderomotive Force

Authors: Fatemeh Shahi, Mehdi Sharifian, Laia Shahrassai, Elham Eskandari A.


A new mechanism is reported here for magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction by means of nonlinear ponderomotive force. The plasma considered here is unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasma with an exponentially decreasing profile. A damped periodic magnetic field with a relatively lower frequency is obtained using the ponderomotive force exerted on plasma electrons. Finally, with an electric field and by using Faraday’s law, the magnetic field profile in the plasma has been obtained. Because of the negative exponential density profile, the generated magnetic field is relatively slowly oscillating and damped through the plasma.

Keywords: magnetic field generation, laser-plasma interaction, ponderomotive force, inhomogeneous plasma

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3680 Condition for Plasma Instability and Stability Approaches

Authors: Ratna Sen


As due to very high temperature of Plasma it is very difficult to confine it for sufficient time so that nuclear fusion reactions to take place, As we know Plasma escapes faster than the binary collision rates. We studied the ball analogy and the ‘energy principle’ and calculated the total potential energy for the whole Plasma. If δ ⃗w is negative, that is decrease in potential energy then the plasma will be unstable. We also discussed different approaches of stability analysis such as Nyquist Method, MHD approximation and Vlasov approach of plasma stability. So that by using magnetic field configurations we can able to create a stable Plasma in Tokamak for generating energy for future generations.

Keywords: jello, magnetic field configuration, MHD approximation, energy principle

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3679 Differences in Cognitive Functioning over the Course of Chemotherapy in Patients Suffering from Multiple Myeloma and the Possibility to Predict Their Cognitive State on the Basis of Biological Factors

Authors: Magdalena Bury-Kaminska, Aneta Szudy-Szczyrek, Aleksandra Nowaczynska, Olga Jankowska-Lecka, Marek Hus, Klaudia Kot


Introduction: The aim of the research was to determine the changes in cognitive functioning in patients with plasma cell myeloma by comparing patients’ state before the treatment and during chemotherapy as well as to determine the biological factors that can be used to predict patients’ cognitive state. Methods: The patients underwent the research procedure twice: before chemotherapy and after 4-6 treatment cycles. A psychological test and measurement of the following biological variables were carried out: TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-10 (interleukin 10), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). The following research methods were implemented: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Battery of Tests for Assessing Cognitive Functions PU1, experimental and clinical trials based on the Choynowski’s Memory Scale, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), depression measurement questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the research showed better cognitive functions of patients during chemotherapy in comparison to the phase before it. Moreover, neurotrophin BDNF allows to predict the level of selected cognitive functions (semantic fluency and execution control) already at the diagnosis stage. After 4-6 cycles, it is also possible to draw conclusions concerning the extent of working memory based on the level of BDNF. Cytokine TNF-α allows us to predict the level of letter fluency during anti-cancer treatment. Conclusions: It is possible to presume that BDNF has a protective influence on patients’ cognitive functions and working memory and that cytokine TNF-α co-occurs with a diminished execution control and better material grouping in terms of phonological fluency. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the National Science Center in Poland [grant no. 2017/27/N/HS6/02057.

Keywords: chemobrain, cognitive impairment, non−central nervous system cancers, hematologic diseases

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3678 Effect of Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamic Two Phase Stenosed Arterial Blood Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Bhavya Tripathi, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma


In blood, the concentration of red blood cell varies with the arterial diameter. In the case of narrow arteries, red blood cells concentrate around the center of the artery and there exists a cell-free plasma layer near the arterial wall due to Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Due to non- uniformity of the fluid in the narrow arteries, it is preferable to consider the two-phase model of the blood flow. In the present article, coupled nonlinear differential equations have been developed for momentum, energy and concentration of two phase model of the blood flow assuming the Newtonian fluid in both central core and cell free plasma layer and the exact solutions have been found for the problem. For having an adequate insight into the stenosed arterial two-phase blood flow, major components of the flow as flow resistance, total flow rate, and wall shear stress have been estimated for different values of magnetic and radiation parameter. Results show that the increase in the effects of magnetic field decreases the velocity of both cores as well as plasma regions. This result can be helpful to control the blood flow in narrow arteries during surgical process. Temperature of core as well plasma regions decrease as value of radiation parameter increases. The present result is implemented in the form of radiation therapy which is very helpful for cancer patients.

