Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 398

Search results for: transferrin receptor

398 Targeting Trypanosoma brucei Using Antibody Drug Conjugates against the Transferrin Receptor

Authors: Camilla Trevor, Matthew K. Higgins, Andrea Gonzalez-Munoz, Mark Carrington


Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease affecting both humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The diseases are caused by infection with African trypanosomes, protozoa transmitted by tsetse flies. Treatment currently relies on the use of chemotherapeutics with ghastly side effects. Here, we describe the development of effective antibody-drug conjugates that target the T. brucei transferrin receptor. The receptor is essential for trypanosome growth in a mammalian host but there are approximately 12 variants of the transferrin receptor in the genome. Two of the most divergent variants were used to generate recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G using phage display and we identified cross-reactive antibodies that bind both variants using phage ELISA, fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays and surface plasmon resonance. Fluorescent antibodies were used to demonstrate uptake into trypanosomes in culture. Toxin-conjugated antibodies were effective at killing trypanosomes at sub-nanomolar concentrations. The approach of using antibody-drug conjugates has proven highly effective.

Keywords: antibody-drug conjugates, phage display, transferrin receptor, trypanosomes

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397 The Influence of Training on the Special Aerial Gymnastics Instruments on Selected C-Reactive Proteins in Cadets’ Serum

Authors: Z. Wochyński, K. A. Sobiech, Z. Kobos


To C-Reactive Proteins include ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin- metalloproteins. The study aimed at assessing an effect of training on the Special Aerial Gymnastics Instruments (SAGI) on changes of serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin and cadets’ physical fitness in comparison with a control group. Fifty-five cadets in the mean age 20 years were included into this study. They were divided into two groups: Group A (N=41) trained on SAGI and Group B (N=14) trained according the standard program of physical education (control group). In both groups, blood was a material for assays. Samples were collected twice before and after training at the start of the program (training I), during (training II), and after education program completion (training III). Commercially available kits were used to assay blood serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin. Cadets’ physical fitness was evaluated with exercise tests before and after education program completion. In Group A, serum post-exercise ferritin decreased statistically insignificantly in training I and II and increased in training III in comparison with pre-exercise values. In Group B, post-exercise serum ferritin decreased statistically insignificantly in training I and III and significantly increased in training II in comparison with the pre-exercise values. In Group A, serum transferrin decreased statistically insignificantly in training I, and significantly increased in training II, whereas in training III it increased insignificantly in comparison with pre-exercise values. In Group B, post-exercise serum transferrin increased statistically significantly in training I, II, and III in comparison with pre-exercise values. I n Group A, serum ceruloplasmin decreased in all three series in comparison with pre-exercise values. In Group B, serum ceruloplasmin increased significantly in training II. It was showed that the training on SAGI significantly decreased serum ceruloplasmin in Group A in all three series of assays and did not produce significant changes in serum ferritin also was showed significant increase in serum transferrin.

Keywords: special aerial gymnastics instruments, ferritin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin

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396 Signaling of Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases in Higher Plants

Authors: Man-Ho Oh


Membrane localized Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases (LRR-RLKs) play crucial roles in plant growth and abiotic/biotic stress responses in higher plants including Arabidopsis and Brassica species. Among several Receptor-Like Kinases (RLKs), Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like-Kinases (LRR-RLKs) are the major group of genes that play crucial roles related to growth, development and stress conditions in plant system. Since it is involved in several functional roles, it seems to be very important to investigate their roles in higher plants. We are particularly interested in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, which is mediated by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor kinase and its co-receptor, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). Autophosphorylation of receptor kinases is recognized to be an important process in activation of signaling in higher plants. Although the plant receptors are generally classified as Ser/Thr protein kinases, many other receptor kinases including BRI1 and BAK1 are shown to autophosphorylate on Tyr residues in addition to Ser/Thr. As an interesting result, we determined that several 14-3-3 regulatory proteins bind to BRI1-CD and are phosphorylated by several receptor kinases in vitro, suggesting that BRI1 is critical for diverse signaling.

Keywords: autophosphorylation, brassinosteroid, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1, Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases (LRR-RLKs)

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395 Cumulus Cells of Mature Local Goat Oocytes Vitrified with Insulin Transferrin Selenium and Heat Shock Protein 70

Authors: Izzatul Ulfana, Angga Pratomo Cahyadi, Rimayanti, Widjiati


Freezing oocyte could cause temperature stress. Temperature stress triggers cell damage. Insulin Transferrin Selenium (ITS) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) had been used to prevent damage to the oocyte after freezing. ITS and HSP70 could cause the difference protective effect. The aim of this research was to obtain an effective cryoprotectant for freezing local goat oocyte in cumulus cells change. The research began by collecting the ovary from a local slaughterhouse in Indonesia, aspiration follicle, in vitro maturation and the freezing had been used vitrification method. Examination of the morphology cells by native staining method. Data on the calculation morphology oocyte analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis Test. After the Kruskall-Wallis Test which indicated significance, followed by Mann-Whitney Test to compare between treatment groups. As a result, cryoprotectant ITS has the best culumus cells after warming

