Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: antibody-drug conjugates

35 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe

Abstract:

Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

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34 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng

Abstract:

In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: particle size, solubility, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

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33 Effect of Whey Protein-Lactose Conjugates on the in-vitro Infants Digestion

Authors: Sarizan Sabari, Norliza Julmohammad

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Protein base modification is a notable and potential method to alter the molecular structure, change the physicochemical and functional properties of the protein, thus affecting protein digestibility. This study is set out to investigate the protein digestibility of whey protein-lactose (WP-Lac) conjugates using an in-vitro infant digestion model. WP was conjugated using lactose by dry Maillard Reaction (MR) method under optimized conditions. WP-Lac heated at 40℃, water activity Aw=0.80 and incubation time from 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days were studied. To monitor the extent of conjugation, visible browning colour observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer, and L*a*b* analysis was performed using WP alone as a control in this study. Lactosylation will be then monitored with ortho-pthaldialdehyde (OPA) analysis to determine the primary amino groups present in both WP-Lac conjugates and WP alone (control). The covalent bond formation is observed between WP to lactose using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. Under simulated gastric conditions at pH 3, 19uL of a 0.625 mg/mL pepsin is added to WP-Lac conjugates and WP alone (control), whereas in duodenal phase digestion, pH is set at 6.5 and 32uL of a 5.899mg/mL pancreatin is added to WP-Lac and WP (control). The digestion product affirms dry MR conjugation has the potential to improve WP digestibility. Herein, this study of WP-Lac conjugates will also explain its effect on WP digestibility, and it helps understand how WP-disaccharide glycate affects protein digestion during in-vitro infant digestion. Therefore, it could lead to the release of immunogenic protein by lactose and the development of hypoallergenic protein.

Keywords: in-vitro infant digestion, maillard reaction, protein digestibility, WPs-lactose conjugates

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32 Targeting Trypanosoma brucei Using Antibody Drug Conjugates against the Transferrin Receptor

Authors: Camilla Trevor, Matthew K. Higgins, Andrea Gonzalez-Munoz, Mark Carrington

Abstract:

Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease affecting both humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The diseases are caused by infection with African trypanosomes, protozoa transmitted by tsetse flies. Treatment currently relies on the use of chemotherapeutics with ghastly side effects. Here, we describe the development of effective antibody-drug conjugates that target the T. brucei transferrin receptor. The receptor is essential for trypanosome growth in a mammalian host but there are approximately 12 variants of the transferrin receptor in the genome. Two of the most divergent variants were used to generate recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G using phage display and we identified cross-reactive antibodies that bind both variants using phage ELISA, fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays and surface plasmon resonance. Fluorescent antibodies were used to demonstrate uptake into trypanosomes in culture. Toxin-conjugated antibodies were effective at killing trypanosomes at sub-nanomolar concentrations. The approach of using antibody-drug conjugates has proven highly effective.

Keywords: antibody-drug conjugates, phage display, transferrin receptor, trypanosomes

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31 The Next Generation of Mucoadhesive Polymer

Authors: Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch

Abstract:

Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate preactivated thiomers for their mucoadhesive potential. Methods: Accordingly, chitosan-thioglycolic-mercaptonicotinamide conjugates (chitosan-TGA-MNA) were synthesized by the oxidative S-S coupling of chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA) with 6-mercaptonicotin amide (MNA). Unmodified chitosan, chitosan-TGA (thiomers) and chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates were compressed into test discs to investigate cohesive properties, cytotoxicity assays and mucoadhesion studies. Results: Due to the immobilization of MNA, the chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates exhibit comparatively higher swelling properties and cohesive properties corresponding unmodified chitosan. On the rotating cylinder, discs based on chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates displayed 3.1-fold improved mucoadhesion time compared to thiolated polymers. Tensile study results were found in good agreement with rotating cylinder results. Moreover, preactivated thiomers showed higher stability. All polymers were found non-toxic over Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: On the basis of achieved results the pre activated thiomeric therapeutic agent seems to represent a promising generation of mucoadhesive polymers which are safe to use for a prolonged residence time to target the mucosa.

Keywords: biomedical application, drug delivery, polymer, thiomer

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30 Quantum Dot – DNA Conjugates for Biological Applications

Authors: A. Banerjee, C. Grazon, B. Nadal, T. Pons, Y. Krishnan, B. Dubertret

Abstract:

Quantum Dots (QDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of QDs such as broad absorption, narrow emission spectrum, reduced blinking, and enhanced photostability make them advantageous over organic fluorophores. However, for some biological applications, QDs need to be first targeted to specific intracellular locations. It parallel, base pairing properties and biocompatibility of DNA has been extensively used for biosensing, targetting and intracellular delivery of numerous bioactive agents. The combination of the photophysical properties of QDs and targettability of DNA has yielded fluorescent, stable and targetable nanosensors. QD-DNA conjugates have used in drug delivery, siRNA, intracellular pH sensing and several other applications; and continue to be an active area of research. In this project, a novel method to synthesise QD-DNA conjugates and their applications in bioimaging are investigated. QDs are first solubilized in water using a thiol based amphiphilic co-polymer and, then conjugated to amine functionalized DNA using a heterobifunctional linker. The conjugates are purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and microscopy. Parameters that influence the conjugation yield such as reducing agents, the excess of salt and pH have been investigated in detail. In optimized reaction conditions, up to 12 single-stranded DNA (15 mer length) can be conjugated per QD. After conjugation, the QDs retain their colloidal stability and high quantum yield; and the DNA is available for hybridization. The reaction has also been successfully tested on QDs emitting different colors and on Gold nanoparticles and therefore highly generalizable. After extensive characterization and robust synthesis of QD-DNA conjugates in vitro, the physical properties of these conjugates in cellular milieu are being invistigated. Modification of QD surface with DNA appears to remarkably alter the fate of QD inside cells and can have potential implications in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bioimaging, cellular targeting, drug delivery, photostability