Keywords: two phase blood flow, radiation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), stenosis

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3677 Biocompatibility and Electrochemical Assessment of Biomedical Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Jerman Madonsela, Wallace Matizamhuka, Akiko Yamamoto, Ronald Machaka, Brendon Shongwe


In this study, biocompatibility evaluation of nanostructured near beta Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with non-toxic elements produced utilizing Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of very fine microsized powders attained through mechanical alloying was performed. The results were compared with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy. Cell proliferation test was performed using murine osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 at two cell densities; 400 and 4000 cells/mL for 7 days incubation. Pure titanium took a lead under both conditions suggesting that the presence of other oxide layers influence cell proliferation. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between Ti64 and Ti2448. Potentiodynamic measurement in Hanks, 0.9% NaCl and cell culture medium showed no distinct difference on the anodic polarization curves of the three alloys, indicating that the same anodic reaction occurred on their surface but with different rates. However, Ti2448 showed better corrosion resistance in cell culture medium with a slightly lower corrosion rate of 2.96 nA/cm2 compared to 4.86 nA/cm2 and 5.62 nA/cm2 of Ti and Ti64 respectively. Ti2448 adsorbed less protein as compared to Ti and Ti64 though no notable difference in surface wettability was observed.

Keywords: biocompatibility, osteoblast, corrosion, surface wettability, protein adsorption

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3676 Dry Modifications of PCL/Chitosan/PCL Tissue Scaffolds

Authors: Ozan Ozkan, Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel


Natural polymers are widely used in tissue engineering applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and solubility in the physiological medium. On the other hand, synthetic polymers are also widely utilized in tissue engineering applications, because they carry no risk of infectious diseases and do not cause immune system reaction. However, the disadvantages of both polymer types block their individual usages as tissue scaffolds efficiently. Therefore, the idea of usage of natural and synthetic polymers together as a single 3D hybrid scaffold which has the advantages of both and the disadvantages of none has been entered to the literature. On the other hand, even though these hybrid structures support the cell adhesion and/or proliferation, various surface modification techniques applied to the surfaces of them to create topographical changes on the surfaces and to obtain reactive functional groups required for the immobilization of biomolecules, especially on the surfaces of synthetic polymers in order to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. In a study presented here, to improve the surface functionality and topography of the layer by layer electrospun 3D poly-epsilon-caprolactone/chitosan/poly-epsilon-caprolactone hybrid tissue scaffolds by using atmospheric pressure plasma method, thus to improve cell adhesion and proliferation of these tissue scaffolds were aimed. The formation/creation of the functional hydroxyl and amine groups and topographical changes on the surfaces of scaffolds were realized by using two different atmospheric pressure plasma systems (nozzle type and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type) carried out under different gas medium (air, Ar+O2, Ar+N2). The plasma modification time and distance for the nozzle type plasma system as well as the plasma modification time and the gas flow rate for DBD type plasma system were optimized with monitoring the changes in surface hydrophilicity by using contact angle measurements. The topographical and chemical characterizations of these modified biomaterials’ surfaces were carried out with SEM and ESCA, respectively. The results showed that the atmospheric pressure plasma modifications carried out with both nozzle type plasma and DBD plasma caused topographical and functionality changes on the surfaces of the layer by layer electrospun tissue scaffolds. However, the shelf life studies indicated that the hydrophilicity introduced to the surfaces was mainly because of the functionality changes. Therefore, according to the optimized results, samples treated with nozzle type air plasma modification applied for 9 minutes from a distance of 17 cm and Ar+O2 DBD plasma modification applied for 1 minute under 70 cm3/min O2 flow rate were found to have the highest hydrophilicity compared to pristine samples.

Keywords: biomaterial, chitosan, hybrid, plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
3675 The Effect of Micro/Nano Structure of Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) Film Using a Two-Step Process (Casting/Plasma) on Cellular Responses

Authors: JaeYoon Lee, Gi-Hoon Yang, JongHan Ha, MyungGu Yeo, SeungHyun Ahn, Hyeongjin Lee, HoJun Jeon, YongBok Kim, Minseong Kim, GeunHyung Kim


One of the important factors in tissue engineering is to design optimal biomedical scaffolds, which can be governed by topographical surface characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction. Of these properties, we focused on the effects of nano- to micro-sized hierarchical surface. To fabricate the hierarchical surface structure on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) film, we employed a micro-casting technique by pressing the mold and nano-etching technique using a modified plasma process. The micro-sized topography of PCL film was controlled by sizes of the micro structures on lotus leaf. Also, the nano-sized topography and hydrophilicity of PCL film were controlled by a modified plasma process. After the plasma treatment, the hydrophobic property of the PCL film was significantly changed into hydrophilic property, and the nano-sized structure was well developed. The surface properties of the modified PCL film were investigated in terms of initial cell morphology, attachment, and proliferation using osteoblast-like-cells (MG63). In particular, initial cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in the hierarchical structure were enhanced dramatically compared to those of the smooth surface. We believe that these results are because of a synergistic effect between the hierarchical structure and the reactive functional groups due to the plasma process. Based on the results presented here, we propose a new biomimetic surface model that maybe useful for effectively regenerating hard tissues.