Keywords: Insulin Transferrin Selenium, Heat Shock Protein 70, cryoprotectant, vitrification

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394 The Impact of Geophagia on the Iron Status of Black South African Women

Authors: A van Onselen, C. M. Walsh, F. J. Veldman, C. Brand


Objectives: To determine the nutritional status and risk factors associated with women practicing geophagia in QwaQwa, South Africa. Materials and Methods: An observational epidemiological study design was adopted which included an exposed (geophagia) and non-exposed (control) group. A food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were applied to determine nutritional status of participants. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors that were likely to be associated with the practice of geophagia. Results: The mean total energy intake for the geophagia group (G) and control group(C) were 10324.31 ± 2755.00 kJ and 10763.94 ± 2556.30 kJ respectively. Both groups fell within the overweight category according to the mean body mass index (BMI) of each group (G= 25.59 kg/m2; C= 25.14 kg/m2). The mean serum iron levels of the geophagia group (6.929 μmol/l) were significantly lower than that of the control group (13.75 μmol/l) (p = 0.000). Serum transferrin (G=3.23g/l; C=2.7054g/l) and serum transferrin saturation (G=8.05%; C=18.74%) levels also differed significantly between groups (p=0.00). Factors that were associated with the practice of geophagia included haemoglobin (Odds ratio (OR):14.50), serum-iron (OR: 9.80), serum-ferritin (OR: 3.75), serum-transferrin (OR: 6.92) and transferrin saturation (OR: 14.50). A significant negative association (p=0.014) was found between women who were wage-earners and those who were not wage-earners and the practice of geophagia (OR: 0.143; CI: 0.027; 0.755). These findings seem to indicate that a permanent income may decrease the likelihood of practising geophagia. Key findings: Geophagia was confirmed to be a risk factor for iron deficiency in this community. The significantly strong association between geophagia and iron deficiency emphasizes the importance of identifying the practice of geophagia in women, especially during their child bearing years. Further research to establish whether the practice of geophagia is a cause of iron-deficiency, or whether it is the consequence thereof, would give a clearer view on how to recognise and treat the condition.

Keywords: geophagia, iron deficiency anaemia, dietary intake, anthropometry

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393 Conformational Switch of hRAGE upon Self-Association

Authors: Ikhlas Ahmed, Jamillah Zamoon


The human receptor for advanced glycation end product is a plasma membrane receptor with an intrinsically disordered region. The protein consists of three extracellular domains, a single membrane spanning transmembrane domain, and a cytosolic domain which is intrinsically disordered and responsible for signaling. The disordered nature of the cytosolic domain allows it to be dynamic in solution. This receptor self-associates to higher forms. The association is triggered by ligand, metal or by the extracellular domain. Fluorescence spectroscopy technique is used to test the self-association of the different concentrations of the cytosolic domain. This work has concluded that the cytosolic domain of this receptor also self-associates. Moreover, the self-association does not require ligand or metal.

Keywords: fluorescence spectroscopy, hRAGE, IDP, Self-association

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392 Using of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Assays to Study Homo and/ or Heterodimerization of Laminin Receptor 37 LRP/ 67 LR with Galectin-3

Authors: Fulwah Alqahtani, Jafar Mahdavi, Lee Weldon, Nick Holliday, Dlawer Ala'Aldeen


There are two isoforms of laminin receptor; monomeric 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor (37 LRP) and mature 67 kDa laminin receptor (67 LR). The relationship between the 67 LR and its precursor 37 LRP is not completely understood, but previous observations have suggested that 37 LRP can undergo homo- and/or hetero- dimerization with Galectin-3 (Gal-3) to form mature 67 LR. Gal-3 is the only member of the chimera-type group of galectins, and has one C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that is responsible for binding the ß-galactoside moieties of mono- or oligosaccharides on several host and microbial molecules. The aim of this work was to investigate homo- and hetero-dimerization among the 37 LRP and Gal-3 to form mature 67 LR in mammalian cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC).