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29 In situ One-Step Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots-Metal Free and Zinc Phthalocyanines Conjugates: Investigation of Photophysicochemical Properties

Authors: G. Fomo, O. J. Achadu, T. Nyokong

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Nanoconjugates of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and 4-(tetrakis-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-mercaptopyridinephthalocyanine (H₂Pc(OPyF₃)₄) or 4-(tetrakis-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-mercaptopyridinephthalocyaninato) zinc (II) (ZnPc(OPyF₃)₄) were synthesized via a novel in situ one-step route. The bottom-up approach for the prepared conjugates could ensure the intercalation of the phthalocyanines (Pcs) directly onto the edges or surface of the GQDs and or non-covalent coordination using the π-electron systems of both materials. The as-synthesized GQDs and their Pcs conjugates were characterized using different spectroscopic techniques and their photophysicochemical properties evaluated. The singlet oxygen quantum yields of the Pcs in the presence of GQDs were enhanced due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurrence within the conjugated hybrids. Hence, these nanoconjugates are potential materials for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photocatalysis applications.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, metal free fluorinated phthalocyanine, zinc fluorinated phthalocyanine, photophysicochemical properties

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28 Tenofovir-Amino Acid Conjugates Act as Polymerase Substrates: Implications for Avoiding Cellular Phosphorylation in the Discovery of Nucleotide Analogs

Authors: Weijie Gu, Sergio Martinez, Hoai Nguyen, Hongtao Xu, Piet Herdewijn, Steven De Jonghe, Kalyan Das

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Nucleotide analogs are used for treating viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. To become polymerase substrates, a nucleotide analog must be phosphorylated by cellular kinases, which are rate-limiting. The goal of this study is to develop dNTP/NTP analogs directly from nucleotides. Tenofovir (TFV) analogs were synthesized by conjugating with natural or unnatural amino acids. It demonstrates that some conjugates act as dNTP analogs, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) catalytically incorporates the TFV part as the chain terminator. X-ray structures in complex with HIV-1 RT/dsDNA showed binding of the conjugates at the polymerase active site, however, in different modes in the presence of Mg²⁺ vs. Mn²⁺ ions. The adaptability of the compounds is seemingly essential for catalytic incorporation of TFV by RT. 4d with a carboxyl sidechain demonstrated the highest incorporation. 4e showed weak incorporation and rather behaved as a dNTP-competitive inhibitor. This result advocates the feasibility of designing NTP/dNTP analogs by chemical substitutions to nucleotide analogs.

Keywords: dNTP analogs, nucleotide analogs, polymerase, tenofovir, X-ray structure

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27 Characterization of Dota-Girentuximab Conjugates for Radioimmunotherapy

Authors: Tais Basaco, Stefanie Pektor, Josue A. Moreno, Matthias Miederer, Andreas Türler

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Radiopharmaceuticals based in monoclonal anti-body (mAb) via chemical linkers have become a potential tool in nuclear medicine because of their specificity and the large variability and availability of therapeutic radiometals. It is important to identify the conjugation sites and number of attached chelator to mAb to obtain radioimmunoconjugates with required immunoreactivity and radiostability. Girentuximab antibody (G250) is a potential candidate for radioimmunotherapy of clear cell carcinomas (RCCs) because it is reactive with CAIX antigen, a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on the cell surface of most ( > 90%) (RCCs). G250 was conjugated with the bifunctional chelating agent DOTA (1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetraacetic acid) via a benzyl-thiocyano group as a linker (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA). DOTA-G250 conjugates were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SE-HPLC) and by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The potential site-specific conjugation was identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and the number of linkers per molecule of mAb was calculated using the molecular weight (MW) measured by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The average number obtained in the conjugates in non-reduced conditions was between 8-10 molecules of DOTA per molecule of mAb. The average number obtained in the conjugates in reduced conditions was between 1-2 and 3-4 molecules of DOTA per molecule of mAb in the light chain (LC) and heavy chain (HC) respectively. Potential DOTA modification sites of the chelator were identified in lysine residues. The biological activity of the conjugates was evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) using CAIX negative (SKRC-18) and CAIX positive (SKRC-52). The DOTA-G250 conjugates were labelled with 177Lu with a radiochemical yield > 95% reaching specific activities of 12 MBq/µg. The stability in vitro of different types of radioconstructs was analyzed in human serum albumin (HSA). The radiostability of 177Lu-DOTA-G250 at high specific activity was increased by addition of sodium ascorbate after the labelling. The immunoreactivity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Binding to CAIX positive cells (SK-RC-52) at different specific activities was higher for conjugates with less DOTA content. Protein dose was optimized in mice with subcutaneously growing SK-RC-52 tumors using different amounts of 177Lu- DOTA-G250.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, monoclonal antibody, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunotheray, renal cancer

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26 Polypeptide Modified Carbon Nanotubes – Mediated GFP Gene Transfection for H1299 Cells and Toxicity Assessment