Keywords: hierarchical surface, lotus leaf, nano-etching, plasma treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
3674 Cold Plasma Surface Modified Electrospun Microtube Array Membrane for Chitosan Immobilization and Their Properties

Authors: Ko-Shao Chen, Yun Tsao, Chia-Hsuan Tsen, Chien-Chung Chen, Shu-Chuan Liao


Electrospun microtube array membranes (MTAMs) made of PLLA (poly-L-lactic acid) have wide potential applications in tissue engineering. However, their surface hydrophobicity and poor biocompatability have limited their further usage. In this study, the surface of PLLA MTAMs were made hydrophilic by introducing extra functional groups, such as peroxide, via an acetic acid plasma (AAP). UV-graft polymerization of acrylic acid (G-AAc) was then used to produce carboxyl group on MTAMs surface, which bonded covalently with chitosan through EDC / NHS crosslinking agents. To evaluate the effects of the surface modification on PLLA MTAMs, water contact angle (WCA) measurement and cell compatibility tests were carried out. We found that AAP treated electrospun PLLA MTAMs grafted with AAc and, finally, with chitosan immobilized via crosslinking agent, exhibited improved hydrophilic and cell compatibility.

Keywords: plasma, EDC/NHS, UV grafting, Chitosan, microtube array membrane (MTAMs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
3673 The Physiological Effect of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Cancer Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Jeongyeon Park, Yeo Jun Yoon, Jiyoung Seo, In Seok Moon, Hae Jun Lee, Kiwon Song


Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. CAPP generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy. With an annular type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) CAPP-generating device combined with a helium (He) gas feeding system, we showed that CAPP selectively induced apoptosis in various cancer cells while it promoted proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ASC). The apoptotic effect of CAPP was highly selective toward p53-mutated cancer cells. The intracellular ROS was mainly responsible for apoptotic cell death in CAPP-treated cancer cells. CAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of CAPP as a potent cancer therapy. With the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells, CAPP stimulated proliferation of the ASC, a kind of mesenchymal stem cell that is capable of self-renewing and differentiating into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and neurons. CAPP-treated ASCs expressed the stem cell markers and differentiated into adipocytes as untreated ASCs. The increase of proliferation by CAPP in ASCs was offset by a NO scavenger but was not affected by ROS scavengers, suggesting that NO generated by CAPP is responsible for the activated proliferation in ASCs. Usually, cancer stem cells are reported to be resistant to known cancer therapies. When we applied CAPP of the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells to liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) that express CD133 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) cancer stem cell markers, apoptotic cell death was not examined. Apoptotic cell death of liver CSCs was induced by the CAPP generated from a device with an air-based flatten type DBD. An exposure of liver CSCs to CAPP decreased the viability of liver CSCs to a great extent, suggesting plasma be used as a promising anti-cancer treatment. To validate whether CAPP can be a promising anti-cancer treatment or an adjuvant modality to eliminate remnant tumor in cancer surgery of vestibular schwannoma, we applied CAPP to mouse schwannoma cell line SC4 Nf2 ‑/‑ and human schwannoma cell line HEI-193. A CAPP treatment leads to anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. We are currently studying the molecular mechanisms of differential physiological effect of CAPP; the proliferation of ASCs and apoptosis of various cancer cells and CSCs.

Keywords: cold atmospheric pressure plasma, apoptosis, proliferation, cancer cells, adult stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3672 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani


Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
3671 3D Printing of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treated Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone) for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Dong Nyoung Heo, Il Keun Kwon


Three-dimensional (3D) technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering. In order to enhance bone tissue regeneration, it is important to have ideal 3D constructs with biomimetic mechanical strength, structure interconnectivity, roughened surface, and the presence of chemical functionality. In this respect, a 3D printing system combined with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was developed to fabricate a 3D construct that has a rough surface with polar functional chemical groups. The CAP-etching process leads to oxidation of chemical groups existing on the polycaprolactone (PCL) surface without conformational change. The surface morphology, chemical composition, mean roughness of the CAP-treated PCL surfaces were evaluated. 3D printed constructs composed of CAP-treated PCL showed an effective increment in the hydrophilicity and roughness of the PCL surface. Also, an in vitro study revealed that CAP-treated 3D PCL constructs had higher cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, a 3D printing system with CAP can be a highly useful fabrication method for bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, cold atmospheric plasma, PCL, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
3670 1D PIC Simulation of Cold Plasma Electrostatic Waves beyond Wave-Breaking Limit