Keywords: 37 LRP, 67 LR, Gal-3, BiFC

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391 Preclinical Studying of Stable Fe-Citrate Effect on 68Ga-Citrate Tissue Distribution

Authors: A. S. Lunev, A. A. Larenkov, O. E. Klementyeva, G. E. Kodina


Background and aims: 68Ga-citrate is one of prospective radiopharmaceutical for PET-imaging of inflammation and infection. 68Ga-citrate is 67Ga-citrate analogue using since 1970s for SPECT-imaging. There's known rebinding reaction occurs past Ga-citrate injection and gallium (similar iron Fe3+) binds with blood transferrin. Then radiolabeled protein complex is delivered to pathological foci (inflammation/infection sites). But excessive gallium bindings with transferrin are cause of slow blood clearance, long accumulation time in foci (24-72 h) and exception of application possibility of the short-lived gallium-68 (T½ = 68 min). Injection of additional chemical agents (e.g. Fe3+ compounds) competing with radioactive gallium to the blood transferrin joining (blocking of its metal binding capacity) is one of the ways to solve formulated problem. This phenomenon can be used for correction of 68Ga-citrate pharmacokinetics for increasing of the blood clearance and accumulation in foci. The aim of real studying is research of effect of stable Fe-citrate on 68Ga-citrate tissue distribution. Materials and methods: 68Ga-citrate without/with extra injection of stable Fe-citrate (III) was injected nonlinear mice with inflammation models (aseptic soft tissue inflammation, lung infection, osteomyelitis). PET/X-RAY Genisys4 (Sofie Bioscience, USA) was used for non-invasive PET imaging (for 30, 60, 120 min past injection 68Ga-citrate) with subsequent reconstruction of imaging and their analysis (value of clearance, distribution volume). Scanning time is 10 min. Results and conclusions: I. v. injection of stable Fe-citrate blocks the metal-binding capability of transferrin serum and allows decreasing gallium-68 radioactivity in blood significantly and increasing accumulation in inflammation (3-5 time). It allows receiving more informative PET-images of inflammation early (for 30-60 min after injection). Pharmacokinetic parameters prove it. Noted there is no statistically significant difference between 68Ga-citrate accumulation for different inflammation model because PET imaging is indication of pathological processes and is not their identification.

Keywords: 68Ga-citrate, Fe-citrate, PET imaging, mice, inflammation, infection

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390 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta


The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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389 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim


Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
388 On the Thermodynamics of Biological Cell Adhesion

Authors: Ben Nadler


Cell adhesion plays a vital role in many cell activities. The motivation to model cell adhesion is to study important biological processes, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, tissue formation, and cell adhesion, which are very challenging to study by experimental methods alone. This study provides important insight into cell adhesion, which can lead to improve regenerative medicine and tissue formation techniques. In this presentation the biological cells adhesion is mediated by receptors–ligands binding and the diffusivity of the receptor on the cell membrane surface. The ability of receptors to diffuse on the cell membrane surface yields a very unique and complicated adhesion mechanism, which is exclusive to cells. The phospholipid bilayer, which is the main component in the cell membrane, shows fluid-like behavior associated with the molecules’ diffusivity. The biological cell is modeled as a fluid-like membrane with negligible bending stiffness enclosing the cytoplasm fluid. The in-plane mechanical behavior of the cell membrane is assumed to depend only on the area change, which is motivated by the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer. In addition, the presence of receptors influences on the local mechanical properties of the cell membrane is accounted for by including stress-free area change, which depends on the receptor density. Based on the physical properties of the receptors and ligands the attraction between the receptors and ligands is modeled as a charged-nonpolar which is a noncovalent interaction. Such interaction is a short-range type, which decays fast with distance. The mobility of the receptor on the cell membrane is modeled using the diffusion equation and Fick’s law is used to model the receptor–receptor interactions. The resultant interaction force, which includes receptor–ligand and receptor–receptor interaction, is decomposed into tangential part, which governs the receptor diffusion, and normal part, which governs the cell deformation and adhesion. The formulation of the governing equations and numerical simulations will be presented. Analysis of the adhesion characteristic and properties are discussed. The roles of various thermomechanical properties of the cell, receptors and ligands on the cell adhesion are investigated.

Keywords: cell adhesion, cell membrane, receptor-ligand interaction, receptor diffusion

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387 Study of Functional Relevant Conformational Mobility of β-2 Adrenoreceptor by Means of Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: G. V. Novikov, V. S. Sivozhelezov, S. S. Kolesnikov, K. V. Shaitan


The study reports about the influence of binding of orthosteric ligands as well as point mutations on the conformational dynamics of β-2-adrenoreceptor. Using molecular dynamics simulation we found that there was a little fraction of active states of the receptor in its apo (ligand free) ensemble corresponded to its constitutive activity. Analysis of MD trajectories indicated that such spontaneous activation of the receptor is accompanied by the motion in intracellular part of its alpha-helices. Thus receptor’s constitutive activity directly results from its conformational dynamics. On the other hand the binding of a full agonist resulted in a significant shift of the initial equilibrium towards its active state. Finally, the binding of the inverse agonist stabilized the receptor in its inactive state. It is likely that the binding of inverse agonists might be a universal way of constitutive activity inhibition in vivo. Our results indicate that ligand binding redistribute pre-existing conformational degrees of freedom (in accordance to the Monod-Wyman-Changeux-Model) of the receptor rather than cause induced fit in it. Therefore, the ensemble of biologically relevant receptor conformations is encoded in its spatial structure, and individual conformations from that ensemble might be used by the cell in conformity with the physiological behaviour.