Authors: Pei-Ying Lo, Jing-Hao Ciou, Kai-Cheng Yang, Jia-Huei Zheng, Shih-Hsiang Huang, Kuen-Chan Lee, Er-Chieh Cho

Abstract:

As-produced CNTs are insoluble in all organic solvents and aqueous solutions have imposed limitations to the use of CNTs. Therefore, how to debundle carbon nanotubes and to modify them for further uses is an important issue. There are several methods for the dispersion of CNTs in water using covalent attachment of hydrophilic groups to the surface of tubes. These methods, however, alter the electronic structure of the nanotubes by disrupting the network of sp2 hybridized carbons. In order to keep the nanotubes’ intrinsic mechanical and electrical properties intact, non-covalent interactions are increasingly being explored as an alternative route for dispersion. Apart from conventional surfactants such as sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) which are highly effective in dispersing CNTs, biopolymers have received much attention as dispersing agents due to the anticipated biocompatibility of the dispersed CNTs. Also, The pyrenyl group is known to interact strongly with the basal plane of graphene via π-stacking. In this study, a highly re-dispersible biopolymer is reported for the synthesis of pyrene-modified poly-L-lysine (PBPL) and poly(D-Glu, D-Lys) (PGLP). To provide the evidence of the safety of the PBPL/CNT & PGLP/CNT materials we use in this study, H1299 and HCT116 cells were incubated with PBPL/CNT & PGLP/CNT materials for toxicity analysis, MTS assays. The results from MTS assays indicated that no significant cellular toxicity was shown in H1299 and HCT116 cells. Furthermore, the fluorescence marker fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was added to PBPL & PGLP dispersions. From the fluorescent measurements showed that the chemical functionalisation of the PBPL/CNT & PGLP/CNT conjugates with the fluorescence marker were successful. The fluorescent PBPL/CNT & PGLP/CNT conjugates could find application in medical imaging. In the next step, the GFP gene is immobilized onto PBPL/CNT conjugates by introducing electrostatic interaction. GFP-transfected cells that emitted fluorescence were imaged and counted under a fluorescence microscope. Due to the unique biocompatibility of PBPL modified CNTs, the GFP gene could be transported into H1299 cells without using antibodies. The applicability of such soluble and chemically functionalised polypeptide/CNT conjugates in biomedicine is currently investigated. We expect that this polypeptide/CNT system will be a safe and multi-functional nanomedical delivery platform and contribute to future medical therapy.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, nanotoxicology, GFP transfection, polypeptide/CNT hybrids

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25 Acid-Responsive Polymer Conjugates as a New Generation of Corrosion Protecting Materials

Authors: Naruphorn Dararatana, Farzad Seidi, Daniel Crespy

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Protection of metals is a critical issue in industry. The annual cost of corrosion in the world is estimated to be about 2.5 trillion dollars and continuously increases. Therefore, there is a need for developing novel protection approaches to improve corrosion protection. We designed and synthesized smart polymer/corrosion inhibitor conjugates as new generations of corrosion protecting materials. Firstly, a polymerizable acrylate derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), an effective corrosion inhibitor, containing acid-labile β-thiopropionate linkage was prepared in three steps. Then, it was copolymerized with ethyl acrylate in the presence of 1,1′-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ABCN) by radical polymerization. Nanoparticles with an average diameter of 140 nm were prepared from the polymer conjugate by the miniemulsion-solvent evaporation process. The release behavior of 8HQ from the the nanoparticles was studied in acidic (pH 3.5) and neutral media (pH 7.0). The release profile showed a faster release of 8HQ in acidic medium in comparison with neutral medium. Indeed 100% of 8HQ was released after 14 days in acidic medium whereas only around 15% of 8HQ was released during the same period at neutral pH. Therefore, the polymer conjugate nanoparticles are suitable materials as additives or to form coatings on metal substrates for corrosion protection.

Keywords: Corrosion inhibitor, 8-Hydroxyquinoline, Polymer conjugated, β-Thiopropionate

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24 Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity of Methotrexate Conjugated Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in vitro Model System Using Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muhammad Ajmal, Uzma Yunus, Noaman-ul Haq, Hafiz M. Shohaib, Ambreen G. Muazzam

Abstract:

Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have unique properties that are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their precise properties like small size (ideal for delivery within the body) stability in solvent and tunable surface chemistry for targeted delivery. Here, highly fluorescent, monodispersed and water-soluble CNPs were synthesized directly from a suitable carbohydrate source (glucose and sucrose) by one-step acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35 KHz for 4 hours. This method is green, simple, rapid and economical and can be used for large scale production and applications. The average particle sizes of CNPs are less than 10nm and they emit bright and colorful green-blue fluorescence under the irradiation of UV-light at 365nm. The CNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and TGA analysis. Fluorescent CNPs were used as fluorescent probe and nano-carriers for anticancer drug. Functionalized CNPs (with ethylene diamine) were attached with anticancer drug-Methotrexate. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of CNPs-drug conjugates was evaluated by LDH assay and Sulforhodamine B assay using human lung carcinoma cell lines (H157). Our results reveled that CNPs showed biocompatibility and CNPs-anticancer drug conjugates have shown potent cytotoxic effects and high antitumor activities in lung cancer cell lines. CNPs are proved to be excellent substitute for conventional drug delivery cargo systems and anticancer therapeutics in vitro. Our future studies will be more focused on using the same nanoparticles in vivo model system.