Authors: Prabal Singh Verma


Electrostatic Waves in plasma have emerged as a new source for the acceleration of charged particles. The accelerated particles have a wide range of applications, for example in cancer therapy to cutting and melting of hard materials. The maximum acceleration can only be achieved when the amplitude of the plasma wave stays below a critical limit known as wave-breaking amplitude. Beyond this limit amplitude of the wave diminishes dramatically as the coherent energy of the wave starts to convert into random kinetic energy. In this work, spatiotemporal evolution of non-relativistic electrostatic waves in a cold plasma has been studied in the wave-breaking regime using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation (PIC). It is found that plasma gets heated after the wave-breaking but a fraction of initial energy always remains with the remnant wave in the form of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode in warm plasma. Another interesting finding of this work is that the frequency of the resultant BGK wave is found be below electron plasma frequency which decreases with increasing initial amplitude and the acceleration mechanism after the wave-breaking is also found to be different from the previous work. In order to explain the results observed in the numerical experiments, a simplified theoretical model is constructed which exhibits a good agreement with the simulation. In conclusion, it is shown in this work that electrostatic waves get shower after the wave-breaking and a fraction of initial coherent energy always remains with remnant wave. These investigations have direct relevance in wakefield acceleration experiments.

Keywords: nonlinear plasma waves, longitudinal, wave-breaking, wake-field acceleration

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
3669 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf


A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
3668 Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluids for Hyperthermia

Authors: Z. Kolacinski, L. Szymanski. G. Raniszewski, D. Koza, L. Pietrzak


Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluid (BNF) can be composed of a buffer fluid such as plasma and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron, nickel, cobalt and their oxides. However iron is one of the best elements for magnetization by electromagnetic radiation. It can be used as a tool for medical diagnosis and treatment. Radio frequency (RF) radiation is able to heat iron nanoparticles due to magnetic hysteresis. Electromagnetic heating of iron nanoparticles and ferro-fluids BNF can be successfully used for non-invasive thermal ablation of cancer cells. Moreover iron atoms can be carried by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) if iron is used as catalyst for CNTs synthesis. Then CNTs became the iron containers and they screen the iron content against oxidation. We will present a method of CNTs addressing to the required cells. For thermal ablation of cancer cells we use radio frequencies for which the interaction with human body should be limited to minimum. Generally, the application of RF energy fields for medical treatment is justified by deep tissue penetration. The highly iron doped CNTs as the carriers creating magnetic fluid will be presented. An excessive catalyst injection method using electrical furnace and microwave plasma reactor will be presented. This way it is possible to grow the Fe filled CNTs on a moving surface in continuous synthesis process. This also allows producing uniform carpet of the Fe filled CNTs carriers. For the experimental work targeted to cell ablation we used RF generator to measure the increase in temperature for some samples like: solution of Fe2O3 in BNF which can be plasma-like buffer, solutions of pure iron of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture, solutions of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture. Then the targeted therapies which can be effective if the carriers are able to distinguish the difference between cancerous and healthy cell’s physiology are considered. We have developed an approach based on ligand-receptor or antibody-antigen interactions for the case of colon cancer.

Keywords: cancer treatment, carbon nano tubes, drag delivery, hyperthermia, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
3667 Interesting Behavior of Non-Thermal Plasma Photonic Crystals

Authors: A. Mousavi, S. Sadegzadeh


In this research, the effect of non-thermal micro plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function on the one dimensional plasma photonic crystals containing alternate plasma-dielectric layers, has been studied. By using Kronig Penny model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes for such a periodic structure is obtained. In this study we take two plasma photonic crystals with different dielectric layers: the first one with Silicon monoxide named PPCI, and the second one with Tellurium dioxide named PPCII. The effects of the plasma layer thickness and the material of the dielectric layer on the plasma photonic crystal band gaps have been illustrated in the dispersion relation and the group velocity figures. Results revealed that in such a system, the non-thermal plasma exerts stronger limit on the wave’s propagation. In another word, for the non-thermal plasma photonic crystals (NPPC), there are two distinct regions in the dispersion plot. The upper region consists of alternate band gaps in such a way that both width and length of the bands decrease gradually as the band gaps order increases. Whereas in the lower region where v_ph > 20 c (for PPCI), waves will not be allowed to propagate.

Keywords: band gap, dispersion relation, non-thermal plasma, plasma photonic crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 431