Keywords: seven-transmembrane receptors, constitutive activity, activation, x-ray crystallography, principal component analysis, molecular dynamics simulation

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386 An Unbiased Profiling of Immune Repertoire via Sequencing and Analyzing T-Cell Receptor Genes

Authors: Yi-Lin Chen, Sheng-Jou Hung, Tsunglin Liu


Adaptive immune system recognizes a wide range of antigens via expressing a large number of structurally distinct T cell and B cell receptor genes. The distinct receptor genes arise from complex rearrangements called V(D)J recombination, and constitute the immune repertoire. A common method of profiling immune repertoire is via amplifying recombined receptor genes using multiple primers and high-throughput sequencing. This multiplex-PCR approach is efficient; however, the resulting repertoire can be distorted because of primer bias. To eliminate primer bias, 5’ RACE is an alternative amplification approach. However, the application of RACE approach is limited by its low efficiency (i.e., the majority of data are non-regular receptor sequences, e.g., containing intronic segments) and lack of the convenient tool for analysis. We propose a computational tool that can correctly identify non-regular receptor sequences in RACE data via aligning receptor sequences against the whole gene instead of only the exon regions as done in all other tools. Using our tool, the remaining regular data allow for an accurate profiling of immune repertoire. In addition, a RACE approach is improved to yield a higher fraction of regular T-cell receptor sequences. Finally, we quantify the degree of primer bias of a multiplex-PCR approach via comparing it to the RACE approach. The results reveal significant differences in frequency of VJ combination by the two approaches. Together, we provide a new experimental and computation pipeline for an unbiased profiling of immune repertoire. As immune repertoire profiling has many applications, e.g., tracing bacterial and viral infection, detection of T cell lymphoma and minimal residual disease, monitoring cancer immunotherapy, etc., our work should benefit scientists who are interested in the applications.

Keywords: immune repertoire, T-cell receptor, 5' RACE, high-throughput sequencing, sequence alignment

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385 Correlation of Leptin with Clinico-Pathological Features of Breast Cancer

Authors: Saad Al-Shibli, Nasser Amjad, Muna Al Kubaisi, Norra Harun, Shaikh Mizan


Leptin is a multifunctional hormone produced mainly by adipocyte. Leptin and its receptor have long been found associated with breast cancer. The main aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between Leptin/Leptin receptor and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Blood samples for ELISA, tissue samples from tumors and adjacent breast tissue were taken from 51 women with breast cancer with a control group of 40 women with a negative mammogram. Leptin and Leptin receptor in the tissues were estimated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). They were localized at the subcellular level by immunocytochemistry using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed significant difference in serum leptin level between control and the patient group, but no difference between pre and post-operative serum leptin levels in the patient group. By IHC, we found that the majority of the breast cancer cells studied, stained positively for leptin and leptin receptors with co-expression of leptin and its receptors. No significant correlation was found between leptin/leptin receptors expression with the race, menopausal status, lymph node metastasis, estrogen receptor expression, progesterone receptor expression, HER2 expression and tumor size. Majority of the patients with distant metastasis were associated with high leptin and leptin receptor expression. TEM views both Leptin and Leptin receptor were found highly concentrated within and around the nucleus of the cancer breast cells, indicating nucleus is their principal seat of actions while the adjacent breast epithelial cells showed that leptin gold particles are scattered all over the cell with much less than that of the cancerous cells. However, presence of high concentration of leptin does not necessarily prove its over-expression, because it could be internalized from outside by leptin receptor in the cells. In contrast, leptin receptor is definitely over-expressed in the ductal breast cancer cells. We conclude that reducing leptin levels, blocking its downstream tissue specific signal transduction, and/or blocking the upstream leptin receptor pathway might help in prevention and therapy of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, expression, leptin, leptin receptors

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384 The Role of Estradiol-17β and Type IV Collagen on the Regulation and Expression Level Of C-Erbb2 RNA and Protein in SKOV-3 Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Merry Meryam Martgrita, Marselina Irasonia Tan


One of several aggresive cancer is cancer that overexpress c-erbB2 receptor along with the expression of estrogen receptor. Components of extracellular matrix play an important role to increase cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Both components can affect cancer development by regulating the signal transduction pathways in cancer cells. In recent research, SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line, that overexpress c-erbB2 receptor was cultured on type IV collagen and treated with estradiol-17β, to reveal the role of both components on RNA and protein level of c-erbB2 receptor. In this research we found a modulation phenomena of increasing and decreasing of c-erbB2 RNA level and a stabilisation phenomena of c-erbB2 protein expression due to estradiol-17β and type IV collagen. It seemed that estradiol-17β has an important role to increase c-erbB2 transcription and the stability of c-erbB2 protein expression. Type IV collagen has an opposite role. It blocked c-erbB2 transcription when it bound to integrin receptor in SKOV-3 cells.