Keywords: carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles-methotrexate conjugates, human lung carcinoma cell lines, lactate dehydrogenase, methotrexate

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23 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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22 Noncovalent Antibody-Nanomaterial Conjugates: A Simple Approach to Produce Targeted Nanomedicines

Authors: Nicholas Fletcher, Zachary Houston, Yongmei Zhao, Christopher Howard, Kristofer Thurecht

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One promising approach to enhance nanomedicine therapeutic efficacy is to include a targeting agent, such as an antibody, to increase accumulation at the tumor site. However, the application of such targeted nanomedicines remains limited, in part due to difficulties involved with biomolecule conjugation to synthetic nanomaterials. One approach recently developed to overcome this has been to engineer bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) with dual specificity, whereby one portion binds to methoxy polyethyleneglycol (mPEG) epitopes present on synthetic nanomedicines, while the other binds to molecular disease markers of interest. In this way, noncovalent complexes of nanomedicine core, comprising a hyperbranched polymer (HBP) of primarily mPEG, decorated with targeting ligands are able to be produced by simple mixing. Further work in this area has now demonstrated such complexes targeting the breast cancer marker epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to show enhanced binding to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed the enhanced accumulation at the tumor site resulted in improved therapeutic outcomes compared to untargeted nanomedicines and free chemotherapeutics. The current work on these BsAb-HBP conjugates focuses on further probing antibody-nanomaterial interactions and demonstrating broad applicability to a range of cancer types. Herein are reported BsAb-HBP materials targeted towards prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and study of their behavior in vivo using ⁸⁹Zr positron emission tomography (PET) in a dual-tumor prostate cancer xenograft model. In this model mice bearing both PSMA+ and PSMA- tumors allow for PET imaging to discriminate between nonspecific and targeted uptake in tumors, and better quantify the increased accumulation following BsAb conjugation. Also examined is the potential for formation of these targeted complexes in situ following injection of individual components? The aim of this approach being to avoid undesirable clearance of proteinaceous complexes upon injection limiting available therapeutic. Ultimately these results demonstrate BsAb functionalized nanomaterials as a powerful and versatile approach for producing targeted nanomedicines for a variety of cancers.

Keywords: bioengineering, cancer, nanomedicine, polymer chemistry

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21 Preparation of Low-Molecular-Weight 6-Amino-6-Deoxychitosan (LM6A6DC) for Immobilization of Growth Factor

Authors: Koo-Yeon Kim, Eun-Hye Kim, Tae-Il Son

Abstract:

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Mw=6,045) has been reported to have high efficiency of wound repair and anti-wrinkle effect. However, the half-life of EGF in the body is too short to exert the biological activity effectively when applied in free form. Growth Factors can be stabilized by immobilization with carbohydrates from thermal and proteolytic degradation. Low molecular weight chitosan (LMCS) and its derivate prepared by hydrogen peroxide has high solubility. LM6A6DC was successfully prepared as a reactive carbohydrate for the stabilization of EGF by the reactions of LMCS with alkalization, tosylation, azidation and reduction. The structure of LM6A6DC was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elementary analysis. For enhancing the stability of free EGF, EGF was attached with LM6A6DC by using water-soluble carbodiimide. EGF-LM6A6DC conjugates did not show any cytotoxicity on the Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast(NHDF) 3T3 proliferation at least under 100 ㎍/㎖. In the result, it was considered that LM6A6DC is suitable to immobilize of growth factor.

Keywords: epidermal growth factor (EGF), low-molecular-weight chitosan, immobilization

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20 Very First Synthesis of Carbazole Conjugates with Efflux Pump Inhibitor as Dual Action Hybrids

Authors: Ghazala Yaqub, Zubi Sadiq, Almas Hamid, Saira Iqbal

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This paper is the very first report of three dual action hybrids synthesized by covalent linkage of carbazole based novel antibacterial compounds with efflux pump inhibitors i.e., indole acetic acid/gallic acid. Novel carbazole based antibacterial compounds were prepared first and then these were covalently linked with efflux pump inhibitors which leads to the successful formation of hybrids. All prepared compounds were evaluated for their bacterial cell killing capability against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida and Bacillus subtilis. Compound were effective against all tested bacterial strains at different concentrations. But when these compounds were linked with efflux pump inhibitors they showed dramatic enhancement in their bacterial cell killing potential and minimum inhibitory concentration of all hybrids ranges from 7.250 µg/mL to 0.0283 µg/mL.

Keywords: antimicrobial assay, carbazole, dual action hybrids, efflux pump inhibitors

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19 Electroactive Ferrocenyl Dendrimers as Transducers for Fabrication of Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor

Authors: Sudeshna Chandra, Christian Gäbler, Christian Schliebe, Heinrich Lang

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Highly branched dendrimers provide structural homogeneity, controlled composition, comparable size to biomolecules, internal porosity and multiple functional groups for conjugating reactions. Electro-active dendrimers containing multiple redox units have generated great interest in their use as electrode modifiers for development of biosensors. The electron transfer between the redox-active dendrimers and the biomolecules play a key role in developing a biosensor. Ferrocenes have multiple and electrochemically equivalent redox units that can act as electron “pool” in a system. The ferrocenyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer is capable of transferring multiple numbers of electrons under the same applied potential. Therefore, they can be used for dual purposes: one in building a film over the electrode for immunosensors and the other for immobilizing biomolecules for sensing. Electrochemical immunosensor, thus developed, exhibit fast and sensitive analysis, inexpensive and involve no prior sample pre-treatment. Electrochemical amperometric immunosensors are even more promising because they can achieve a very low detection limit with high sensitivity. Detection of the cancer biomarkers at an early stage can provide crucial information for foundational research of life science, clinical diagnosis and prevention of disease. Elevated concentration of biomarkers in body fluid is an early indication of some type of cancerous disease and among all the biomarkers, IgG is the most common and extensively used clinical cancer biomarkers. We present an IgG (=immunoglobulin) electrochemical immunosensor using a newly synthesized redox-active ferrocenyl dendrimer of generation 2 (G2Fc) as glassy carbon electrode material for immobilizing the antibody. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrodes was assessed in both aqueous and non-aqueous media using varying scan rates to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The potential shift was found to be higher in an aqueous electrolyte due to presence of more H-bond which reduced the electrostatic attraction within the amido groups of the dendrimers. The cyclic voltammetric studies of the G2Fc-modified GCE in 0.1 M PBS solution of pH 7.2 showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks. The peak current decreased significantly with the immobilization of the anti-goat IgG. After the immunosensor is blocked with BSA, a further decrease in the peak current was observed due to the attachment of the protein BSA to the immunosensor. A significant decrease in the current signal of the BSA/anti-IgG/G2Fc/GCE was observed upon immobilizing IgG which may be due to the formation of immune-conjugates that blocks the tunneling of mass and electron transfer. The current signal was found to be directly related to the amount of IgG captured on the electrode surface. With increase in the concentration of IgG, there is a formation of an increasing amount of immune-conjugates that decreased the peak current. The incubation time and concentration of the antibody was optimized for better analytical performance of the immunosensor. The developed amperometric immunosensor is sensitive to IgG concentration as low as 2 ng/mL. Tailoring of redox-active dendrimers provides enhanced electroactivity to the system and enlarges the sensor surface for binding the antibodies. It may be assumed that both electron transfer and diffusion contribute to the signal transformation between the dendrimers and the antibody.

Keywords: ferrocenyl dendrimers, electrochemical immunosensors, immunoglobulin, amperometry

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18 Sitagliptin-AntiCD4 Mab Conjugated T Cell Targeting Therapy for the Effective Treatment of Type I Diabetes

Authors: T. Mahesh, M. K. Samanta

Abstract:

Antibody dug conjugate (ADC’s) concept is a less explored and more trustable for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is thought to arise from selective immunologically mediated destruction of the insulin- producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans with consequent insulin deficiency. It is evident that type 1 diabetes can be conquered, by 1) to stop immune destruction of βcells, 2) to replace or regenerate β-cells, and 3) to preserve β-cell function and mass. Many studies found that the regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. Immune tolerance is liable for the activation of the Th1 response. The important role of Th1 response in pathology of T1D entails the depletion of CD4+ T cells, which initiated the use of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4+ T cells to interfere with induction of T1D.Insulin is regulated by Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 hormone (GLP-1) which also stimulates β-cells proliferation as the half-life of GLP-1 harmone is less due to rapid degradation by DPP-IV enzyme an alternative DPP-IV-inhibitors can increase the half-life of GLP-1 through which it conquers the replacement and reserve β-cells mass. Thus in the present study Anti-CD4 mAb was conjugated with Sitagliptin which is a DPP-IV inhibitor Drug loaded in Nanoparticles through Sulfo-MBS cross-linkers. The above study can be an effective approach for treatment to overcome the Passive subcutaneous insulin therapy.

Keywords: antibody drug conjugates, anti-CD4 Mab, DPP IV inhibitors, GLP-1

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17 Signal Amplification Using Graphene Oxide in Label Free Biosensor for Pathogen Detection

Authors: Agampodi Promoda Perera, Yong Shin, Mi Kyoung Park

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The successful detection of pathogenic bacteria in blood provides important information for early detection, diagnosis and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Silicon microring resonators are refractive-index-based optical biosensors that provide highly sensitive, label-free, real-time multiplexed detection of biomolecules. We demonstrate the technique of using GO (graphene oxide) to enhance the signal output of the silicon microring optical sensor. The activated carboxylic groups in GO molecules bind directly to single stranded DNA with an amino modified 5’ end. This conjugation amplifies the shift in resonant wavelength in a real-time manner. We designed a capture probe for strain Staphylococcus aureus of 21 bp and a longer complementary target sequence of 70 bp. The mismatched target sequence we used was of Streptococcus agalactiae of 70 bp. GO is added after the complementary binding of the probe and target. GO conjugates to the unbound single stranded segment of the target and increase the wavelength shift on the silicon microring resonator. Furthermore, our results show that GO could successfully differentiate between the mismatched DNA sequences from the complementary DNA sequence. Therefore, the proposed concept could effectively enhance sensitivity of pathogen detection sensors.

Keywords: label free biosensor, pathogenic bacteria, graphene oxide, diagnosis

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16 SEM Detection of Folate Receptor in a Murine Breast Cancer Model Using Secondary Antibody-Conjugated, Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasser A. Ahmed, Juleen M Dickson, Evan S. Krystofiak, Julie A. Oliver

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Cancer cells urgently need folate to support their rapid division. Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. FR are distributed over the entire surface of cancer cells, but are polarized to the apical surface of normal cells. Targeting of cancer cells using specific surface molecules such as folate receptors may be one of the strategies used to kill cancer cells without hurting the neighing normal cells. The aim of the current study was to try a method of SEM detecting FR in a murine breast cancer cell model (4T1 cells) using secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles. 4T1 cells were suspended in RPMI medium witth FR antibody and incubated with secondary antibody for fluorescence microscopy. The cells were cultured on 30mm Thermanox coverslips for 18 hours, labeled with FR antibody then incubated with secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles and processed to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The fluorescence microscopy study showed strong punctate FR expression on 4T1 cell membrane. With SEM, the labeling with gold or gold-coated magnetite conjugates showed a similar pattern. Specific labeling occurred in nanoparticle clusters, which are clearly visualized in backscattered electron images. The 4T1 tumor cell model may be useful for the development of FR-targeted tumor therapy using gold-coated magnetite nano-particles.