Keywords: c-erbB2, estradiol-17β, SKOV-3, type IV collagen

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383 Optimization and Evaluation of 177lu-Dotatoc as a Potential Agent for Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

Authors: H. Yousefnia, MS. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, S. Zolghadri, F. Abbasi-Davani


High expression of somatostatin receptors on a wide range of human tumours makes them as potential targets for peptide receptor radionuclide tomography. A series of octreotide analogues were synthesized while [DOTA-DPhe1, Tyr3]octreotide (DOTATOC) indicated advantageous properties in tumour models. In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% in 30 min at the optimized condition. Biological behavior of the complex was studied after intravenous injection into the Syrian rats. Major difference uptake was observed compared to 177LuCl3 solution especially in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal.

Keywords: Biodistribution, 177Lu, Octreotide, Syrian rats

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382 Identification of Target Receptor Compound 10,11-Dihidroerisodin as an Anti-Cancer Candidate

Authors: Srie Rezeki Nur Endah, Richa Mardianingrum


Cancer is one of the most feared diseases and is considered the leading cause of death worldwide. Generally, cancer drugs are synthetic drugs with relatively more expensive prices and have harmful side effects, so many people turn to traditional medicine, for example by utilizing herbal medicine. Erythrina poeppigiana is one of the plants that can be used as a medicinal plant containing 10,11-dihidroerisodin compounds that are useful anticancer etnofarmakologi. The purpose of this study was to identify the target of 10,11 dihydroerisodin receptor compound as in silico anticancer candidate. The pure isolate was tested physicochemically by MS (Mass Spectrometry), UV-Vis (Ultraviolet – Visible), IR (Infra Red), 13C-NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 1H-NMR (Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), to obtain the structure of 10,11-dihydroerisodin alkaloid compound then identified to target receptors in silico. From the results of the study, it was found that 10,11-dihydroerisodin compound can work on the Serine / threonine-protein kinase Chk1 receptor that serves as an anti-cancer candidate.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Erythrina poeppigiana, target receptor, 10, 11- dihidroerisodin

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381 Microglia Activity and Induction of Mechanical Allodynia after Mincle Receptor Ligand Injection in Rat Spinal Cord

Authors: Jihoon Yang, Jeong II Choi


Mincle is expressed in macrophages and is members of immunoreceptors induced after exposure to various stimuli and stresses. Mincle receptor activation promotes the production of these substances by increasing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines, which play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of such inflammatory pain diseases, have a significant effect on sensory neurons in addition to their enhancement and inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cells as mediators of cell interaction. Glial cells in the central nervous system play a critical role in development and maintenance of chronic pain states. Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and belong to a group of mononuclear phagocytes. In the central nervous system, mincle receptor is present in neurons and glial cells of the brain.This study was performed to identify the Mincle receptor in the spinal cord and to investigate the effect of Mincle receptor activation on nociception and the changes of microglia. Materials and Methods: C-type lectins(Mincle) was identified in spinal cord of Male Sprague–Dawley rats. Then, mincle receptor ligand (TDB), via an intrathecal catheter. Mechanical allodynia was measured using von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of TDB. Result: The present investigation shows that the intrathecal administration of TDB in the rat produces a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, The mechanical hyperalgesia after TDB injection gradually developed over time and remained until 10 days. Mincle receptor is identified in the spinal cord, mainly expressed in neuronal cells, but not in microglia or astrocyte. These results suggest that activation of mincle receptor pathway in neurons plays an important role in inducing activation of microglia and inducing mechanical allodynia.

Keywords: mincle, spinal cord, pain, microglia

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380 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova


Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data ( The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cell migration, decoy receptor, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

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379 A Platform to Screen Targeting Molecules of Ligand-EGFR Interactions

Authors: Wei-Ting Kuo, Feng-Huei Lin


Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often constitutively stimulated in cancer owing to the binding of ligands such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), so it is necessary to investigate the interaction between EGFR and its targeting biomolecules which were over ligands binding. This study would focus on the binding affinity and adhesion force of two targeting products anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and peptide A to EGFR comparing with EGF. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to obtain the equilibrium dissociation constant to evaluate the binding affinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to detect adhesion force. The result showed that binding affinity of mAb to EGFR was higher than that of EGF to EGFR, and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. The adhesion force between EGFR and mAb that was higher than EGF and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. From the studies, we could conclude that mAb had better adhesion force and binding affinity to EGFR than that of EGF and peptide A. SPR and AFM could confirm the interaction between receptor and targeting ligand easily and carefully. It provide a platform to screen ligands for receptor targeting and drug delivery.