Keywords: cancer cell, nanoparticles, cell culture, SEM

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15 Preparation of Polymer-Stabilized Magnetic Iron Oxide as Selective Drug Nanocarriers to Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Kheireddine El-Boubbou

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Drug delivery to target human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic formulation that can deliver drugs selectively to AML cancer is hugely needed. In this work, we report the development of a nanoformulation made of polymeric-stabilized multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PMNP) loaded with the anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox) as a promising drug carrier to treat AML. [email protected] conjugates simultaneously exhibited high drug content, maximized fluorescence, and excellent release properties. Nanoparticulate uptake and cell death following addition of [email protected] were then evaluated in different types of human AML target cells, as well as on normal human cells. While the unloaded MNPs were not toxic to any of the cells, [email protected] were found to be highly toxic to the different AML cell lines, albeit at different inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values), but showed very little toxicity towards the normal cells. In comparison, free Dox showed significant potency concurrently to all the cell lines, suggesting huge potentials for the use of [email protected] as selective AML anticancer cargos. Live confocal imaging, fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed that Dox is indeed delivered to the nucleus in relatively short periods of time, causing apoptotic cell death. Importantly, this targeted payload may potentially enhance the effectiveness of the drug in AML patients and may further allow physicians to image leukemic cells exposed to [email protected] using MRI.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, drug delivery, acute myeloid leukemia, iron oxide, cancer nanotherapy

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14 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

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Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy, silver nanoparticles, doxorubicin, breast cancer

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13 Role of ABC Transporters in Non-Target Site Herbicide Resistance in Black Grass (Alopecurus myosuroides)

Authors: Alina Goldberg Cavalleri, Sara Franco Ortega, Nawaporn Onkokesung, Richard Dale, Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Robert Edwards

Abstract:

Non-target site based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides in weeds is a polygenic trait associated with the upregulation of proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification and translocation we have termed the xenome. Among the xenome proteins, ABC transporters play a key role in enhancing herbicide metabolism by effluxing conjugated xenobiotics from the cytoplasm into the vacuole. The importance of ABC transporters is emphasized by the fact that they often contribute to multidrug resistance in human cells and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. They also play a key role in insecticide resistance in major vectors of human diseases and crop pests. By surveying available databases, transcripts encoding ABCs have been identified as being enhanced in populations exhibiting NTSR in several weed species. Based on a transcriptomics data in black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Am), we have identified three proteins from the ABC-C subfamily that are upregulated in NTSR populations. ABC-C transporters are poorly characterized proteins in plants, but in Arabidopsis localize to the vacuolar membrane and have functional roles in transporting glutathionylated (GSH)-xenobiotic conjugates. We found that the up-regulation of AmABCs strongly correlates with the up-regulation of a glutathione transferase termed AmGSTU2, which can conjugate GSH to herbicides. The expression profile of the ABC transcripts was profiled in populations of black grass showing different degree of resistance to herbicides. This, together with a phylogenetic analysis, revealed that AmABCs cluster in different groups which might indicate different substrate and roles in the herbicide resistance phenotype in the different populations

Keywords: black grass, herbicide, resistance, transporters

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12 Polymersomes in Drug Delivery: A Comparative Review with Liposomes and Micelles

Authors: Salma E. Ahmed

Abstract:

Since the mid 50’s, enormous attention has been paid towards nanocarriers and their applications in drug and gene delivery. Among these vesicles, liposomes and micelles have been heavily investigated due to their many advantages over other types. Liposomes, for instance, are mostly distinguished by their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic, hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs. Micelles, on the other hand, are self-assembled shells of lipids, amphiphilic or oppositely charged block copolymers that, once exposed to aqueous media, can entrap hydrophobic agents, and possess prolonged circulation in the bloodstream. Both carriers are considered compatible and biodegradable. Nevertheless, they have limited stabilities, chemical versatilities, and drug encapsulation efficiencies. In order to overcome these downsides, strategies for optimizing a novel drug delivery system that has the architecture of liposomes and polymeric characteristics of micelles have been evolved. Polymersomes are vehicles with fluidic cores and hydrophobic shells that are protected and isolated from the aqueous media by the hydrated hydrophilic brushes which give the carrier its distinctive polymeric bilayer shape. Similar to liposomes, this merit enables the carrier to encapsulate a wide range of agents, despite their affinities and solubilities in water. Adding to this, the high molecular weight of the amphiphiles that build the body of the polymersomes increases their colloidal and chemical stabilities and reduces the permeability of the polymeric membranes, which makes the vesicles more protective to the encapsulated drug. These carriers can also be modified in ways that make them responsive when targeted or triggered, by manipulating their composition and attaching moieties and conjugates to the body of the carriers. These appealing characteristics, in addition to the ease of synthesis, gave the polymersomes greater potentials in the area of drug delivery. Thus, their design and characterization, in comparison with liposomes and micelles, are briefly reviewed in this work.

Keywords: controlled release, liposomes, micelles, polymersomes, targeting

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11 Glyco-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Based Biosensor for Optical Detection and Photothermal Ablation of Food Borne Bacteria

Authors: Shimayali Kaushal, Nitesh Priyadarshi, Nitin Kumar Singhal

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Food borne bacterial species have been identified as major pathogens in most of the severe pathogen-related diseases among humans which result in great loss to human health and food industry. Conventional methods like plating and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) are time-consuming, laborious and require specialized instruments. Nanotechnology has emerged as a great field in case of rapid detection of pathogens in recent years. The AuNRs material has good electro-optical properties due to its larger light absorption band and scattering in surface plasmon resonance wavelength regions. By exploiting the sugar-based adhesion properties of microorganism, we can use the glycoconjugates capped gold nanorods as a potential nanobiosensor to detect the foodborne pathogen. In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared and functionalized with different types of carbohydrates and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reactivity of above said nano-biosensor was probed by lectin binding assay and also by different strains of foodborne bacteria by using spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques. Due to the specific interaction of probe with foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), our nanoprobe has shown significant and selective ablation of targeted bacteria. Our findings suggest that our nanoprobe can be an ideal candidate for selective optical detection of food pathogens and can reduce loss to the food industry.

Keywords: glyco-conjugates, gold nanorods, nanobiosensor, nanoprobe

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10 Safeners, Tools for Artificial Manipulation of Herbicide Selectivity: A Zea mays Case Study

Authors: Sara Franco Ortega, Alina Goldberg Cavalleri, Nawaporn Onkokesung, Richard Dale, Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Robert Edwards

Abstract:

Safeners are agrochemicals that enhance the selective chemical control of wild grasses by increasing the ability of the crop to metabolise the herbicide. Although these compounds are widely used, their mode of action is not well understood. It is known that safeners enhance the metabolism of herbicides, by up-regulating the associated detoxification system we have termed the xenome. The xenome proteins involved in herbicide metabolism have been previously divided into four different phases, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) playing a key role in phase I metabolism by catalysing hydroxylation and dealkylation reactions. Subsequently, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and UDP-glucosyltransferases lead to the formation of Phase II conjugates prior to their transport into the vacuole by ABCs transporters (Phase III). Maize (Zea mays), was been treated with different safeners to explore the selective induction of xenome proteins, with a special interest in the regulation of the CYP superfamily. Transcriptome analysis enabled the identification of key safener-inducible CYPs that were then functionally assessed to determine their role in herbicide detoxification. In order to do that, CYP’s were codon optimised, synthesised and inserted into the yeast expression vector pYES3 using in-fusion cloning. CYP’s expressed as recombinant proteins in a strain of yeast engineered to contain the P450 co-enzyme (cytochrome P450 reductase) from Arabidopsis. Microsomes were extracted and treated with herbicides of different chemical classes in the presence of the cofactor NADPH. The reaction products were then analysed by LCMS to identify any herbicide metabolites. The results of these studies will be presented with the key CYPs identified in maize used as the starting point to find orthologs in other crops and weeds to better understand their roles in herbicide selectivity and safening.

Keywords: CYPs, herbicide detoxification, LCMS, RNA-Seq, safeners

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ytterbium Nanoparticles to Produce a New Nano-Radio Pharmaceutical

Authors: Aghaei Amirkhizi Navideh, Sadjadi Soodeh Sadat, Moghaddam Banaem Leila, Athari Allaf Mitra, Johari Daha Fariba

Abstract:

Dendrimers are good candidates for preparing metal nanoparticles because they can structurally and chemically well-defined templates and robust stabilizers. Poly amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-based multifunctional cancer therapeutic conjugates have been designed and synthesized in pharmaceutical industry. In addition, encapsulated nanoparticle surfaces are accessible to substrates so that catalytic reactions can be carried out. For preparation of dendimer-metal nanocomposite, a dendrimer solution containing an average of 55 Yb+3 ions per dendrimer was prepared. Prior to reduction, the pH of this solution was adjusted to 7.5 using NaOH. NaBH4 was used to reduce the dendrimer-encapsulated Yb+3 to the zerovalent metal. The pH of the resulting solution was then adjusted to 3, using HClO4, to decompose excess BH4-. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the mixture were recorded to ensure the formation of Yb-G5-NH2 complex. High-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and size distribution results provide additional information about dendimer-metal nanocomposite shape, size, and size distribution of the particles. The resulting mixture was irradiated in Tehran Research Reactor 2h and neutron fluxes were 3×1011 n/cm2.Sec and the specific activity was 7MBq. Radiochemical and chemical and radionuclide quality control testes were carried. Gamma Spectroscopy and High-performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC, Thin-Layer Chromatography TLC were recorded. The injection of resulting solution to solid tumor in mice shows that it could be resized the tumor. The studies about solid tumors and nano composites show that ytterbium encapsulated-dendrimer radiopharmaceutical could be introduced as a new therapeutic for the treatment of solid tumors.