Keywords: adhesion force, binding affinity, epidermal growth factor receptor, target molecule

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378 Analysis of NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit Gene (GRIN2B) mRNA Expression in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: Ali̇ Bayram, Semih Dalkilic, Remzi Yigiter


N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a subtype of glutamate receptor and plays a pivotal role in learning, memory, neuronal plasticity, neurotoxicity and synaptic mechanisms. Animal experiments were suggested that glutamate-induced excitotoxic injuriy and NMDA receptor blockage lead to amnesia and other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aim of this study is to investigate association between NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level and Alzheimer disease. The study was approved by the local ethics committees, and it was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines for the Good Clinical Practice. Peripheral blood was collected 50 patients who diagnosed AD and 49 healthy control individuals. Total RNA was isolated with RNeasy midi kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturer’s instructions. After checked RNA quality and quantity with spectrophotometer, GRIN2B expression levels were detected by quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed, variance between two groups were compared with Mann Whitney U test in GraphpadInstat algorithm with 95 % confidence interval and p < 0.05. After statistical analyses, we have determined that GRIN2B expression levels were down regulated in AD patients group with respect to control group. But expression level of this gene in each group was showed high variability. İn this study, we have determined that NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level was down regulated in AD patients when compared with healthy control individuals. According to our results, we have speculated that GRIN2B expression level was associated with AD. But it is necessary to validate these results with bigger sample size.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, NR2B, GRIN2B, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

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377 Expression of Interferon-Lambda Receptor-(IFN-λRα) in Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs) Is Influenced by the Levels of Newly Discovered Type III IFN-λ4 in Vitro

Authors: Hashaam Akhtar


IFNλR1 and IL10R2 collectively construct a heterodimer, which is an acknowledged functional receptor for all type III interferons (IFNs). Expression of IFNλR1 is highly tissue specific, which can help in making type III IFNs a drug of choice as comparable to its analogue, type I IFNs, for treating hepatitis C in the near future. Although, expression of IFNλR1 also varies with the concentration of type I IFNs, but in this study it was shown that the expression of IFNλR1 varies with the protein titers of IFN-α, IFN-λ3 and the newly discovered IFN-λ4. High dosage of IFN-α reduces the expression of IFNλR1 in HepG2 cells, which can affect the antiviral activity of type III IFNs in vivo. We premeditated an experimental strategy to differentiate monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs), type I and type II macrophages in vitro and quantified the expression of the IFNλR1 by qPCR. The exposure of newly discovered IFN-λ4 to macrophages and DCs also raised the expression of its own receptor, which shows that expression of IFN-λ4 protein in hepatitis C patient may augment type I treatment and help ease off viral titers. The results of this study may contribute in some understanding towards the mechanisms involved in the selective expression of IFNLR1 and exceptionalities associated with the receptor.

Keywords: IFNLR1, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFN-λ4), Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs), expression

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376 A Theoretical to Conceptual Paper: The Use of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Endothelin Receptor Antagonists and/or Prostacyclin Analogs in Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Ryan M. Monti, Bijal Mehta


In cases of massive pulmonary embolism, defined as acute pulmonary embolism presenting with systemic hypotension or right ventricular dysfunction and impending failure, there is indication that unconventional therapies, such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and/or prostacyclin analogs may decrease the morbidity and mortality. Based on the premise that dilating the pulmonary artery will decrease the pulmonary vascular pressure, while simultaneously decreasing the aggregation of platelets, it can be hypothesized that increased blood flow through the pulmonary artery will decrease right heart strain and subsequent morbidity and mortality. While this theory has yet to be formally studied, the recommendations for treating massive pulmonary embolism with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and/or prostacyclin analogs in conjunction with the current standards of care in massive pulmonary embolism should be formally studied. In particular, patients with massive PE who are unable to undergo thrombolysis/surgical intervention may be the ideal population to study the use of these treatments to determine any decrease in mortality and morbidity (short term and long term).

Keywords: acute pulmonary thromboembolism, treatment of pulmonary embolism, use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogs in PE

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375 Characterization of WNK2 Role on Glioma Cells Vesicular Traffic

Authors: Viviane A. O. Silva, Angela M. Costa, Glaucia N. M. Hajj, Ana Preto, Aline Tansini, Martin Roffé, Peter Jordan, Rui M. Reis


Autophagy is a recycling and degradative system suggested to be a major cell death pathway in cancer cells. Autophagy pathway is interconnected with the endocytosis pathways sharing the same ultimate lysosomal destination. Lysosomes are crucial regulators of cell homeostasis, responsible to downregulate receptor signalling and turnover. It seems highly likely that derailed endocytosis can make major contributions to several hallmarks of cancer. WNK2, a member of the WNK (with-no-lysine [K]) subfamily of protein kinases, had been found downregulated by its promoter hypermethylation, and has been proposed to act as a specific tumour-suppressor gene in brain tumors. Although some contradictory studies indicated WNK2 as an autophagy modulator, its role in cancer cell death is largely unknown. There is also growing evidence for additional roles of WNK kinases in vesicular traffic. Aim: To evaluate the role of WNK2 in autophagy and endocytosis on glioma context. Methods: Wild-type (wt) A172 cells (WNK2 promoter-methylated), and A172 transfected either with an empty vector (Ev) or with a WNK2 expression vector, were used to assess the cellular basal capacities to promote autophagy, through western blot and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of WNK2 on general endocytosis trafficking routes by immunofluorescence. Results: The re-expression of ectopic WNK2 did not interfere with autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) expression levels as well as did not promote mTOR signaling pathway alteration when compared with Ev or wt A172 cells. However, the restoration of WNK2 resulted in a marked increase (8 to 92,4%) of Acidic Vesicular Organelles formation (AVOs). Moreover, our results also suggest that WNK2 cells promotes delay in uptake and internalization rate of cholera toxin B and transferrin ligands. Conclusions: The restoration of WNK2 interferes in vesicular traffic during endocytosis pathway and increase AVOs formation. This results also suggest the role of WNK2 in growth factor receptor turnover related to cell growth and homeostasis and associates one more time, WNK2 silencing contribution in genesis of gliomas.

Keywords: autophagy, endocytosis, glioma, WNK2

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374 Inhibitory Effects of PPARγ Ligand, KR-62980, on Collagen-Stimulated Platelet Activation

Authors: Su Bin Wang, Jin Hee Ahn, Tong-Shin Chang


The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are member of nuclear receptor superfamily that act as a ligand-activated transcription factors. Although platelets lack a nucleus, previous studies have shown that PPARγ agonists, rosiglitazone, inhibited platelet activation induced by collagen. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of KR-62980, a newly synthesized PPARγ agonist, on collagen receptor-stimulated platelet activation. The specific tyrosine phosphorylations of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk and PLCγ2) for collagen receptor signaling pathways were suppressed by KR-62980. KR-62980 also attenuated downstream responses including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. PPARγ was found to associate with multiple proteins within the LAT signaling complex in collagen-stimulated platelets. This association was prevented by KR-62980, indicating a potential mechanism for PPARγ function in collagen-stimulated platelet activation. Furthermore, KR-62980 inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. Collectively, these data suggest that KR-62980 inhibits collagen-stimulated platelet activation and thrombus formation through modulating the collagen receptor signaling pathways.

Keywords: KR-62980, PPARγ, antiplatelet, thrombosis

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373 The Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Xbai Gg Genotype and Severe Preeclampsia

Authors: Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi, Ehsan Tabatabaei, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari


Purpose: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an essential role in the adaptation of increased uterine blood flow during gestation. Therefore ERα gene could be a possible candidate for preeclampsia(PE) susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association of the ERα gene polymorphisms and PE in an Iranian population. Methods: One hundred ninety-two pregnant women with PE and 186 normotensive women were genotyped for ERα gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of alleles and genotypes of ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were not different between PE and normotensive control women. However, higher frequency of GG genotype was observed in women with severe PE compared to mild PE (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02) and in severe PE compared to normotensive women [OR= 1.8(1.1-3), P=0.02] after adjusting for age, ethnicity and primiparity. Conclusions: The GG genotype of ERα XbaI polymorphism could be a genetic risk factor for PE predisposition.

Keywords: estrogen receptor-α, polymorphism, gene, preeclampsia

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372 Regulation of RON-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Functions by Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 3C

Authors: Roshika Tyagi, Shuvomoy Banerjee


Among various diseases, cancer has become a huge threat to human beings globally. In the context of viral infection, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous in nature world-wide as well as in India. Recepteur d’Origine Nantais (RON) receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) but undetectable in primary B-cells. Biologically, RON expression was found to be essential for EBV transformed LCLs proliferation. In our study, we investigated whether EBV latent antigen EBNA3C is playing a crucial role in regulating RON receptor tyrosine kinase function in EBV-induced malignancies. Interestingly, we observed that expression pattern of RON was modulated by EBNA3C in EBV transformed LCLs compared with EBV negative BJAB cell line by PCR and western blot analysis. Moreover, in the absence of EBNA3C, RON expression was found low in western blot and immunofluorescence analysis and cell proliferation rate was significantly reduced in LCLs by cell viability assays. Therefore, our study clearly indicating the potential role of EBNA3C expressed in EBV-infected B-cells for modulating the functions of oncogenic kinases that leads to EBV induced B-cell transformation.