Keywords: nano-radio pharmaceutical, ytterbium, PAMAM, dendrimers

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8 Synthesis of 5'-Azidonucleosides as Building Blocks for the Preparation of Biologically Active Bioconjugates

Authors: Brigitta Bodnár, Lajos Kovács, Zoltán Kupihár

Abstract:

The cancer cells require higher amount of nucleoside building blocks for their proliferation, therefore they have significantly higher uptake of nucleosides by the different nucleoside transporters. Therefore, the conjugation with nucleosides may significantly increase the efficiency and selectivity of potential active pharmaceutical ingredients. On the other hand, the advantage of using a nucleoside could be either the higher activity on targeted enzymes overrepresented in cancer cells or an enhanced cellular uptake of the bioconjugates in these cells compared to the healthy ones. This fact can be used to make the nucleosides, as targeting moieties covalently bound to anti-cancer drug molecules which can selectively accumulate in cancer cells. However, in order to form the nucleoside-drug conjugates, such nucleoside building blocks are needed, which can selectively be coupled to the drug molecules containing even a high number of diverse functional groups. One of the most selective conjugation techniques is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction that requires the presence of an alkyl group on one of the conjugated molecules and an azide group on the other. In case of nucleosides, the development of azide group is simpler for which the replacement of the 5'-hydroxy group is the most suitable. This transformation generally involves many side reactions and result in very low yields. In addition, during our experiments, the transformation of the 2'-deoxyguanosine to the corresponding 5'-deoxy-5’-azido-2’-deoxyguanosine could not be performed with any of the methods described in the literature. Therefore, we have tried to overcome these difficulties with not only using the traditional process based on the 2 step exchange of tosyl to azide, but also using the Mitsunobu reaction which requires only one step. However, this path proved to be unsuccessful in spite of the optimizing the reaction conditions. Finally, a method has been developed whereby the azide groups were incorporated into the 5’-position resulting in significantly better yields compared to all other previous methods, and we were able to produce all the four nucleoside derivatives.

Keywords: 5'-azidonucleosides, bioconjugate, click reaction, proliferation

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7 Discrimination of Bio-Analytes by Using Two-Dimensional Nano Sensor Array

Authors: P. Behera, K. K. Singh, D. K. Saini, M. De

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Implementation of 2D materials in the detection of bio analytes is highly advantageous in the field of sensing because of its high surface to volume ratio. We have designed our sensor array with different cationic two-dimensional MoS₂, where surface modification was achieved by cationic thiol ligands with different functionality. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was chosen as signal transducers for its biocompatibility and anionic nature, which can bind to the cationic MoS₂ surface easily, followed by fluorescence quenching. The addition of bio-analyte to the sensor can decomplex the cationic MoS₂ and GFP conjugates, followed by the regeneration of GFP fluorescence. The fluorescence response pattern belongs to various analytes collected and transformed to linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for classification. At first, 15 different proteins having wide range of molecular weight and isoelectric points were successfully discriminated at 50 nM with detection limit of 1 nM. The sensor system was also executed in biofluids such as serum, where 10 different proteins at 2.5 μM were well separated. After successful discrimination of protein analytes, the sensor array was implemented for bacteria sensing. Six different bacteria were successfully classified at OD = 0.05 with a detection limit corresponding to OD = 0.005. The optimized sensor array was able to classify uropathogens from non-uropathogens in urine medium. Further, the technique was applied for discrimination of bacteria possessing resistance to different types and amounts of drugs. We found out the mechanism of sensing through optical and electrodynamic studies, which indicates the interaction between bacteria with the sensor system was mainly due to electrostatic force of interactions, but the separation of native bacteria from their drug resistant variant was due to Van der Waals forces. There are two ways bacteria can be detected, i.e., through bacterial cells and lysates. The bacterial lysates contain intracellular information and also safe to analysis as it does not contain live cells. Lysates of different drug resistant bacteria were patterned effectively from the native strain. From unknown sample analysis, we found that discrimination of bacterial cells is more sensitive than that of lysates. But the analyst can prefer bacterial lysates over live cells for safer analysis.

Keywords: array-based sensing, drug resistant bacteria, linear discriminant analysis, two-dimensional MoS₂

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6 Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs)-Thymine Conjugate Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Sensitive Determination of Nucleobases/Nucleosides

Authors: Lucja Rodzik, Joanna Lewandowska-Lancucka, Michal Szuwarzynski, Krzysztof Szczubialka, Maria Nowakowska

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The analysis of nucleobases is of great importance for bioscience since their abnormal concentration in body fluids suggests the deficiency and mutation of the immune system, and it is considered to be an important parameter for diagnosis of various diseases. The presented conjugate meets the need for development of the effective, selective and highly sensitive sensor for nucleobase/nucleoside detection. The novel, highly fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) functionalized with thymine and stabilized with thioglycolic acid (TGA) conjugates has been developed and thoroughly characterized. Successful formation of the material was confirmed by elemental analysis, and UV–Vis fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies. The crystalline structure of the obtained product was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The composition of CdTe QDs and their thymine conjugate was also examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size of the CdTe-thymine was 3-6 nm as demonstrated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging. The plasmon resonance fluorescence band at 540 nm on excitation at 351 nm was observed for these nanoparticles. The intensity of this band increased with the increase in the amount of conjugated thymine with no shift in its position. Based on the fluorescence measurements, it was found that the CdTe-thymine conjugate interacted efficiently and selectively not only with adenine, a nucleobase complementary to thymine, but also with nucleosides and adenine-containing modified nucleosides, i.e., 5′-deoxy-5′-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) and 2’-O-methyladenosine, the urinary tumor markers which allow monitoring of the disease progression. The applicability of the CdTe-thymine sensor for the real sample analysis was also investigated in simulated urine conditions. High sensitivity and selectivity of CdTe-thymine fluorescence towards adenine, adenosine and modified adenosine suggest that obtained conjugate can be potentially useful for development of the biosensor for complementary nucleobase/nucleoside detection.

Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, conjugate, sensor, thymine

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