Keywords: apoptosis, cell proliferation, Epstein–barr virus, receptor tyrosine kinase

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371 Differential Expression of Arc in the Mesocorticolimbic System Is Involved in Drug and Natural Rewarding Behavior in Rats

Authors: Yuhua Wang, Mu Li, Jinggen Liu


Aim: To investigate the different effects of heroin and milk in activating the corticostriatal system that plays a critical role in reward reinforcement learning. Methods: Male SD rats were trained daily for 15 d to self-administer heroin or milk tablets in a classic runway drug self-administration model. Immunohistochemical assay was used to quantify Arc protein expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and the ventrolateral striatum (VLS) in response to chronic self-administration of heroin or milk tablets. NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) or dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.03 mg/kg) were intravenously injected at the same time as heroin was infused intravenously. Results: Runway training with heroin resulted in robust enhancement of Arc expression in the mPFC, the NAc and the DMS on d 1, 7, and 15, and in the VLS on d 1 and d 7. However, runway training with milk led to increased Arc expression in the mPFC, the NAc and the DMS only on d 7 and/or d 15 but not on d 1. Moreover, runway training with milk failed to induce increased Arc protein in the VLS. Both heroin-seeking behavior and Arc protein expression were blocked by MK801 or SCH23390 administration. Conclusion: The VLS is likely to be critically involved in drug-seeking behavior. The NMDA and D1 receptor-dependent Arc expression is important in drug-seeking behavior.

Keywords: arc, mesocorticolimbic system, drug rewarding behavior, NMDA receptor

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370 Anti-Prostate Cancer Effect of GV-1001, a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Ligand

Authors: Ji Won Kim, Moo Yeol Lee, Keon Wook Kang


GV-1001, 16 amino acid fragment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable cancer vaccine for many types of solid tumors showing high-level of telomerase activity. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of GV-1001 on androgen-receptor-positive prostate cancer. Two signaling pathways, Gs-adenylate cyclase-cAMP and Gq-IP3-Ca2+ pathways play a central role in GnRH receptor (GnRHR)-mediated activities. We found that leuprolide acetate (LA) mainly acted on Gq-mediated Ca2+ signaling, while GV-1001 preferentially acted on cAMP signaling; and both the effects were counteracted by cetrorelix, a GnRHR antagonist. We further tested whether GV-1001 affects tumor growth of human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate tumor xenografts were established using LNCap, androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells, and the nude mice bearing tumors were subcutaneously injected with GV-1001 (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 microg/kg/day) and LA (0.01 microg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. GV-1001 (1 and 10 microg/kg/day) significantly inhibited tumor growth of LNCap xenografts. Interestingly, mRNA expression of MMP2 and MMP9 was significantly suppressed by GV-1001 injection, but not by LA administration. Boyden chamber assay revealed that GV-1001 potently inhibited cell migration of LNCap. Our finding suggests that GV-1001 as a novel GnRHR ligand, has anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells.

Keywords: GV-1001, GnRH, hTERT, prostate cancer

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369 Trastuzumab Decorated Bioadhesive Nanoparticles for Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Kasi Viswanadh Matte, Abhisheh Kumar Mehata, M.S. Muthu


Brest cancer, up-regulated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) led to the concept of developing HER-2 targeted anticancer therapeutics. Docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 conjugated chitosan (TPGS-g-chitosan) nanoparticles were prepared with or without Trastuzumab decoration. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of conventional, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 126-186 nm and 74-78% respectively. In-vitro, MDA-MB-231 cells showed that docetaxel-loaded non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted TPGS-g-chitosan nanoparticles have enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity with a promising bioadhesion property, in comparison to conventional nanoparticles. The IC50 values of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles from cytotoxic assay were found to be 43 and 223 folds higher than DocelTM. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic study showed 2.33, and 2.82-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability of docetaxel for non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted nanoparticles, respectively than DocelTM, and after i.v administration, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticle achieved 3.48 and 5.94 times prolonged half-life in comparison to DocelTM. The area under the curve (AUC), relative bioavailability (FR) and mean residence time (MRT) were found to be higher for non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles compared to DocelTM. Further, histopathology results of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles showed less toxicity on vital organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney compared to DocelTM.

Keywords: breast cancer, HER-2 receptor, targeted nanomedicine, chitosan, TPGS

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